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# Using Stata for Quantitative Analysis

**by**Kyle C. Longest

### 9781412997119

1412997119

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12/7/2011

SAGE Publications, Inc

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## Summary

ááááUsing Stata for Statistical Analysis is a supplemental text for undergraduate and graduate level courses involving research methods and statistical analysis. The manual will be written so thatáaáwide variety of fields that offer such courses would be able to adopt it.áInstructors most likely to adopt would include sociology, political science, economics, and psychology. These fields share a relatively similar approach to quantitative analysis and are all part of the trend towards using Stata as their primary statistical program.ááááááááLongest proposes to teach the language of Stata from an intuitive perspective, furthering studentsÃ overall retention, allowing for a student with no experience in statistical software to be able toásit down and be working with data in a very short amount of time.Features and Benefitsáááá-Stata screen shots provided throughout chapters to aid student comprehensionáááá-Examples of commands and procedures using real data from the General Social Survey will be provided.áááá-'A Closer Look' boxes (similar to Frankfort-Nachmias) will provide additional information on more ááá advanced topics.áááá-Self-teaching style will allow novice Stata users ability to complete a basic quantitative research ááá project from start to finish.áááá- Exercises at ends of chapters will have answers provided to help students master Stata

## Table of Contents

Preface | p. ix |

Motivation and Purpose | p. ix |

About the National Study of Youth and Religion | p. x |

A Note on Versions | p. xi |

A Note on Notation | p. xi |

References | p. xii |

Acknowledgments | p. xiii |

Foundations for Working with Stata | p. 1 |

Getting to Know Stata 12 | p. 2 |

What You See | p. 2 |

Getting Started With Data Files | p. 5 |

Opening and Saving Stata Data Files | p. 5 |

Data Browser and Editor | p. 7 |

Entering Your Own Data | p. 10 |

Using Different Types of Data Files in Stata | p. 10 |

Types of Variables in Data Files | p. 13 |

Exercises | p. 16 |

The Essentials | p. 17 |

Intuition and Stata Commands | p. 17 |

The Structure of Stata Commands | p. 19 |

Command | p. 20 |

Variables | p. 20 |

if Statements | p. 20 |

Options | p. 21 |

Executing a Command Using the Command Window | p. 21 |

The 5 Essential Commands | p. 21 |

tabulate | p. 22 |

summary | p. 28 |

generate | p. 29 |

replace (if) | p. 35 |

recode | p. 43 |

Nonessential, Everyday Commands | p. 48 |

rename | p. 48 |

drop/keep (if) | p. 48 |

describe | p. 50 |

display | p. 51 |

set more off | p. 52 |

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter | p. 52 |

Exercises | p. 54 |

Do Files and Data Management | p. 55 |

What Is a Do File? | p. 56 |

Opening and Saving Do Files | p. 57 |

Translation From the Command Window | p. 58 |

Getting the Most Out of Do Files | p. 66 |

Data Management | p. 69 |

Working With Labels | p. 69 |

Missing Data | p. 74 |

Using String Variables | p. 80 |

Saving Results | p. 83 |

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter | p. 86 |

Exercises | p. 87 |

Quantitative Analysis with Stata | p. 89 |

Descriptive Statistics | p. 90 |

Frequency Distributions | p. 91 |

Histograms, Bar Graphs, and Pie Charts | p. 97 |

Measures of Central Tendency and Variability | p. 102 |

Box Plots | p. 107 |

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter | p. 110 |

Exercises | p. 111 |

Relationships Between Nominal and Ordinal Variables | p. 113 |

Cross-Tabulations | p. 113 |

Chi-Square Test | p. 122 |

Measures of Association | p. 124 |

Elaboration | p. 126 |

Multivariate Bar Graphs | p. 130 |

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter | p. 134 |

Exercises | p. 135 |

Relationships Between Different Measurement Levels | p. 137 |

Testing Means | p. 138 |

Confidence Intervals | p. 139 |

Testing a Specific Value (One-Sample t Test) | p. 140 |

Testing the Mean of Two Groups (Independent-Samples t Test) | p. 141 |

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | p. 144 |

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter | p. 146 |

Exercises | p. 147 |

Relationships Between Interval-Ratio Variables | p. 148 |

Correlation | p. 148 |

Scatterplots | p. 150 |

Linear Regression | p. 156 |

Multiple Linear Regression | p. 160 |

Dichotomous (Dummy) Variables and Linear Regression | p. 162 |

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter | p. 165 |

Exercises | p. 166 |

Enhancing Your Command Repertoire | p. 167 |

Stata Help Files | p. 167 |

Ways to Search and Access | p. 168 |

Structure and Language | p. 171 |

Advanced Convenience Commands | p. 175 |

tab, gen(newvar) | p. 175 |

egen | p. 178 |

mark and markout | p. 181 |

alpha, gen(newvar) | p. 183 |

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter | p. 185 |

Exercises | p. 185 |

Appendix: Getting to Know Stata 11 | p. 187 |

Chapter Exercise Solutions | p. 201 |

"How To" Index | p. 221 |

About the Author | p. 225 |

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