CART

(0) items

Urbanization : An Introduction to Urban Geography,9780131424500
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Urbanization : An Introduction to Urban Geography

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131424500

ISBN10:
0131424505
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/7/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $159.20

Buy Used Textbook

(Recommended)
Usually Ships in 2-3 Business Days
U9780131424500
$111.44

Rent Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $4.99
See Prices

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 1/7/2005.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to inclue any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

Summary

Towns and cities are in constant flux. They are hives of industry and crucibles of social, cultural, and political change, where there is always something happening. At times, circumstances accelerate the restlessness of urban change, with the result that the function, form, and appearance of cities are transformed. Such was the case a hundred years ago, when a combination of economic, social, and technological changes were turning cities in Europe and America inside out and upside down, forging, in the process, the physical, economic, and political framework for the evolution of the "modern" city.

We are currently living through another phase of transformation, this time involving global processes of economic, cultural, and political change. Within the cities of the developed world, the classic mosaic of central city neighborhoods has become blurred as cleavages of income, race, and family status have been fragmented by new lifestyle and cultural preferences. The long-standing distinction between central cities and suburbs has become less and less straightforward as economic reorganization has brought about a selective recentralization of commercial and residential land uses in tandem with a selective decentralization of commerce and industry. Outlying centers big enough to be called "edge cities" and "boomburbs" have appeared, as if from nowhere.

Meanwhile, cities in less developed countries have grown at unprecedented rates, with distinctive processes of urbanization creating new patterns of land use and posing new sets of problems. A pressing problem today for many less developed countries is a process of overurbanization in which cities are growing more rapidly than the jobs and housing that they can sustain. There has been a "quartering" of cities into spatially partitioned, compartmentalized residential enclaves. Luxury homes and apartment complexes correspond with an often dynamic formal sector of the economy that offers well-paid jobs and opportunities; these contrast sharply with the slums and squatter settlements of people working in the informal sector—in jobs not regulated by the state—who are disadvantaged by a lack of formal education and training and the often rigid divisions of labor shaped by gender, race, and ethnicity.

Urban geography allows us to address these trends, to relate them to our own individual lives and concerns, and to speculate on how they play a role in other fields of study such as economics, history, sociology, and planning. The study of urban geography can help us better understand the marketplace and appreciate the interdependencies involved in local, national, and international economic development. It can provide us with an appreciation of history and the relationships among art, economics, and society. It can illuminate the interplay of science and technology with economic and social change, reveal important dimensions of race and gender, raise important issues of social inequality, and point to important lessons for governance and policy. Most of all, of course, it can help us to understand, analyze, and interpret the landscapes, economies, and communities of towns and cities around the world.

In this book we attempt to capture the changes in the nature and outcomes of urbanization processes as well as the development of new ways of thinking about urban geography. A dynamic approach to the study of urban geography is the most distinctive feature of the book: unraveling the interlocking processes of urbanization to present a vivid and meaningful explanation of constantly changing urban geographies. An important advantage of such an approach is that it provides a framework that is able to capture recent changes while addressing much of the "traditional" subject matter of urban geography. The dynamic approach also allows for the integration of theory with fact. In this book, key concepts and theories are presented in relation to prior events and ideas. In this way, we can appreciate the logic of particular theories and their relevance to particular circumstances. In writing this book, we have aimed at providing a coherent and comprehensive introduction to urban geography that offers a historical and process-oriented approach with a North American focus that also provides a global context and comparative international perspectives.

The text of this second edition has been completely revised and updated with a large number of new illustrations, Follow Up exercises, Key Sources and Suggested Reading, helpful websites, and a glossary. The focus on North American cities has been augmented with material on cities in other developed countries (in Europe, Australia, and Japan, as well as Russia). New material has been added on urban environmental issues such as brownfields and urban sustainable development, and on the interdependence between globalization and urbanization (including such topics as terrorism and cities and the future of cities in an increasingly interconnected world).

