9781574445855

Understanding Research Methods: A Guide for the Public and Nonprofit Manager

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781574445855

  • ISBN10:

    1574445855

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 10/28/2008
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
  • The eBook copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

Summary

"Managers and administrators must quickly sift through the massive amount of information they encounter on a regular basis and use it to make informed decisions. Focusing on the entire research process from start to finish, Understanding Research Methods: A Guide for the Public and Nonprofit Manager illustrates how to quickly discern valuable information from a vast accumulation of data. With a focus on public and non-profit fields, this guide details supremely efficient methods to collect, evaluate and apply research material, and then effectively interpret and communicate it."--BOOK JACKET.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
The Authorp. xvii
Introduction to Researchp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Researchp. 1
Overview of Bookp. 2
Summaryp. 3
Exercisesp. 4
Recommended Readingp. 4
Endnotesp. 5
The Research Processp. 7
Introductionp. 7
The Purpose of Researchp. 9
Development of Research Focusp. 11
Concepts and Variablesp. 12
Unit of Analysis and Dimension of Timep. 13
Research Questions and Hypothesesp. 16
The Literaturep. 16
Logicp. 18
Summaryp. 19
Key Termsp. 19
Exercisesp. 20
Recommended Readingp. 20
Endnotesp. 21
Variable Constructionp. 23
Introductionp. 23
Characteristics of Measurementsp. 24
Discrete or Continuousp. 26
Mutually Exclusive and Exhaustivep. 26
Levels of Measurementp. 27
The Development of Variablesp. 28
Summated Scales and Indexesp. 30
Reliabilityp. 32
Validityp. 34
Summaryp. 36
Key Termsp. 36
Exercisesp. 36
Recommended Readingp. 37
Endnotesp. 37
Research Ethicsp. 39
Introductionp. 39
Ethics in the Research Processp. 40
Protection of Human Subjectsp. 42
Institutional Review Boardsp. 43
The Belmont Reportp. 45
Respectp. 45
Beneficencep. 47
Justicep. 48
Summaryp. 48
Key Termsp. 49
Exercisesp. 49
Recommended Readingp. 50
Endnotesp. 50
Research Designsp. 53
Introductionp. 53
Validityp. 53
Research Designsp. 55
Case Studiesp. 56
One-Group Comparison Studiesp. 57
Two-Group Comparison Studiesp. 59
Recapp. 61
Threats to Validityp. 62
Summaryp. 63
Key Termsp. 64
Exercisesp. 64
Recommended Readingp. 64
Endnotesp. 64
Data Collectionp. 65
Introductionp. 65
Primary Sourcesp. 65
Interviewsp. 66
Self-Administered Surveysp. 70
Secondary Sourcesp. 75
Summaryp. 81
Key Termsp. 81
Exercisesp. 81
Recommended Readingp. 82
Endnotesp. 82
Samplingp. 83
Introductionp. 83
Some Definitionsp. 84
Sample Selectionp. 85
Probability Samplingp. 86
Nonprobability Samplingp. 92
Recapp. 93
Sample Sizep. 93
Errorp. 99
Reaching Respondents and Improving Response Ratesp. 103
Summaryp. 108
Key Termsp. 110
Exercisesp. 110
Recommended Readingp. 110
Generating Random Numbers in Microsoft Excel: An Illustrationp. 111
Sample Size for Small Populations (50,000 or Less) Using Proportionate Data and a 95% Confidence Levelp. 117
Sample Size for Small Populations (50,000 or Less) Using Proportionate Data and a 99% Confidence Levelp. 118
Endnotesp. 120
Questionnaire Constructionp. 121
Introductionp. 121
Question Wordingp. 123
Simplicityp. 123
Clarityp. 124
Unbiasedp. 124
Realistic Time Framesp. 126
Specificity without Assumption Makingp. 127
Negatives without Nots and Double Notsp. 128
One Concept, One Questionp. 128
Recapp. 129
Question Structurep. 130
Open-Ended Questionsp. 130
Closed and Partially Closed Questionsp. 131
Response Formats for Closed Questionsp. 133
Measurement Levelsp. 134
Ranking Responsesp. 140
Don't Know or Undecidedp. 140
No Opinion or Neutralp. 141
One versus Allp. 143
Recapp. 145
Questionnaire Layoutp. 146
Length and Appearancep. 146
Question Placement and Sequencep. 150
Response Order and Layoutp. 152
Recapp. 156
Cover Lettersp. 156
Final Stagesp. 158
Summaryp. 160
Key Termsp. 161
Exercisesp. 161
Recommended Readingsp. 162
Endnotesp. 162
Coding and Managing Datap. 165
Introductionp. 165
The Codebookp. 165
Codingp. 171
Database Managementp. 178
Summaryp. 183
Key Termsp. 183
Exercisesp. 183
Recommended Readingp. 184
Endnotesp. 184
Descriptive Data Analysisp. 185
Introductionp. 185
Central Tendency: Finding the Most, Middle, or Averagep. 186
Modep. 186
Medianp. 187
Meanp. 188
Measures of Dispersionp. 189
Minimum, Maximum, and Rangep. 190
Quartiles and Percentilesp. 190
Frequency Distributionsp. 191
Histogramsp. 194
Standard Deviationp. 197
Graphicsp. 198
Pie Chartsp. 199
Bar Graphsp. 201
Line Graphsp. 205
Calculating Descriptive Statistics and Creating the Graphicsp. 206
Descriptive Statisticsp. 206
Creating Graphics in Excelp. 210
Summaryp. 212
Key Termsp. 215
Exercisesp. 215
Recommended Readingp. 217
Bivariate Statisticsp. 219
Introductionp. 219
Testing for Relationshipsp. 220
Cross Tabulationsp. 225
Difference of Meansp. 232
Analysis of Variancep. 241
Correlationp. 242
Summaryp. 246
Key Termsp. 247
Exercisesp. 247
Recommended Readingp. 249
Communicating Research Resultsp. 251
Introductionp. 251
The Components of a Research Paperp. 254
The Executive Summaryp. 254
The Introductionp. 256
The Findingsp. 259
The Conclusionp. 260
Other Componentsp. 260
Presenting Tables and Graphicsp. 263
Summaryp. 271
Key Termsp. 271
Exercisesp. 271
Recommended Readingp. 272
Endnotesp. 272
Epiloguep. 273
Bibliographyp. 276
Indexp. 279
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