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Preface | p. xv |
The Author | p. xvii |
Introduction to Research | p. 1 |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Research | p. 1 |
Overview of Book | p. 2 |
Summary | p. 3 |
Exercises | p. 4 |
Recommended Reading | p. 4 |
Endnotes | p. 5 |
The Research Process | p. 7 |
Introduction | p. 7 |
The Purpose of Research | p. 9 |
Development of Research Focus | p. 11 |
Concepts and Variables | p. 12 |
Unit of Analysis and Dimension of Time | p. 13 |
Research Questions and Hypotheses | p. 16 |
The Literature | p. 16 |
Logic | p. 18 |
Summary | p. 19 |
Key Terms | p. 19 |
Exercises | p. 20 |
Recommended Reading | p. 20 |
Endnotes | p. 21 |
Variable Construction | p. 23 |
Introduction | p. 23 |
Characteristics of Measurements | p. 24 |
Discrete or Continuous | p. 26 |
Mutually Exclusive and Exhaustive | p. 26 |
Levels of Measurement | p. 27 |
The Development of Variables | p. 28 |
Summated Scales and Indexes | p. 30 |
Reliability | p. 32 |
Validity | p. 34 |
Summary | p. 36 |
Key Terms | p. 36 |
Exercises | p. 36 |
Recommended Reading | p. 37 |
Endnotes | p. 37 |
Research Ethics | p. 39 |
Introduction | p. 39 |
Ethics in the Research Process | p. 40 |
Protection of Human Subjects | p. 42 |
Institutional Review Boards | p. 43 |
The Belmont Report | p. 45 |
Respect | p. 45 |
Beneficence | p. 47 |
Justice | p. 48 |
Summary | p. 48 |
Key Terms | p. 49 |
Exercises | p. 49 |
Recommended Reading | p. 50 |
Endnotes | p. 50 |
Research Designs | p. 53 |
Introduction | p. 53 |
Validity | p. 53 |
Research Designs | p. 55 |
Case Studies | p. 56 |
One-Group Comparison Studies | p. 57 |
Two-Group Comparison Studies | p. 59 |
Recap | p. 61 |
Threats to Validity | p. 62 |
Summary | p. 63 |
Key Terms | p. 64 |
Exercises | p. 64 |
Recommended Reading | p. 64 |
Endnotes | p. 64 |
Data Collection | p. 65 |
Introduction | p. 65 |
Primary Sources | p. 65 |
Interviews | p. 66 |
Self-Administered Surveys | p. 70 |
Secondary Sources | p. 75 |
Summary | p. 81 |
Key Terms | p. 81 |
Exercises | p. 81 |
Recommended Reading | p. 82 |
Endnotes | p. 82 |
Sampling | p. 83 |
Introduction | p. 83 |
Some Definitions | p. 84 |
Sample Selection | p. 85 |
Probability Sampling | p. 86 |
Nonprobability Sampling | p. 92 |
Recap | p. 93 |
Sample Size | p. 93 |
Error | p. 99 |
Reaching Respondents and Improving Response Rates | p. 103 |
Summary | p. 108 |
Key Terms | p. 110 |
Exercises | p. 110 |
Recommended Reading | p. 110 |
Generating Random Numbers in Microsoft Excel: An Illustration | p. 111 |
Sample Size for Small Populations (50,000 or Less) Using Proportionate Data and a 95% Confidence Level | p. 117 |
Sample Size for Small Populations (50,000 or Less) Using Proportionate Data and a 99% Confidence Level | p. 118 |
Endnotes | p. 120 |
Questionnaire Construction | p. 121 |
Introduction | p. 121 |
Question Wording | p. 123 |
Simplicity | p. 123 |
Clarity | p. 124 |
Unbiased | p. 124 |
Realistic Time Frames | p. 126 |
Specificity without Assumption Making | p. 127 |
Negatives without Nots and Double Nots | p. 128 |
One Concept, One Question | p. 128 |
Recap | p. 129 |
Question Structure | p. 130 |
Open-Ended Questions | p. 130 |
Closed and Partially Closed Questions | p. 131 |
Response Formats for Closed Questions | p. 133 |
Measurement Levels | p. 134 |
Ranking Responses | p. 140 |
Don't Know or Undecided | p. 140 |
No Opinion or Neutral | p. 141 |
One versus All | p. 143 |
Recap | p. 145 |
Questionnaire Layout | p. 146 |
Length and Appearance | p. 146 |
Question Placement and Sequence | p. 150 |
Response Order and Layout | p. 152 |
Recap | p. 156 |
Cover Letters | p. 156 |
Final Stages | p. 158 |
Summary | p. 160 |
Key Terms | p. 161 |
Exercises | p. 161 |
Recommended Readings | p. 162 |
Endnotes | p. 162 |
Coding and Managing Data | p. 165 |
Introduction | p. 165 |
The Codebook | p. 165 |
Coding | p. 171 |
Database Management | p. 178 |
Summary | p. 183 |
Key Terms | p. 183 |
Exercises | p. 183 |
Recommended Reading | p. 184 |
Endnotes | p. 184 |
Descriptive Data Analysis | p. 185 |
Introduction | p. 185 |
Central Tendency: Finding the Most, Middle, or Average | p. 186 |
Mode | p. 186 |
Median | p. 187 |
Mean | p. 188 |
Measures of Dispersion | p. 189 |
Minimum, Maximum, and Range | p. 190 |
Quartiles and Percentiles | p. 190 |
Frequency Distributions | p. 191 |
Histograms | p. 194 |
Standard Deviation | p. 197 |
Graphics | p. 198 |
Pie Charts | p. 199 |
Bar Graphs | p. 201 |
Line Graphs | p. 205 |
Calculating Descriptive Statistics and Creating the Graphics | p. 206 |
Descriptive Statistics | p. 206 |
Creating Graphics in Excel | p. 210 |
Summary | p. 212 |
Key Terms | p. 215 |
Exercises | p. 215 |
Recommended Reading | p. 217 |
Bivariate Statistics | p. 219 |
Introduction | p. 219 |
Testing for Relationships | p. 220 |
Cross Tabulations | p. 225 |
Difference of Means | p. 232 |
Analysis of Variance | p. 241 |
Correlation | p. 242 |
Summary | p. 246 |
Key Terms | p. 247 |
Exercises | p. 247 |
Recommended Reading | p. 249 |
Communicating Research Results | p. 251 |
Introduction | p. 251 |
The Components of a Research Paper | p. 254 |
The Executive Summary | p. 254 |
The Introduction | p. 256 |
The Findings | p. 259 |
The Conclusion | p. 260 |
Other Components | p. 260 |
Presenting Tables and Graphics | p. 263 |
Summary | p. 271 |
Key Terms | p. 271 |
Exercises | p. 271 |
Recommended Reading | p. 272 |
Endnotes | p. 272 |
Epilogue | p. 273 |
Bibliography | p. 276 |
Index | p. 279 |
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