A new chapter (Chapter 2) has been added on the origins and growth of cities from Mesopotamia, through Greek, Roman, and Medieval cities to the cities of the Industrial Revolution, together with three new chapters on urbanization in less developed countries: Chapter 7 deals with the legacy of colonial urbanization and contemporary urbanization trends in less developed countries; Chapter 8 deals with urban form and land use in less developed countries; and Chapter 9 deals with urban problems (poverty, inadequate housing, lack of urban services, transportation problems, and environmental degradation) and responses (by governments, private agencies, non-profits, and communities) in less developed countries.

We are grateful to many individuals for their help in forming and testing our ideas. Our gratitude is wide and deep, and we take this opportunity to acknowledge the contributions of Brian Berry University of Texas at Dallas; Martin Cadwallader, University of Wisconsin, Madison; Bill Clark, University of California, Los Angeles; Ron Johnston, University of Bristol; Peter I Taylor, Loughborough University; and Helga Leitner aryl Roger Miller at the University of Minnesota. We have also been fortunate in being able to call on the talents and energies of Ceylan Oner, Michael Peragine, and Joel Schneider in searching for material and checking data, and Erin Taylor Connaughton and Joe Gustaitis at nSight, Inc. in preparing the book for publication. Dan Kaveney at Prentice Hall provided a constant source of advice, enthusiasm, encouragement, and support.

