Overview | p. 1 |

Statistics and Scientific Method | p. 3 |

Introduction | p. 3 |

Methods of Knowing | p. 4 |

Definitions | p. 6 |

Scientific Research and Statistics | p. 9 |

Random Sampling | p. 9 |

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics | p. 10 |

Using Computers in Statistics | p. 10 |

Statistics and the "Real World" | p. 11 |

What is the Truth? Data, Data, Where Are the Data? | p. 12 |

What is the Truth? Authorities Are Nice, But ... | p. 13 |

What is the Truth? Data, Data, What Are the Data?-1 | p. 14 |

What is the Truth? Data, Data, What Are the Data?-2 | p. 15 |

Summary | p. 17 |

Important Terms | p. 17 |

Questions and Problems | p. 17 |

Book Companion Website | p. 20 |

WebTutor | p. 20 |

Descriptive Statistics | p. 21 |

Basic Mathematical and Measurement Concepts | p. 23 |

Study Hints for the Student | p. 23 |

Mathematical Notation | p. 24 |

Summation | p. 25 |

Measurement Scales: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales | p. 27 |

Measurement Scales in the Behavioral Sciences | p. 31 |

Continuous and Discrete Variables | p. 31 |

Summary | p. 35 |

Important Terms | p. 35 |

Questions and Problems | p. 35 |

Notes | p. 36 |

Book Companion Website | p. 37 |

WebTutor | p. 37 |

Frequency Distributions | p. 38 |

Introduction: Ungrouped Frequency Distributions | p. 38 |

Grouping Scores | p. 40 |

Percentiles | p. 46 |

Percentile Rank | p. 50 |

Graphing Frequency Distributions | p. 53 |

Exploratory Data Analysis | p. 58 |

What is the Truth? Stretch the Scale, Change the Tale | p. 60 |

Summary | p. 62 |

Important Terms | p. 62 |

Questions and Problems | p. 62 |

Book Companion Website | p. 65 |

WebTutor | p. 65 |

Measures of Central Tendency and Variability | p. 66 |

Introduction | p. 66 |

Measures of Central Tendency: Arithmetic Mean, Median, and Mode | p. 67 |

Measures of Variability: Range, Standard Deviation, and Variance | p. 76 |

Summary | p. 82 |

Important Terms | p. 82 |

Questions and Problems | p. 82 |

Notes | p. 85 |

Book Companion Website | p. 85 |

WebTutor | p. 85 |

The Normal Curve and Standard Scores | p. 86 |

Introduction | p. 86 |

The Normal Curve | p. 87 |

Standard Scores (z Scores) | p. 88 |

Summary | p. 100 |

Important Terms | p. 100 |

Questions and Problems | p. 100 |

Book Companion Website | p. 102 |

WebTutor | p. 102 |

Correlation | p. 103 |

Introduction | p. 103 |

Relationships | p. 104 |

Correlation | p. 111 |

What is the Truth? "Good Principal = Good Elementary School," or Does It? | p. 126 |

Summary | p. 127 |

Important Terms | p. 128 |

Questions and Problems | p. 128 |

Book Companion Website | p. 133 |

WebTutor | p. 133 |

Linear Regression | p. 134 |

Introduction | p. 134 |

Prediction and Imperfect Relationships | p. 135 |

Constructing the Least-Squares Regression Line: Regression of Y on X | p. 137 |

Regression of X on Y | p. 143 |

Measuring Prediction Errors: The Standard Error of Estimate | p. 146 |

Considerations in Using Linear Regression for Prediction | p. 149 |

Relation Between Regression Constants and Pearson r | p. 150 |

Multiple Regression and Multiple Correlation | p. 151 |

Summary | p. 156 |

Important Terms | p. 156 |

Questions and Problems | p. 156 |

Book Companion Website | p. 160 |

WebTutor | p. 160 |

Inferential Statistics | p. 161 |

Random Sampling and Probability | p. 163 |

Introduction | p. 163 |

Random Sampling | p. 164 |

Probability | p. 168 |

What is the Truth? "Not Guilty, I'm a Victim of Coincidence": Gutsy Plea or Truth? | p. 191 |

What is the Truth? Sperm Count Decline-Male or Sampling Inadequacy? | p. 192 |

What is the Truth? A Sample of a Sample | p. 193 |

Summary | p. 195 |

Important Terms | p. 195 |

Questions and Problems | p. 195 |

Notes | p. 198 |

Book Companion Website | p. 198 |

WebTutor | p. 198 |

Binomial Distribution | p. 199 |

Introduction | p. 199 |

Definition and Illustration of the Binomial Distribution | p. 199 |

Generating the Binomial Distribution from the Binomial Expansion | p. 202 |

Using the Binomial Table | p. 204 |

Summary | p. 213 |

Important Terms | p. 213 |

Questions and Problems | p. 213 |

Notes | p. 215 |

Book Companion Website | p. 215 |

WebTutor | p. 215 |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Using the Sign Test | p. 216 |

