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Vertebrates : Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution,9780072528305
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Vertebrates : Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780072528305

ISBN10:
0072528303
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
5/2/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math

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Summary

This one-semester text is designed for an upper-level majors course. Vertebrates features a unique emphasis on function and evolution of vertebrates, complete anatomical detail, and excellent pedagogy. Vertebrate groups are organized phylogenetically, and their systems discussed within such a context. Morphology is foremost, but the author has developed and integrated an understanding of function and evolution into the discussion of anatomy of the various systems.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction
1(46)
Comparative Verrtebrate Morphology
1(2)
Designs of Students
2(1)
Vertebrate Design---Form and Function
3(1)
Grand Design
3(1)
Historical Predecessors---Evolution
3(7)
The Process behind the Change
4(1)
Linnaeus
4(1)
Naturalists
5(1)
J-B. de Lamarck
5(1)
Acquired Characteristics
6(1)
Upward to Perfection
6(1)
Natural Selection
7(1)
A. R. Wallace
7(1)
Charles Darwin
8(1)
Critics and Controversy
9(1)
Historical Predecessors---Morphology
10(3)
Georges Cuvier
10(1)
Richard Owen
11(2)
Why Are There No Flying Elephants?
13(1)
Morphological Concepts
14(4)
Similarities
14(2)
Symmetry
16(1)
Segmentation
16(2)
Evolutionary Morphology
18(2)
Function and Biological Role
18(1)
Preadaptation
18(2)
Evolution as Remodeling
20(1)
Phylogeny
20(7)
Of Bean Stalks and Bushes
20(2)
Simplification
22(1)
Patterns of Phylogeny
22(1)
Grades and Clades
23(4)
Paleontology
27(12)
Fossilization and Fossils
27(3)
Recovery and Restoration
30(3)
From Animal to Fossil
33(2)
Dating Fossils
35(1)
Stratigraphy
35(1)
Index Fossils
35(1)
Radiometric Dating
35(1)
Geological Ages
35(4)
Tools of the Trade
39(6)
The Question
39(1)
The Function
40(3)
The Biological Role
43(2)
Overview
45(2)
Origin of Chordates
47(33)
Chordate Phylogeny
47(2)
Chordate Characteristics
49(4)
Notochord
49(2)
Pharyngeal Slits
51(1)
Endostyle or Thyroid Gland
52(1)
Dorsal and Tubular Nerve Cord
52(1)
Postanal Tail
52(1)
Chordate Body Plan
52(1)
Protochordates
53(18)
Hemichordata
54(1)
Enteropneusta---``Acorn Worms''
55(2)
Pterobranchia
57(1)
Hemichordate Phylogenetic Affinities
58(1)
Urochordata
58(2)
Ascidiacea---``Sea Squirts''
60(1)
Larvacea (Appendicularia)
61(3)
Thaliacea
64(1)
Cephalochordata
65(5)
Overview of Protochordates
70(1)
Chordate Origins
71(6)
Cephalochordates from Annelids and Arthropods
71(1)
Cephalochordates from Echinoderms
72(1)
The Evidence
72(1)
Appearance of Chordate Characteristics
73(1)
Selective Advantage
73(1)
Larval Echinoderm to Chordate Tadpole
74(1)
The Critics
75(1)
Phylogeny, Paedomorphism, and Origins
75(2)
Overview
77(3)
The Vertebrate Story
80(45)
Introduction
80(4)
Innovations
81(1)
Vertebral Column
81(1)
Head
82(1)
Origin of Vertebrates
82(1)
Step 1: Prevertebrate
82(1)
Step 2: Agnathan
83(1)
Step 3: Gnathostome
83(1)
The Controversial Calcichordates
84(1)
Vertebrate Classification
84(1)
Agnathans
84(8)
Living Agnathans
86(1)
Myxinoidea
86(1)
Petromyzontida
86(1)
Early Vertebrate Fossils
86(1)
Conodonts
87(2)
Ostracoderms
89(1)
Pteraspidomorpha
89(1)
Other Ostracoderms
89(2)
Overview of Agnathan Evolution
91(1)
Gnathostomes