PAUL L. KNOX
LINDA McCARTHY

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Urbanization and Urban Geography
1(20)
Chapter Preview
2(1)
The Study of Urban Geography
2(4)
Space, Territoriality, Distance, and Place
2(1)
Approaches to Urban Geography
3(3)
Box 1.1 Census Definitions
6(3)
Urbanization: Processes and Outcomes
9(1)
Economic Change
9(1)
Box 1.2 Globalization and Cities
10(2)
Box 1.3 Long-Wave Economic Fluctuations and Urban Change
12(5)
Demographic Change
14(1)
Political Change
15(1)
Cultural Change
16(1)
Technological Change
16(1)
Environmental Change
16(1)
Social Change
16(1)
The Plan of the Book
17(1)
Follow Up
18(1)
Related Websites
19(2)
The Origins and Growth of Cities
21(32)
Chapter Preview
22(1)
The Definition of a City
22(1)
Box 2.1 A Summary of Childe's Characteristics of Urban Civilization
23(1)
Preconditions for Urbanization
23(1)
Theories of Urban Origins
23(2)
Agricultural Surplus
23(1)
Hydrological Factors
24(1)
Population Pressures
24(1)
Trading Requirements
24(1)
Defense Needs
24(1)
Religious Causes
24(1)
A More Comprehensive Explanation
24(1)
Urban Origins
25(2)
Mesopotamia
25(1)
Egypt
26(1)
The Indus Valley
26(1)
Northern China
26(1)
Mesoamerica
26(1)
Internal Structure of the Earliest Cities
27(1)
Box 2.2 Internal Structure of the Earliest Cities
27(4)
Urban Expansion from the Regions of Urban Origin
31(1)
Box 2.3 The Silk Road: Long-Distance Trade and Urban Expansion
32(2)
The Roots of European Urban Expansion
34(10)
Greek Cities
34(1)
Roman Cities
35(2)
Dark Ages
37(2)
Urban Revival in Europe During the Medieval Period
39(4)
Urban Expansion and Consolidation During the Renaissance and Baroque Periods
43(1)
Box 2.4 Hanseatic League Cities
44(2)
Urbanization and the Industrial Revolution
46(1)
Box 2.5 Manchester: Shock City of European Industrialization
47(3)
Box 2.6 Residential Segregation in Mid-Nineteenth Century Glasgow, Scotland
50(1)
Follow Up
50(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
51(1)
Related Websites
51(2)
The Foundations of the American Urban System
53(26)
Chapter Preview
54(1)
Frontier Urbanization
54(2)
The Mercantile Epoch (1790--1840)
56(3)
Box 3.1 Vance's Mercantile Model
59(2)
Early Industrial Expansion and Realignment (1840--1875)
61(1)
Box 3.2 Immigrant Housing Conditions and the American City, 1840--1875
62(6)
Some Principles of Urban Growth
65(1)
Interpreting and Analyzing the Urban Hierarchy and the Central Place System
65(1)
The Rank-Size Rule
65(1)
Innovation and Urban Growth
66(1)
Central Place Theory
66(2)
Beyond Consumer Hinterlands
68(1)
The Organization of Industry (1875--1920)
68(6)
Understanding and Analyzing Uneven Urban Development
70(1)
Urban-Industrial Growth as a Self-Propelling Process
71(1)
Modifying Processes
71(3)
Early Fordism, the Automobile Era, Suburban Infill, and the Great Depression (1920--1945)
74(2)
A Critical Turn for Urbanization: The Depression and Macroeconomic Management
75(1)
Follow Up
76(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
77(1)
Related Websites
77(2)
Urban Systems in Transition
79(36)
Chapter Preview
80(1)
Freeways, Regional Decentralization, and Metropolitan Consolidation (1945--1972)
80(2)
Economic Crisis and Neo-Fordist Urban Restructuring (1972--1983)
82(4)
Urban Distress
84(2)
Neo-Fordist Economic Restructuring and the Emergence of ``Informational'' Cities (1983--Present)
86(3)
Box 4.1 The Digital Divide and Splintering Urbanism in the United States
89(6)
Globalization, Splintering Urbanism, and Uneven Urban Development
89(2)
Economic Functions within the Urban Hierarchy
91(1)
World Cities
92(2)
Regional Control Centers
94(1)
Specialized Producer-Service Centers
94(1)
Dependent Centers
95(1)
Box 4.2 Variations in the Quality of Life within the U.S. Urban System
95(1)
Box 4.3 Contemporary European Urbanization
96(13)
Demographic and Social Change in the Postwar Urban Systems
100(1)
The Baby Boomers
100(1)
The Post-Boomers/Young Adults
101(1)
The Elderly
102(4)
The New Immigrants
106(1)
Concepts of Urban System Change: Counterurbanization, Deurbanization, and Reurbanization
