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Based on the highly successful A History of World Societies, Understanding World Societies: A Brief History combines innovative pedagogy with a manageable regional and comparative approach to capture students' interest in the everyday life of the past. Abridged by 25%, the narrative is paired with distinctive pedagogy, designed to help students focus on significant developments as they read and review. An innovative end-of-chapter study guide helps students master key facts and move towards synthesis.
John P. McKay (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor emeritus at the University of Illinois. He has written or edited numerous works, including the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize-winning book Pioneers for Profit: Foreign Entrepreneurship and Russian Industrialization, 1885-1913.
Patricia B. Ebrey (Ph.D., Columbia University), Professor of History at the University of Washington in Seattle, specializes in China. She has published numerous journal articles and The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, as well as numerous monographs. In 2010 she won the Shimada Prize for outstanding work of East Asian Art History for Accumulating Culture: The Collections of Emperor Huizong.
Roger B. Beck (Ph.D., Indiana University) is Distinguished Professor of African and twentieth-century world history at Eastern Illinois University. His publications include The History of South Africa, a translation of P. J. van der Merwe's The Migrant Farmer in the History of the Cape Colony, 1657-1842, and more than a hundred articles, book chapters, and reviews. He is a former treasurer and Executive Council member of the World History Association.
Clare Haru Crowston (Ph.D., Cornell University) teaches at the University of Illinois, where she is currently associate professor of history. She is the author of Fabricating Women: The Seamstresses of Old Regime France, 1675-1791, which won the Berkshire and Hagley Prizes. She edited two special issues of the Journal of Women's History, has published numerous journal articles and reviews, and is a past president of the Society for French Historical Studies.
Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) taught first at Augustana College in Illinois, and since 1985 at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where she is currently UWM Distinguished Professor in the department of history. She is the coeditor of the Sixteenth Century Journal and the author or editor of more than twenty books, most recently The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and Their Worlds and Gender in History. She is the former Chief Reader for Advanced Placement World History.
Table of Contents
Maps, Figures and TablesSpecial Features Preface Version and Supplements Chapter 16The Acceleration of Global Contact, 1450-1600 How did trade link the peoples of Africa, Asia, and Europe prior to 1492? The Trade World of the Indian Ocean Peoples and Cultures of the Indian Ocean Trade with Africa and the Middle East Genoese and Venetian Middlemen How and why did Europeans undertake voyages of expansion? Causes of European Expansion Technology and the Rise of Exploration The Expanding Portuguese Empire Christopher Columbus's Voyages to the Americas Later Explorers Spanish Conquest in the New World What was the impact of conquest? Colonial Administration The Impact of European Settlement on the Lives of Indigenous Peoples The Columbian Exchange Sugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery The Birth of the Global Economy How did expansion shape cultural values and beliefs in Europe and the Americas? New Ideas About Race Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity William Shakespeare and His Influence Religious Conversion in the New World Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Zheng He Listening to the Past: Columbus Describes His First Voyage Global Trade: Silver Chapter 17European Power and Expansion, 1500-1750 How did European states respond to the crises of the seventeenth century? Crises Among Peasants and the Urban Poor The Return of Serfdom in Eastern Europe The Thirty Years' War Achievements in State Building How did the absolutist monarchies of France and Spain fare in this era? The Foundations of Absolutism Louis XIV and Absolutism Life at Versailles French Finances Louis XIV's Wars The Decline of Absolutist Spain How did absolutism develop in Austria, Prussia, and Russia? The Austrian Habsburgs Prussia in the Seventeenth Century The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow The Tsar and His People The Reforms of Peter the Great Where and why did constitutionalism triumph? Absolutist Claims in England Religious Divides and Civil War The Puritan Protectorate Restoration of the English Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century How did European nations compete to build new colonies in the Americas? Colonial Expansion of Northern European Powers Mercantilism and Colonial Wars Life in the Colonies Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: A German Account of Russian Life Individuals in Society: Gluckel of Hameln Chapter 18New Worldviews and Ways of Life, 1540-1790 What was revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution? Scientific Thought Through the Early 1500s Origins of the Scientific Revolution Copernican Hypothesis Proving Copernicus Right Newton's Synthesis Bacon, Descartes, and the Scientific Method Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry Science and Society What were the core principles of the Enlightenment? The Emergence of the Enlightenment The Influence of the Philosophes