Introduction | p. 216 |

An Experiment: Marijuana and the Treatment of AIDS Patients | p. 217 |

Type I and Type II Errors | p. 222 |

Alpha Level and the Decision Process | p. 223 |

Evaluating the Tail of the Distribution | p. 225 |

One- and Two-Tailed Probability Evaluations | p. 227 |

Size of Effect: Significant Versus Important | p. 234 |

What is the Truth? Chance or Real Effect?-1 | p. 234 |

What is the Truth? Chance or Real Effect?-2 | p. 236 |

What is the Truth? "No Product Is Better Than Our Product" | p. 237 |

What is the Truth? Anecdotal Reports Versus Systematic Research | p. 238 |

Summary | p. 240 |

Important Terms | p. 241 |

Questions and Problems | p. 241 |

Notes | p. 244 |

Book Companion Website | p. 244 |

WebTutor | p. 244 |

Power | p. 245 |

Introduction | p. 245 |

What Is Power? | p. 246 |

P[subscript null] and P[subscript real] | p. 246 |

Power Analysis of the AIDS Experiment | p. 248 |

Alpha-Beta and Reality | p. 255 |

Interpreting Nonsignificant Results | p. 255 |

Calculation of Power | p. 256 |

What is the Truth? Astrology and Science | p. 262 |

Summary | p. 264 |

Important Terms | p. 264 |

Questions and Problems | p. 264 |

Notes | p. 265 |

Book Companion Website | p. 266 |

WebTutor | p. 266 |

Sampling Distributions, Sampling Distribution of the Mean, the Normal Deviate (z) Test | p. 267 |

Introduction | p. 267 |

Sampling Distributions | p. 268 |

The Normal Deviate (z) Test | p. 272 |

Summary | p. 294 |

Important Terms | p. 294 |

Questions and Problems | p. 294 |

Book Companion Website | p. 296 |

WebTutor | p. 296 |

Student's t Test for Single Samples | p. 297 |

Introduction | p. 297 |

Comparison of the z and t Tests | p. 298 |

The Sampling Distribution of t | p. 299 |

t and z Distributions Compared | p. 301 |

First Word Utterances Experiment Revisited | p. 302 |

Calculating t[subscript obt] from Original Scores | p. 303 |

Conditions Under Which the t Test Is Appropriate | p. 308 |

t Distribution: Confidence Intervals for the Population Mean | p. 308 |

Testing the Significance of Pearson r | p. 313 |

Summary | p. 316 |

Important Terms | p. 317 |

Questions and Problems | p. 317 |

Notes | p. 320 |

Book Companion Website | p. 320 |

WebTutor | p. 320 |

Student's t Test for Correlated and Independent Groups | p. 321 |

Introduction | p. 322 |

Student's t Test for Correlated Groups | p. 323 |

z and t Tests for Independent Groups | p. 329 |

z Test for Independent Groups | p. 330 |

Student's t Test for Independent Groups | p. 333 |

Power of the t Test | p. 341 |

Correlated Groups and Independent Groups Designs Compared | p. 342 |

Evaluating the Effect of the Independent Variable Using Confidence Intervals-Independent Groups Design | p. 345 |

Summary | p. 349 |

Important Terms | p. 350 |

Questions and Problems | p. 350 |

Notes | p. 356 |

Book Companion Website | p. 357 |

WebTutor | p. 357 |

Introduction to the Analysis of Variance | p. 358 |

Introduction: The F Distribution | p. 359 |

F Test and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | p. 360 |

Overview of the One-Way Analysis of Variance Technique | p. 361 |

Analyzing Data with the ANOVA Technique | p. 366 |

Logic Underlying the One-Way ANOVA | p. 370 |

The Relationship Between the Analysis of Variance and the t Test | p. 374 |

Assumptions Underlying the Analysis of Variance | p. 374 |

Size of Effect | p. 375 |

Power of the Analysis of Variance | p. 376 |

Multiple Comparisons | p. 377 |

What is the Truth? Much Ado About Almost Nothing | p. 388 |

Summary | p. 390 |

Important Terms | p. 391 |

Questions and Problems | p. 391 |

Notes | p. 395 |

Book Companion Website | p. 396 |

WebTutor | p. 396 |

Introduction to Two-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 397 |

Introduction to the Two-Way Analysis of Variance-Qualitative Presentation | p. 397 |

Quantitative Presentation of the Two-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 401 |

Analyzing an Experiment with Two-Way ANOVA | p. 408 |

Multiple Comparisons | p. 422 |

Assumptions Underlying the Two-Way ANOVA | p. 423 |

Summary | p. 423 |

Important Terms | p. 424 |

Questions and Problems | p. 424 |

Book Companion Website | p. 426 |

WebTutor | p. 426 |

Chi-Square and Other Nonparametric Tests | p. 427 |

Introduction: Distinction Between Parametric and Nonparametric Tests | p. 428 |

Chi-Square (X[superscript 2]) | p. 429 |

The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Ranks Test | p. 443 |

The Mann-Whitney U Test | p. 446 |

The Kruskal-Wallis Test | p. 452 |

What is the Truth? Statistics and Applied Social Research-Useful or "Abuseful"? | p. 457 |

Summary | p. 459 |

Important Terms | p. 460 |

Questions and Problems | p. 460 |

Notes | p. 467 |

Book Companion Website | p. 468 |

WebTutor | p. 468 |

Review of Inferential Statistics | p. 469 |

Introduction | p. 469 |

Terms and Concepts | p. 470 |

Process of Hypothesis Testing | p. 471 |

Single Sample Designs | p. 472 |

Two-Condition Experiments: Correlated Groups Design | p. 474 |

Independent Groups Design: Two Groups | p. 476 |

Multigroup Experiments | p. 478 |

Two-Way Analysis of Variance, F Test | p. 481 |

Analyzing Nominal Data | p. 483 |

Choosing the Appropriate Test | p. 484 |

Questions and Problems | p. 486 |

Book Companion Website | p. 492 |

Appendixes | p. 493 |

Review of Prerequisite Mathematics | p. 495 |

Equations | p. 505 |

Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions and Problems | p. 513 |

Tables | p. 528 |

Glossary | p. 553 |

Index | p. 557 |

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