106(3)
Box 4.4 The Deurbanization Scenario in the United States?
109(3)
Follow Up
112(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
112(1)
Related Websites
113(2)
The Foundations of Urban Form and Land Use
115(24)
Chapter Preview
116(1)
The Mercantile City (Before 1840)
116(1)
The Pedestrian City
116(1)
Models of the Mercantile City
117(1)
The Early Industrial City (1840--1875)
117(4)
Urbanization and the Public Interest
118(1)
Instruments of Change: Horsecars and Railroads
119(1)
Horsecars
119(1)
Railroads
120(1)
The Industrial City (1875--1920)
121(8)
Economic Specialization and the Reorganization of Urban Space
122(1)
Framing the City: Networked Infrastructures
123(2)
The Emergence of Land Use Zoning Laws
125(1)
The Suburban Explosion: Streetcar Suburbs
126(1)
Rapid Transit
127(1)
Mass Transport and Real Estate Development
128(1)
Urban Structure in the Industrial Era
129(5)
Central Business Districts
129(1)
Department Stores and Shopping Districts
129(1)
Downtown Office Districts
130(1)
Warehouse Zones
130(1)
City Halls and Civic Pride
131(1)
The Spatial Organization of CBDs
131(1)
Land Values and Urban Land Use
132(1)
Sectors and Zones
133(1)
Box 5.1 The Bid-Rent Theory of Urban Land Use
134(2)
Filtering and Vacancy Chains
136(1)
Follow Up
136(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
137(1)
Related Websites
137(2)
Changing Metropolitan Form
139(32)
Chapter Preview
140(1)
Suburban Infill (1920--1945)
140(10)
Fordism
140(1)
Paving the way for Suburbanization
141(1)
Parkways
141(1)
The Decline of Mass Transit
142(1)
Patterns of Suburban Growth
142(1)
Automobile Suburbs
142(1)
Planned Suburbs
143(3)
Suburbanization and Federal Policy
146(2)
Suburbanization of Commerce and Industry
148(1)
New Patterns of Land Use
149(1)
Freeways and Metropolitan Sprawl (1945--1972)
150(8)
The Preconditions for Sprawl
150(1)
The Fordist Suburb
151(4)
Suburban Production and Consumption Spaces
155(1)
Central City Land Use
155(3)
Neo-Fordist Development (1973--Present)
158(5)
Splintering Urbanism
158(1)
The Polycentric Metropolis
158(4)
The End of ``Suburbia''
162(1)
Box 6.1 Boomburbs and ``Generica''
163(1)
Box 6.2 Japanese Cities: Tokyo and the Tokaido Megalopolis
164(2)
Box 6.3 Australian Edge Cities?
166(2)
Follow Up
168(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
169(1)
Related Websites
169(2)
Urbanization in the Less Developed Countries
171(26)
Chapter Preview
172(1)
Urbanization Trends and Projections: The Less Developed Countries in Global Context
172(1)
Box 7.1 Core, Semi-Periphery, and Periphery in the World-System
173(3)
Factors Promoting Urban Growth
176(1)
Theories of Urbanization and Economic Development
177(4)
Modernization Theories: The Developmental Approach
177(2)
Urban Bias and Underdevelopment
179(2)
Box 7.2 A Model of Peripheral Urbanization
181(1)
New Models from the Less Developed Countries: Opportunities for Development
182(1)
A Historical Perspective on Colonial Urbanization
182(1)
Box 7.3 Delhi: The Evolution of an Imperial City
183(6)
Indigenous Urbanization at the Eve of the European Encounters
187(1)
Mercantile Colonialism
188(1)
Industrial Colonialism
189(1)
Late Colonialism
189(1)
Box 7.4 Generalized Model of the Coevolution of Transportation Networks and Urban Hierarchies in a Colonial Context
189(4)
Early Independence
191(1)
Neocolonialism
192(1)
Overurbanization and Megacities
193(1)
Follow Up
194(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
195(1)
Related Websites
195(2)
Urban Form and Land Use in the Less Developed Countries
197(28)
Chapter Preview
198(1)
Patterns of Urban Form and Land Use
198(6)
Latin American Cities
198(5)
African Cities
203(1)
Box 8.1 South African Cities
204(5)
Islamic Cities
206(3)
Box 8.2 Contemporary Islamic Cities and the Imprints of Globalization
209(9)
South Asian Cities
209(2)
Southeast Asian Cities
211(4)
East Asian Cities
215(3)
Box 8.3 Shanghai and the Pudong New Area---The ``Dragon Head'' of China's Economy?
218(2)
Box 8.4 Hong Kong's Extended Metropolitan Region: Foreign Direct Investment and Regional Development in the Pearl River Delta