Enlightenment Across Europe Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere Late Enlightenment What did enlightened absolutism mean? Reforms in Prussia, Russia, and Austria Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism How did consumerism and the Atlantic economy influence Enlightenment ideas? A Revolution in Consumption and Daily Life The Atlantic Economy Identities and Communities of the Atlantic World Race and the Enlightenment Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment Listening to the Past: Denis Diderot's "Supplement to Bougainville's Voyage" Chapter 19Africa and the World, 1400-1800 What kinds of states and societies coexisted in early modern West Africa? The West Coast: Senegambia and Benin The Sudan: Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, and Hausaland The Lives of the People of West Africa Trade and Industry How did the arrival of outsiders impact East Africa ? Muslim and European Incursions in Ethiopia, ca. 1500-1630 The Swahili City-States and the Arrival of the Portuguese, ca. 1500-1600 What were the causes and consequences of the transatlantic slave trade? The Institution of Slavery in Africa The Transatlantic Slave Trade Impact on African Societies Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Duarte Barbosa on the Swahili City-States Global Trade: Slaves Individuals in Society: Olaudah Equiano Chapter 20The Islamic World Powers, 1300-1800 How were the three Islamic empires established? The Ottoman Turkish Empire's Expansion The Ottoman Empire's Use of Slaves The Safavid Empire in Persia The Mughal Empire in India What characterized the cultural flowering of the Islamic empires? The Arts City and Palace Building Gardens Intellectual Advances and Religious Trends Coffeehouses and Their Social Impact How were non-Muslims treated in the Islamic empires? How did shifts in global trading patterns affect the Islamic empires? European Rivalry for Trade in the Indian Ocean Merchant Networks in the Islamic Empires From the British East India Company to the British Empire in India What factors led to the decline of central power in the Islamic empires? Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Hurrem Listening to the Past: Katib Chelebi on Tobacco Chapter 21 Continuity and Change in East Asia, 1400-1800 What sort of state and society developed in China under the Ming? The Rise of Zhu Yuanzhang and the Founding of the Ming Dynasty Problems with the Imperial Institution The Mongols and the Great Wall The Examination Life Everyday Life in Ming China Ming Decline How did the Manchus build on Ming accomplishments? The Rise of the Manchus Competent and Long-Lived Emperors Imperial Expansion How did war and political instability shape Japan in the Middle Ages? Muromachi Culture Civil War The Victors: Nobunaga and Hideyoshi What was life like in Japan during the Tokugawa peace? Tokugawa Government Commercialization and the Growth of Towns The Life of the People in the Edo Period How did the arrival of Europeans change the Asian maritime sphere? Zheng He's Voyages Piracy and Japan's Overseas Adventures Europeans Enter the Scene Christian Missionaries Learning from the West The Shifting International Environment in the Eighteenth Century Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Tan Yunxian, Woman Doctor Listening to the Past: Keinen's Poetic Diary of the Korea Campaign Chapter 22Revolutions in the Atlantic World, 1775-1815 What factors combined to spark revolutions in the Atlantic world? Social Change Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality The Seven Years' War How did American colonists forge a new, independent nation? The Origins of the Revolution Independence from Britain Framing the Constitution What were the causes and consequences of the French Revolution? Breakdown of the Old Order The Formation of the National Assembly Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges How and why did the French Revolution take a radical turn? The International Response The Second Revolution and the New Republic Total War and the Terror The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory How did Napoleon assume control of France and much of Europe? Napoleon's Rule of France Napoleon's Expansion in Europe The Grand Empire and Its End What led to the creation of the independent state of Haiti in 1804? Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue The Outbreak of Revolt The War of Haitian Independence Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Abbe de Sieyes, "What Is the Third Estate?"Individuals in Society: Toussaint L'Ouverture Chapter 23The Revolution in Energy and Industry, 1760-1850 How and why did Britain industrialize between 1780 and 1850? Origins of the British Industrial Revolution The First Factories The Steam Engine Breakthrough The Coming of the Railroads Industry and Population When and how did industrialization spread beyond Britain? National and International Variations The Challenge of Industrialization in Continental Europe Agents of Industrialization Government Support and Corporate Banking The Situation Outside of Europe What were the social consequences of industrialization? The New Class of Factory Owners The New Factory Workers Work in Early Factories Working Families and Children The Sexual Division of Labor The Early Labor Movement in Britain The Impact of Slavery Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Josiah Wedgwood Listening to the Past: The Testimony of Young Mine Workers Chapter 24Ideologies of Change in Europe, 1815-1914 How was European conservatism challenged between 1815 and 1848? The European Balance of Power Coerced Conservatism After 1815 Liberalism