92(4)
Placodermi
93(1)
Chondrichthyes
93(2)
Elasmobranchii---Sharks and Rays
95(1)
Holocephali---Chimaeras
95(1)
Teleostomi
96(5)
Acanthodii
96(1)
Osteichthyes
96(2)
Actinopterygii
98(1)
Sarcopterygii
99(2)
Overview of Fish Phylogeny
101(1)
Tetrapods
101(5)
Primitive Tetrapods
102(1)
Labyrinthodonts
102(2)
Lepospondyls
104(1)
Lissamphibia-Modern Amphibians
105(1)
Urodela (Caudata)
105(1)
Salientia (Anura)
106(1)
Gymnophiona (Apoda)
106(1)
Amniotes
106(19)
Stem--Amniotes
108(1)
Sauropsids
108(1)
Mesosaurs
108(1)
Reptilia
108(8)
Synapsida
116(1)
Pelycosauria
117(1)
Therapsida
117(3)
Mammalia
120(5)
Biological Design
125(33)
Introduction: Size and Shape
125(3)
Size
128(3)
Relationships among Length, Area, and Volume
128(2)
Surface Area
130(1)
Volume and Mass
130(1)
Shape
131(3)
Allometry
131(1)
Transformation Grids
132(2)
On the Consequences of Being the Right Size
134(1)
Biomechanics
134(18)
Fundamental Principles
135(1)
Basic Quantities---Length, Time, and Mass
135(1)
Units
136(1)
Derived Quantities---Velocity, Acceleration, Force, and Relatives
136(1)
Reference Systems
137(1)
Center of Mass
137(1)
Vectors
137(1)
Basic Force Laws
138(1)
Free Bodies and Forces
138(1)
Torques and Levers
139(2)
Land and Fluid
141(1)
Life on Land: Gravity
141(1)
Life in Fluids
142(2)
Machines
144(1)
Strength of Materials
145(1)
Loads
146(1)
Biological Design and Biological Failure
146(1)
Tissue Response to Mechanical Stress
147(1)
Responsiveness of Bone
148(4)
Biophysics and Other Physical Processes
152(4)
Diffusion and Exchange
152(1)
Pressures and Partial Pressures
152(1)
Countercurrent, Concurrent, and Crosscurrent Exchange
153(1)
Optics
154(1)
Depth Perception
155(1)
Accommodation
155(1)
Overview
156(2)
Life History
158(51)
Introduction
158(1)
Early Embryology
159(13)
Fertilization
159(2)
Cleavage
161(1)
Amphioxus
161(1)
Fishes
162(1)
Amphibians
162(1)
Reptiles and Birds
162(1)
Mammals
163(1)
Overview of Cleavage
164(1)
Gastrulation and Neurulation
164(2)
Amphioxus
166(1)
Fishes
166(1)
Amphibians
167(1)
Reptiles and Birds
168(1)
Mammals
169(3)
Organogenesis
172(14)
Histogenesis
174(1)
Epithelium
174(2)
Covering and Lining Epithelium
176(1)
Glandular Epithelium
176(1)
Connective Tissues
177(1)
General Connective Tissues
177(1)
Special Connective Tissues
178(1)
Bone Development and Growth
179(1)
Endochondral Bone Development
179(2)
Intramembranous Bone Development
181(1)
Comparative Bone Histology
181(2)
Bone Remodeling and Repair
183(1)
Joints
184(2)
Neural Crest and Ectodermal Placodes
186(1)
Extraembryonic Membranes
186(3)
Reptiles and Birds
187(1)
Mammals
187(1)
Eutherian Placenta
188(1)
Other Placentae
189(1)
Overview of Early Embryonic Development
189(2)
Development of the Coelom and Its Compartments
191(3)
Maturation
194(3)
Metamorphosis
194(1)
Heterochrony
195(1)
Peramorphosis
195(2)
Paedomorphosis
197(1)
Ontogeny and Phylogeny
197(9)
Biogenetic Law
197(1)
von Baer's Law
198(1)
Overview of the Biogenetic Law
199(1)
Hox Genes and Their Kingdoms
200(1)
Egg to Adult
200(1)
Shaping Up: Positions and Parts
201(1)
Evolutionary Significance
201(1)
Epigenomics
202(1)
Induction
202(1)
Phylogeny
203(3)
Overview
206(3)
Integument
209(25)
Embryonic Origin
210(1)
General Features of the Integument
210(3)
Dermis
210(2)
Epidermis
212(1)
Phylogeny
213(12)
Integument of Fishes
213(1)
Primitive Fishes
214(1)
Chondrichthyes
214(1)
Bony Fishes
214(2)
Integument of Tetrapods
216(1)
Amphibians
216(1)
Reptiles
217(1)
Birds
218(3)
Mammals
221(4)
Specializations of the Integument
225(5)
Nails, Claws, Hooves
225(1)
