Overview | p. 1 |
Statistics and Scientific Method | p. 3 |
Introduction | p. 3 |
Methods of Knowing | p. 4 |
Definitions | p. 6 |
Scientific Research and Statistics | p. 9 |
Random Sampling | p. 9 |
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics | p. 10 |
Using Computers in Statistics | p. 10 |
Statistics and the "Real World" | p. 11 |
What is the Truth? Data, Data, Where Are the Data? | p. 12 |
What is the Truth? Authorities Are Nice, But ... | p. 13 |
What is the Truth? Data, Data, What Are the Data?-1 | p. 14 |
What is the Truth? Data, Data, What Are the Data?-2 | p. 15 |
Summary | p. 17 |
Important Terms | p. 17 |
Questions and Problems | p. 17 |
Book Companion Website | p. 20 |
WebTutor | p. 20 |
Descriptive Statistics | p. 21 |
Basic Mathematical and Measurement Concepts | p. 23 |
Study Hints for the Student | p. 23 |
Mathematical Notation | p. 24 |
Summation | p. 25 |
Measurement Scales: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales | p. 27 |
Measurement Scales in the Behavioral Sciences | p. 31 |
Continuous and Discrete Variables | p. 31 |
Summary | p. 35 |
Important Terms | p. 35 |
Questions and Problems | p. 35 |
Notes | p. 36 |
Book Companion Website | p. 37 |
WebTutor | p. 37 |
Frequency Distributions | p. 38 |
Introduction: Ungrouped Frequency Distributions | p. 38 |
Grouping Scores | p. 40 |
Percentiles | p. 46 |
Percentile Rank | p. 50 |
Graphing Frequency Distributions | p. 53 |
Exploratory Data Analysis | p. 58 |
What is the Truth? Stretch the Scale, Change the Tale | p. 60 |
Summary | p. 62 |
Important Terms | p. 62 |
Questions and Problems | p. 62 |
Book Companion Website | p. 65 |
WebTutor | p. 65 |
Measures of Central Tendency and Variability | p. 66 |
Introduction | p. 66 |
Measures of Central Tendency: Arithmetic Mean, Median, and Mode | p. 67 |
Measures of Variability: Range, Standard Deviation, and Variance | p. 76 |
Summary | p. 82 |
Important Terms | p. 82 |
Questions and Problems | p. 82 |
Notes | p. 85 |
Book Companion Website | p. 85 |
WebTutor | p. 85 |
The Normal Curve and Standard Scores | p. 86 |
Introduction | p. 86 |
The Normal Curve | p. 87 |
Standard Scores (z Scores) | p. 88 |
Summary | p. 100 |
Important Terms | p. 100 |
Questions and Problems | p. 100 |
Book Companion Website | p. 102 |
WebTutor | p. 102 |
Correlation | p. 103 |
Introduction | p. 103 |
Relationships | p. 104 |
Correlation | p. 111 |
What is the Truth? "Good Principal = Good Elementary School," or Does It? | p. 126 |
Summary | p. 127 |
Important Terms | p. 128 |
Questions and Problems | p. 128 |
Book Companion Website | p. 133 |
WebTutor | p. 133 |
Linear Regression | p. 134 |
Introduction | p. 134 |
Prediction and Imperfect Relationships | p. 135 |
Constructing the Least-Squares Regression Line: Regression of Y on X | p. 137 |
Regression of X on Y | p. 143 |
Measuring Prediction Errors: The Standard Error of Estimate | p. 146 |
Considerations in Using Linear Regression for Prediction | p. 149 |
Relation Between Regression Constants and Pearson r | p. 150 |
Multiple Regression and Multiple Correlation | p. 151 |
Summary | p. 156 |
Important Terms | p. 156 |
Questions and Problems | p. 156 |
Book Companion Website | p. 160 |
WebTutor | p. 160 |
Inferential Statistics | p. 161 |
Random Sampling and Probability | p. 163 |
Introduction | p. 163 |
Random Sampling | p. 164 |
Probability | p. 168 |
What is the Truth? "Not Guilty, I'm a Victim of Coincidence": Gutsy Plea or Truth? | p. 191 |
What is the Truth? Sperm Count Decline-Male or Sampling Inadequacy? | p. 192 |
What is the Truth? A Sample of a Sample | p. 193 |
Summary | p. 195 |
Important Terms | p. 195 |
Questions and Problems | p. 195 |
Notes | p. 198 |
Book Companion Website | p. 198 |
WebTutor | p. 198 |
Binomial Distribution | p. 199 |
Introduction | p. 199 |
Definition and Illustration of the Binomial Distribution | p. 199 |
Generating the Binomial Distribution from the Binomial Expansion | p. 202 |
Using the Binomial Table | p. 204 |
Summary | p. 213 |
Important Terms | p. 213 |
Questions and Problems | p. 213 |
Notes | p. 215 |
Book Companion Website | p. 215 |
WebTutor | p. 215 |
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Using the Sign Test | p. 216 |
Introduction | p. 216 |
An Experiment: Marijuana and the Treatment of AIDS Patients | p. 217 |
Type I and Type II Errors | p. 222 |
Alpha Level and the Decision Process | p. 223 |
Evaluating the Tail of the Distribution | p. 225 |
One- and Two-Tailed Probability Evaluations | p. 227 |
Size of Effect: Significant Versus Important | p. 234 |
What is the Truth? Chance or Real Effect?-1 | p. 234 |
What is the Truth? Chance or Real Effect?-2 | p. 236 |
What is the Truth? "No Product Is Better Than Our Product" | p. 237 |
What is the Truth? Anecdotal Reports Versus Systematic Research | p. 238 |
Summary | p. 240 |
Important Terms | p. 241 |