and the Middle Class The Growing Appeal of Nationalism The Birth of Socialism What led to the Revolutions of 1848 and why did they fail? Liberal Reform in Great Britain Revolutions in France The Revolutions of 1848 in Central Europe How did nation building transform Italy, Germany, and Russia? Cavour, Garibaldi, and the Unification of Italy Bismarck and German Unification The Modernization of Russia How did urbanization impact cities, society, and ideas? Taming the City New Social Hierarchies and the Middle Classes The People and Occupations of the Working Classes The Changing Family Science for the Masses Cultural Shifts How did nationalism and socialism shape politics before 1914? Trends in Suffrage The German Empire Republican France Great Britain and the Austro-Hungarian Empire Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism The Socialist Movement Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Giuseppe Garibaldi Listening to the Past: Mrs. Beeton's Guide for Running a Victorian Household Chapter 25Africa, Southwest Asia, and the New Imperialism, 1800-1914 How did slavery, Islam, and imperialism shape Africa's development? Trade and Social Change Islamic Revival and Expansion in Africa The Scramble for Africa, 1880-1914 Southern Africa in the Nineteenth Century Colonialism's Impact After 1900 What were the causes and consequences of European empire building? Causes of the New Imperialism A "Civilizing Mission" Critics of Imperialism African and Asian Resistance How and why did Ottoman and Egyptian leaders reform their states? Decline and Reform in the Ottoman Empire Egypt: From Reform to British Occupation How did Western industrialization change the world economy? The Rise of Global Inequality The World Market What explains global migration patterns in this period? Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: A French Leader Defends Imperialism Individuals in Society: Muhammad Ali Global Trade: Indigo Chapter 26Asia in the Era of Imperialism, 1800-1914 What were the consequences of British rule for India? The Evolution of British Rule The Socioeconomic Effects of British Rule The British and the Indian Educated Elite Why were most but not all Southeast Asian societies colonized? The Dutch East Indies Mainland Southeast Asia The Philippines What factors contributed to China's decline in the nineteenth century? The Opium War Internal Problems The Self-Strengthening Movement Republican Revolution How did Japan respond to the challenges posed by the West? The "Opening" of Japan The Meiji Restoration Industrialization Japan as an Imperial Power Why did people move into and out of Asia in the nineteenth century? Westerners to Asia Asian Emigration What common experiences did Asian societies share in this era? Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Jose Rizal Listening to the Past: Fukuzawa Yukichi, Escape from Asia Chapter 27 Nation Building in the Americas and Australia, 1770-1914 How did Latin American nations fare after independence? The Origins of the Revolutions Against Colonial Powers Resistance, Rebellion, and Independence The Aftermath of Independence Neocolonialism and Its Socioeconomic Effects The Impact of Immigrants from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East How did the United States become a world power? Manifest Destiny and Its Consequences for Native Americans Women's Roles in White Settlements Black Slavery in the South The Civil War and Its Impact Industrialization and the Formation of Large Corporations Immigrants and Their Reception What factors shaped the development of Canada? How did Australia evolve from penal colony to nation? A Distant Land Turned Penal Colony An Economy Built on Wool, Gold, and Immigrant Labor The Shaping of a Government and a National Identity What common forces shaped the Americas and Australia? Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Mary Seacole on Her Early Life Individuals in Society: Henry Meiggs, Promoter and Speculator Chapter 28 World War and Revolution, 1914-1929 How did European conflicts lead to global war? The Bismarckian System of Alliances The Outbreak of War Stalemate and Slaughter The War Becomes Global What made World War I a "total war"? Mobilizing for Total War The Social Impact Growing Political Tensions How did war lead to revolution in Russia? The Fall of Imperial Russia The Provisional Government Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution Dictatorship and Civil War What were the global consequences of the war? The End of the War The Treaty of Versailles American Rejection of the Versailles Treaty How did leaders seek to re-establish peace and stability? Germany and the Western Powers Hope in Foreign Affairs Hope in Democratic Government How were postwar anxieties reflected in art and science? Uncertainty in Philosophy and Religion The New Physics Freudian Psychology Twentieth-Century Literature Modern Architecture, Art, and Music Movies and Radio Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: The Experience of War Individuals in Society: Vera Brittain Chapter 29Nationalism in Asia, 1914-1939 How did World War I stimulate nationalism in Asia? Asian Reaction to the War in Europe The Mandates System Nationalism's Appeal What forces shaped nationalism in the Middle East? The Arab Revolt The Turkish Revolution Modernization Efforts in Persia and Afghanistan Gradual Independence in the Arab States Arab-Jewish Tensions in Palestine What characterized the Indian independence movement? British Promises and Repression The Roots of Militant Nonviolence Gandhi's Resistance Campaign in India What nationalist struggles emerged in East and Southeast Asia? The Rise of Nationalist