220(2)
Follow Up
222(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
223(1)
Related Websites
223(2)
Urban Problems and Responses in the Less Developed Countries
225(20)
Chapter Preview
226(1)
Urban Problems
226(7)
Poverty
226(3)
Inadequate Housing
229(2)
Lack of Urban Services
231(2)
Box 9.1 HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan African Cities
233(3)
Transportation Problems
233(1)
Environmental Degradation
234(2)
Box 9.2 How Rationing Can Backfire: The ``Day Without a Car'' Regulation in Mexico City
236(1)
Response to the Problems of Urbanization
237(3)
Sustainable Urban Development
237(1)
The ``Globalization Paradox'' and Recent Changes in Urban Governance
238(2)
Box 9.3 Different Levels of Participation in Urban Policy-Making and Implementation
240(1)
Box 9.4 Urban Social Movements and the Role of Women
241(1)
Follow Up
242(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
243(1)
Related Websites
243(2)
The City as Text: Architecture and Urban Design
245(28)
Chapter Preview
246(1)
Architecture and the Dynamics of Urban Change
246(2)
Architecture and Exchange Value
246(1)
Architecture and the Circulation of Capital
246(1)
Architecture and Legitimation
247(1)
Meaning and Symbolism
247(1)
Architecture Versus ``Mere Building''
247(1)
The Style of Production/The Production of Style
248(22)
Arcadian Classicism and the ``Middle Landscape''
248(1)
Public Parks
249(1)
Commercial Confusion
249(1)
Beaux Arts and the City Beautiful
250(2)
The American Way: Skyscrapers
252(2)
Modernism: Architecture as Social Redemption
254(1)
Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau
254(1)
The Early Modernists
254(1)
The Bauhaus and the Modern Movement
255(1)
Le Corbusier
256(2)
An American Response
258(1)
The International Style and Late Modernism
259(2)
The Critique of Modernism
261(2)
The Postmodern Interlude
263(1)
Postmodernism and Neo-Fordism
264(1)
Packaged Landscapes
265(1)
New (Retro) Urbanism
266(1)
Historic Preservation
267(1)
Design for Dystopia
268(1)
Fortress L.A.
269(1)
Follow Up
270(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
271(1)
Related Websites
271(2)
The Urban Development Process
273(22)
Chapter Preview
274(1)
Property, Location, Rent and Investment
274(1)
Box 11.1 Concepts of Rent
275(3)
A Typology of Investment in Land and Property
276(1)
Property as a Financial Asset
277(1)
The Structures of Building Provision
278(8)
City Makers
278(1)
Landowners
279(2)
Speculators
281(1)
Developers
281(3)
Builders
284(1)
Consumers
284(1)
Real Estate Agents, Financiers, and Other Facilitators
284(1)
Government Agencies
284(1)
Market Responses of the Development Industry
285(1)
Box 11.2 Brownfield Redevelopment
286(1)
Box 11.3 Urban Development Is Less and Less a Local Activity
287(5)
New Products
288(4)
Follow Up
292(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
292(1)
Related Websites
293(2)
The Residential Kaleidoscope
295(46)
Chapter Preview
297(1)
Social Interaction and Residential Segregation
297(7)
Territoriality
298(1)
The Foundations of Residential Segregation
299(1)
Social Status
299(2)
Household Type
301(1)
Ethnicity
302(2)
Box 12.1 The Social Construction of Race
304(4)
Lifestyle
307(1)
Box 12.2 Social Exclusion and Migrant Workers in West European Cities
308(1)
Box 12.3 How Segregated Are Urban Neighborhoods?
309(2)
Interpretations of Residential Ecology
311(3)
The Chicago School: Human Ecology
311(2)
Criticisms of Human Ecology
313(1)
Box 12.4 Factorial Ecology
314(3)
Box 12.5 Residential and Economic Structure in European Cities
317(1)
Urbanization and Changing Social Structures
318(1)
Recent Changes to the Foundations of Residential Segregation
318(3)
New Divisions of Labor, New Household Types, and New Lifestyles
319(2)
Box 12.6 The Ethnoburb---A New Suburban Ethnic Settlement
321(6)
New Roles for Women
323(1)
New Patterns of Household Formation
324(1)
Increased Materialism and New Lifestyles
325(2)
The Spatial Isolation of the Vulnerable and Disadvantaged
327(1)
Box 12.7 ``Inconspicuous Consumption'' during the 1990s