Questions and Problems | p. 241 |
Notes | p. 244 |
Book Companion Website | p. 244 |
WebTutor | p. 244 |
Power | p. 245 |
Introduction | p. 245 |
What Is Power? | p. 246 |
P[subscript null] and P[subscript real] | p. 246 |
Power Analysis of the AIDS Experiment | p. 248 |
Alpha-Beta and Reality | p. 255 |
Interpreting Nonsignificant Results | p. 255 |
Calculation of Power | p. 256 |
What is the Truth? Astrology and Science | p. 262 |
Summary | p. 264 |
Important Terms | p. 264 |
Questions and Problems | p. 264 |
Notes | p. 265 |
Book Companion Website | p. 266 |
WebTutor | p. 266 |
Sampling Distributions, Sampling Distribution of the Mean, the Normal Deviate (z) Test | p. 267 |
Introduction | p. 267 |
Sampling Distributions | p. 268 |
The Normal Deviate (z) Test | p. 272 |
Summary | p. 294 |
Important Terms | p. 294 |
Questions and Problems | p. 294 |
Book Companion Website | p. 296 |
WebTutor | p. 296 |
Student's t Test for Single Samples | p. 297 |
Introduction | p. 297 |
Comparison of the z and t Tests | p. 298 |
The Sampling Distribution of t | p. 299 |
t and z Distributions Compared | p. 301 |
First Word Utterances Experiment Revisited | p. 302 |
Calculating t[subscript obt] from Original Scores | p. 303 |
Conditions Under Which the t Test Is Appropriate | p. 308 |
t Distribution: Confidence Intervals for the Population Mean | p. 308 |
Testing the Significance of Pearson r | p. 313 |
Summary | p. 316 |
Important Terms | p. 317 |
Questions and Problems | p. 317 |
Notes | p. 320 |
Book Companion Website | p. 320 |
WebTutor | p. 320 |
Student's t Test for Correlated and Independent Groups | p. 321 |
Introduction | p. 322 |
Student's t Test for Correlated Groups | p. 323 |
z and t Tests for Independent Groups | p. 329 |
z Test for Independent Groups | p. 330 |
Student's t Test for Independent Groups | p. 333 |
Power of the t Test | p. 341 |
Correlated Groups and Independent Groups Designs Compared | p. 342 |
Evaluating the Effect of the Independent Variable Using Confidence Intervals-Independent Groups Design | p. 345 |
Summary | p. 349 |
Important Terms | p. 350 |
Questions and Problems | p. 350 |
Notes | p. 356 |
Book Companion Website | p. 357 |
WebTutor | p. 357 |
Introduction to the Analysis of Variance | p. 358 |
Introduction: The F Distribution | p. 359 |
F Test and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | p. 360 |
Overview of the One-Way Analysis of Variance Technique | p. 361 |
Analyzing Data with the ANOVA Technique | p. 366 |
Logic Underlying the One-Way ANOVA | p. 370 |
The Relationship Between the Analysis of Variance and the t Test | p. 374 |
Assumptions Underlying the Analysis of Variance | p. 374 |
Size of Effect | p. 375 |
Power of the Analysis of Variance | p. 376 |
Multiple Comparisons | p. 377 |
What is the Truth? Much Ado About Almost Nothing | p. 388 |
Summary | p. 390 |
Important Terms | p. 391 |
Questions and Problems | p. 391 |
Notes | p. 395 |
Book Companion Website | p. 396 |
WebTutor | p. 396 |
Introduction to Two-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 397 |
Introduction to the Two-Way Analysis of Variance-Qualitative Presentation | p. 397 |
Quantitative Presentation of the Two-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 401 |
Analyzing an Experiment with Two-Way ANOVA | p. 408 |
Multiple Comparisons | p. 422 |
Assumptions Underlying the Two-Way ANOVA | p. 423 |
Summary | p. 423 |
Important Terms | p. 424 |
Questions and Problems | p. 424 |
Book Companion Website | p. 426 |
WebTutor | p. 426 |
Chi-Square and Other Nonparametric Tests | p. 427 |
Introduction: Distinction Between Parametric and Nonparametric Tests | p. 428 |
Chi-Square (X[superscript 2]) | p. 429 |
The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Ranks Test | p. 443 |
The Mann-Whitney U Test | p. 446 |
The Kruskal-Wallis Test | p. 452 |
What is the Truth? Statistics and Applied Social Research-Useful or "Abuseful"? | p. 457 |
Summary | p. 459 |
Important Terms | p. 460 |
Questions and Problems | p. 460 |
Notes | p. 467 |
Book Companion Website | p. 468 |
WebTutor | p. 468 |
Review of Inferential Statistics | p. 469 |
Introduction | p. 469 |
Terms and Concepts | p. 470 |
Process of Hypothesis Testing | p. 471 |
Single Sample Designs | p. 472 |
Two-Condition Experiments: Correlated Groups Design | p. 474 |
Independent Groups Design: Two Groups | p. 476 |
Multigroup Experiments | p. 478 |
Two-Way Analysis of Variance, F Test | p. 481 |
Analyzing Nominal Data | p. 483 |
Choosing the Appropriate Test | p. 484 |
Questions and Problems | p. 486 |
Book Companion Website | p. 492 |
Appendixes | p. 493 |
Review of Prerequisite Mathematics | p. 495 |
Equations | p. 505 |
Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions and Problems | p. 513 |
Tables | p. 528 |
Glossary | p. 553 |
Index | p. 557 |
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