China China's Intellectual Revolution From Liberalism to Ultranationalism in Japan Japan Against China Striving for Independence in Southeast Asia Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Resolution of the General Syrian Congress at Damascus Individuals in Society: Ning Lao, a Chinese Working Woman Chapter 30The Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945 Why did the Great Depression spread around the world? The Economic Crisis Mass Unemployment The New Deal in the United States The European Response to the Depression Worldwide Effects How did totalitarianism differ from conservative authoritarianism? Conservative Authoritarianism Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships What characterized StalinÕs rule in the Soviet Union? From Lenin to Stalin The Five-Year Plans Life and Culture in Soviet Society Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges How did Italian fascism develop? The Seizure of Power The Regime in Action What were the goals of Hitler and his Nazi regime? The Roots of Nazism Hitler's Road to Power The Nazi State and Society Hitler's Popularity Aggression and Appeasement, 1933-1939 What led to World War II and how did the Allies prevail? Hitler's Empire in Europe, 1939-1942 The Holocaust Japan's Asian Empire The Grand Alliance The War in Europe, 1942-1945 The War in the Pacific, 1942-1945 Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Primo Levi Listening to the Past: Ultranationalist Pamphlet for Japanese Students Chapter 31Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers, 1945 to the Present What were the causes of the Cold War? The Origins of the Cold War West Versus East How did western Europe recover after World War II, and why did progress stall? The Postwar Challenge Building Europe and Decolonization The Changing Class Structure and Social Reform Economic and Social Dislocation, 1970-1990 How did the Soviet Union dominate eastern Europe in the postwar era? Stalin's Last Years Limited De-Stalinization and Stagnation The Impact of Reform on Everyday Life The Gorbachev Era The Revolutions of 1989 The End of the Cold War and Soviet Disintegration What factors shaped social and political developments in postwar America? America's Economic Boom and Civil Rights Revolution Youth and the Counterculture The Vietnam War Detente and a Return to Cold War Tensions How did Japan become a global power after its defeat in World War II? Japan's American Revolution "Japan, Inc." Japan in the Post-Cold War World What opportunities and challenges did Europe face after the Cold War? Common Patterns and Problems Recasting Russia Without Communism Postcommunist Reconstruction in Eastern Europe Unity and Identity in Western Europe Connections Chapter Study Guide Global Trade: Oil Listening to the Past: A Solidarity Leader Speaks from Prison Individuals in Society: V‡clav Havel Chapter 32Independence, Progress, and Conflict in Asia and the Middle East, 1945 to the Present What explains East Asia's economic success after World War II? The Communist Victory in China Mao's China The Limits of Reform The Asian "Economic Tigers" Political and Economic Progress in Southeast Asia The Reunification of Vietnam How have India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh fared since independence? The End of British India Pakistan and the Creation of Bangladesh India Since Independence How has religion shaped Middle Eastern politics since 1945? The Arab-Israeli Conflict The Palestinian Quest for Independence Egypt: Arab World Leader A Fractured Lebanon Challenges to Turkey's Secularism Revolution and War in Iran and Iraq Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Liu Xiaobo Listening to the Past: Aung San Suu Kyi, "Freedom from Fear"Chapter 33The Global South: Latin America and Africa, 1945 to the Present How did Latin American states develop after World War II? Economic Nationalism in Mexico and Brazil Communist Revolution in Cuba From Authoritarianism to Democracy in Latin America Pan-Latin American Unity What factors influenced decolonization in sub-Saharan Africa? The Growth of African Nationalism Achieving Independence with New Leaders Ghana Shows the Way French-Speaking Regions What common features characterize independent African states since 1960? Striving for National Unity Nigeria, Africa's Giant The Struggle in Southern Africa Political Reform in Africa Since 1990 How have writers depicted the experience of the emerging world? Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Eva Peron Listening to the Past: Nelson Mandela, The Struggle for Freedom in South Africa Chapter 34A New Era in World History How has global politics changed since 1989? The United Nations Preemptive War in Iraq Complexity and Violence in a Multipolar World The Terrorist Threat Weapons of Mass Destruction What are the consequences of increasing global interdependence? Multinational Corporations Industrialization and Modernization Agriculture and the Green Revolution The Economics and Politics of Globalization What are the causes and consequences of worldwide urbanization? Rapid Urbanization Overcrowding and Shantytowns Rich and Poor Urban Migration and the Family Urbanization and Agriculture How have developments in science and technology changed the world? The Medical Revolution Population Change: Balancing the Numbers Global Epidemics Environmentalism Mass Communication What social problems do women and children face? Women: The Right to Equality Children: The Right to Childhood Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: The Dalai Lama Listening to the Past: The United Nations Millennium Project Report Global Trade: Arms Chapter Endnotes Index