327(4)
The New Mosaic: Attempting to Identify Urban ``Lifestyle'' Communities
331(5)
Box 12.8 GIS Marketing Applications Help Starbucks to Brew Up Better Locational Analyses
336(1)
Follow Up
337(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
338(1)
Related Websites
339(2)
How Neighborhoods Change
341(36)
Chapter Preview
342(1)
Neighborhood Change
342(3)
Redevelopment and Reinvestment
343(1)
Neighborhood Life Cycles
344(1)
Box 13.1 Stability and Change: A Typology of Neighborhoods
345(1)
Housing Markets
346(8)
Urbanization and the Tenure Transformation
347(2)
Housing Affordability
349(3)
Public Housing
352(1)
Housing Submarkets
353(1)
Box 13.2 Public and Private Housing in European Cities
354(3)
Box 13.3 Neighborhood Stability in West European Cities
357(1)
Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Change
358(6)
Rates of Turnover: Movers and Stayers
358(2)
The Impact of New Arrivals to the City
360(1)
Intraurban Moves
360(1)
Reasons for Moving
361(1)
Understanding Household Behavior: The Decision to Move
361(2)
Understanding Household Behavior: The Search for Alternative Places to Live
363(1)
Concepts that Link Mobility with Neighborhood Change
363(1)
Housing Market Gatekeepers, Bias, and Discrimination
364(6)
Real Estate Agents as Social Gatekeepers
365(2)
Mortgage Finance Managers as Social Gatekeepers
367(2)
Insurance Agents as Social Gatekeepers
369(1)
Putting It All Together: The Example of Gentrification
370(4)
Follow Up
374(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
374(1)
Related Websites
375(2)
Urbanization, Urban Life, and Urban Spaces
377(30)
Chapter Preview
378(1)
Social Life in Cities
378(1)
Theoretical Interpretations of Urban Life
379(1)
The ``Moral Order'' of City Life
379(1)
Box 14.1 ``Sex and the City'': Prostitution
380(5)
Anomie and Deviant Behavior
380(1)
Liberating Aspects of Urban Life
381(1)
Urbanism as a Way of Life
382(1)
The Public and Private Worlds of City Life
383(1)
Changing Metropolitan Form and New Forms of Urbanism
384(1)
Box 14.2 Homosexuality and the City
385(11)
Urban Villages
386(2)
Suburban Communality, ``Habitus,'' and Postmodern Lifestyles
388(1)
Community and Territory
389(1)
Cognition, Perception, and Mental Maps of the City
389(4)
Appraisive Images
393(2)
Lifeworlds and the ``Structuration'' of Social Life
395(1)
Box 14.3 Disability and the City
396(1)
Time-Space Routines
397(1)
Box 14.4 Structuration: Time and Space in Everyday Life
398(1)
Gendered Spaces: Women, Home, and Community
399(4)
The Creation of Women's Spaces
399(2)
Changing Roles, Changing Spaces
401(2)
Box 14.5 Discrimination by Design: Domestic Architecture and Gender Differences
403(1)
Follow Up
404(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
404(1)
Related Websites
405(2)
Problems of Urbanization
407(48)
Chapter Preview
408(1)
Problem? What Problem?
408(1)
From Haunts of Vice to Gang Wastelands---and Back
409(4)
Problems of the Early Industrial City
409(1)
Problems of the Industrial City
410(2)
Problems of the Fordist Era
412(1)
Problems of the ``Neo-fordist'' Era
412(1)
Slums and Poverty Areas
413(4)
The Cycle of Poverty
414(2)
Poverty Areas
416(1)
Box 15.1 Poverty, Stress, and Civil Disorder
417(9)
Dual Cities?
424(2)
Criminal Violence
426(2)
Spatial Patterns
427(1)
Box 15.2 A Profile of Drug Indicators: Washington, D.C.
428(1)
Box 15.3 Crime and Corruption in the Cities of the Russian Federation
429(3)
The Effects of Crime on Urbanization and Urban Life
430(2)
Box 15.4 Terrorism and Cities
432(2)
Homelessness
434(5)
The Causes of Homelessness
436(3)
Infrastructure and Environmental Problems
439(4)
Water Supply Problems
440(2)
Air Pollution
442(1)
Box 15.5 Lower Manhattan Air Quality Following the Collapse of the Twin Towers
443(2)
Infrastructure Crisis
445(1)
Box 15.6 High-Speed Rail in an Integrating Europe
445(5)
Box 15.7 London's Traffic Congestion Charge
450(1)
Follow Up
451(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
452(1)
Related Websites
453(2)
The Politics of Change: Urbanization and Urban Governance
455(40)
Chapter Preview
456(1)
Box 16.1 Urban Governance
456(1)
Laissez-Faire: Government and Politics in the Mercantile City (1790 to 1840)
456(2)
Municipal Socialism and the Rise of Machine Politics (1840--1875)
458(1)
Boosterism and the Politics of Reform (1875--1920)
459(4)
The Progressive Era
460(2)
Annexation
462(1)
Metropolitan Fragmentation and the Formation of Progrowth Coalitions (1920--1945)
463(4)
The Consequences of Metropolitan Fragmentation
463(2)
The Urban Legacies of the New Deal
465(2)
Cities as Growth Machines and Service Providers (1945--1973)
467(5)
Growth Machines and Urban Renewal
467(3)
Backlash: Grassroots Activism and Protest
470(1)
Black Power and Black Politics
471(1)
Box 16.2 Milwaukee Demolishes the ``Freeway to Nowhere''
472(3)
Reform: The Struggle for Social Justice and Spatial Equity
472(1)
Reapportionment
473(1)
Fragmentation Compounded: Special Districts
474(1)
Social Justice and Spatial Equity in Municipal Service Delivery
474(1)
Fiscal Crisis and Entrepreneurial Politics (1973--Present)
475(2)
Fiscal Crisis
476(1)
Box 16.3 Tax Increment Financing (TIF)
477(2)
Fiscal Retrenchment
478(1)
Box 16.4 America's Ailing Central Cities
479(7)
The Privatized City
480(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Privatization
481(1)
Crisis? What Crisis? Civic Entrepreneurialism and the Politics of Image
482(1)
Strategies for Urban Economic Development
483(2)
The Politics of Packaging
485(1)
Box 16.5 Urban Regeneration in London's Docklands
486(2)
Architectural Convergence and Economic Volatility
487(1)
Conceptual and Theoretical Perspectives on Governance, Politics, and Urban Change
488(4)
The Structure of Local Power
488(2)
The Role of the Local State
490(1)
Patterns of Local Conflict
491(1)
Follow Up
492(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
493(1)
Related Websites
493(2)
Urban Policy and Planning
495(30)
Chapter Preview
496(1)
The Roots of Urban Policy and Planning
496(1)
Themes and Perspectives
497(1)
Box 17.1 The Visible Legacy of Urban Policy and Planning in European Cities
497(2)
The Beginning: Philanthropy and Reform
499(8)
Early European Traditions
499(1)
Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City Concept
500(2)
Patrick Geddes and Scientific Planning
502(1)
North America: Jacob Riis and the Tenement Commissions
503(1)
Progressive Era Reforms
503(1)
Settlement Houses
504(1)
The Park Movement
505(1)
The City Beautiful Movement
506(1)
The City Practical
507(1)
The New Deal
507(2)
Fordist Era Policy and Planning
509(2)
Europe: Planning for Renewal
509(1)
The United States: Planning for Growth
509(2)
The Courts and Urban Policy in the United States
511(1)
Box 17.2 Planning the Socialist City in Eastern Europe
511(3)
School Desegregation
512(1)
Restrictive Covenants
512(1)
Civil Rights
512(1)
Federal Policy Initiatives
512(1)
Evangelical Bureaucrats
513(1)
Neo-Fordist Policy and Planning
514(3)
Neoliberal Approaches to Policy and Planning
514(1)
The Property Rights Movement
515(1)
Planning as Dealmaking
515(1)
Mixed-Use Developments and Cluster Zoning
516(1)
Splintering Urbanism and the Artful Fragment: Postmodern Planning
516(1)
Box 17.3 Competitive Regionalism
517(1)
Place Marketing
518(1)
Planning for Healthy and Livable Cities
518(2)
Sustainability and Green Urbanism
519(1)
Smart Growth
519(1)
Metropolitan Governance and Planning
520(1)
Box 17.4 Metropolitan Governance in the Twin Cities
520(2)
Follow Up
522(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
523(1)
Related Websites
523(2)
Urban Futures
525(12)
Chapter Preview
526(1)
A Perspective on Future Urban Change
526(1)
Economic Change
527(3)
The Globalization of the World Economy
527(2)
The Next Economic Swings
529(1)
Demographic Change
530(1)
Social Change
531(1)
Cultural Change
531(1)
Political Change
531(1)
Future Visions
532(3)
The Volatility of Urban Systems
532(1)
Metropolitan Form
533(1)
Persistent Problems
534(1)
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
535(1)
Related Websites
536(1)
Notes 537(22)
Glossary 559(19)
Credits 578(5)
Index 583

Excerpts

Towns and cities are in constant flux. They are hives of industry and crucibles of social, cultural, and political change, where there is always something happening. At times, circumstances accelerate the restlessness of urban change, with the result that the function, form, and appearance of cities are transformed. Such was the case a hundred years ago, when a combination of economic, social, and technological changes were turning cities in Europe and America inside out and upside down, forging, in the process, the physical, economic, and political framework for the evolution of the "modern" city.We are currently living through another phase of transformation, this time involving global processes of economic, cultural, and political change. Within the cities of the developed world, the classic mosaic of central city neighborhoods has become blurred as cleavages of income, race, and family status have been fragmented by new lifestyle and cultural preferences. The long-standing distinction between central cities and suburbs has become less and less straightforward as economic reorganization has brought about a selectiverecentralization of commercial and residential land uses in tandem with a selectivedecentralization of commerce and industry. Outlying centers big enough to be called "edge cities" and "boomburbs" have appeared, as if from nowhere.Meanwhile, cities in less developed countries have grown at unprecedented rates, with distinctive processes of urbanization creating new patterns of land use and posing new sets of problems. A pressing problem today for many less developed countries is a process of overurbanization in which cities are growing more rapidly than the jobs and housing that they can sustain. There has been a "quartering" of cities into spatially partitioned, compartmentalized residential enclaves. Luxury homes and apartment complexes correspond with an often dynamic formal sector of the economy that offers well-paid jobs and opportunities; these contrast sharply with the slums and squatter settlements of people working in the informal sector--in jobs not regulated by the state--who are disadvantaged by a lack of formal education and training and the often rigid divisions of labor shaped by gender, race, and ethnicity.Urban geography allows us to address these trends, to relate them to our own individual lives and concerns, and to speculate on how they play a role in other fields of study such as economics, history, sociology, and planning. The study of urban geography can help us better understand the marketplace and appreciate the interdependencies involved in local, national, and international economic development. It can provide us with an appreciation of history and the relationships among art, economics, and society. It can illuminate the interplay of science and technology with economic and social change, reveal important dimensions of race and gender, raise important issues of social inequality, and point to important lessons for governance and policy. Most of all, of course, it can help us to understand, analyze, and interpret the landscapes, economies, and communities of towns and cities around the world.In this book we attempt to capture the changes in the nature and outcomes of urbanization processes as well as the development of new ways of thinking about urban geography. A dynamic approach to the study of urban geography is the most distinctive feature of the book: unraveling the interlocking processes of urbanization to present a vivid and meaningful explanation of constantly changing urban geographies. An important advantage of such an approach is that it provides a framework that is able to capture recent changes while addressing much of the "traditional" subject matter of urban geography. The dynamic approach also allows for the integration of theory with fact. In this book, key concepts and theories are presented in relation to pr


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...