Horns and Antlers
226(1)
Baleen
227(1)
Scales
228(1)
Dermal Armor
228(1)
Mucus
228(1)
Color
229(1)
Overview
230(4)
Skeletal System: The Skull
234(55)
Introduction
235(1)
Chondrocranium
235(3)
Embryology
235(3)
Splanchnocranium
238(4)
Embryology
238(1)
Origin of Jaws
239(1)
Types of Jaw Attachments
240(2)
Dermatocranium
242(1)
Parts of the Dermatocranium
242(1)
Dermal Bone Series
242(1)
Overview of Skull Morphology
243(3)
Braincase
243(3)
Jaws
246(1)
Hyoid Apparatus
246(1)
Cranial Kinesis
246(1)
Phylogeny of the Skull
247(28)
Agnathans
247(1)
Ostracoderms
247(1)
Cyclostomes
248(1)
Gnathostomes
249(1)
Fishes
249(7)
Early Tetrapods
256(2)
Primitive Amniotes
258(2)
Modern Reptiles
260(5)
Birds
265(2)
Synapsids
267(8)
Overview of Skull Function and Design
275(5)
Prey Capture
277(1)
Feeding in Water
277(3)
Feeding in Air
280(1)
Swallowing
280(1)
Overview
280(9)
Cranial Neural Crest
280(1)
Emergence of Mammals
281(1)
Evolutionary Modifications of Immature Forms: Akinesis in Mammals
282(3)
Composite Skull
285(4)
Skeletal System: The Axial Skeleton
289(31)
Introduction
289(1)
Basic Components
290(6)
Vertebrae
290(1)
Regions of the Vertebral Column
290(1)
Centra
290(2)
Ribs
292(2)
Sternum
294(1)
Gastralia
294(2)
Embryonic Development
296(2)
Fishes
296(1)
Tetrapods
297(1)
Phylogeny
298(13)
Fishes
298(1)
Agnathans
298(1)
Gnathostomes
298(5)
Tetrapods
303(1)
Early Tetrapods
303(5)
Amniotes
308(3)
Form and Function
311(7)
Fluid Environment
311(1)
Terrestrial Environment
312(1)
Design of Vertebrae
313(1)
Direction of the Neural Spine
313(1)
Height of the Neural Spine
314(1)
Regionalization of the Vertebral Column
315(3)
Overview
318(2)
Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton
320(45)
Introduction
320(1)
Basic Components
321(1)
Fins
321(1)
Limbs
321(1)
Origin of Paired Fins
322(3)
Gill-Arch Theory
322(1)
Fin-Fold Theory
323(1)
Embryonic Development of Tetrapod Limbs
324(1)
Phylogeny
325(11)
Fishes
325(1)
Agnathans
325(1)
Placoderms
326(1)
Chondrichthyans
326(2)
Acanthodians
328(1)
Bony Fishes
328(2)
Tetrapods
330(1)
Pectoral Girdle
330(3)
Pelvic Girdle
333(1)
Manus and Pes
333(3)
Evolution of the Appendicular System
336(6)
Dual Origin of the Pectoral Girdle
336(1)
Adaptive Advantage of Lobe Fins
337(4)
Onto the Land
341(1)
Form and Function
342(20)
Swimming
342(1)
Terrestrial Locomotion
342(1)
Early Gaits
342(1)
Early Modes of Locomotion
343(4)
Cursorial Locomotion
347(3)
Aerial Locomotion
350(10)
Origin of Bird Flight
360(1)
Fossorial Locomotion
360(2)
Overview
362(3)
The Muscular System
365(41)
Introduction
365(1)
Organization of Muscles
366(5)
Classification of Muscles
366(1)
Skeletal Muscle
367(1)
Cardiac Muscle
368(1)
Smooth Muscle
368(1)
Structure of Skeletal Muscles
368(2)
Tendons
370(1)
Basis of Muscle Contraction
370(1)
Resting and Active Muscle
370(1)
Molecular Mechanisms of Contraction
370(1)
Muscle Function
371(13)
Muscle Fibers
371(1)
Tension-Length Curves for a Single Muscle Fiber
371(1)
Properties of Muscle Fibers
371(2)
Muscle Organs and Fibers
373(1)
Whole Muscle Force Generation
373(1)
Tension-Length Curves for a Whole Muscle
374(2)
Graded Force
376(1)
Cross-Sectional Area
376(1)
Fiber Orientation
377(1)
Velocity of Shortening
377(1)
Distance of Shortening
378(1)
Bone-Muscle Lever Systems
378(2)
Sequencing of Muscle Actions
380(1)
Overview of Muscle Mechanics
381(1)
Muscle Actions
381(2)
Muscle Homologies
383(1)
Embryonic Origin of Muscles
384(3)
Postcranial Musculature
384(1)
Appendicular Musculature
384(1)
Axial Musculature
385(1)
Cranial Musculature
386(1)
Jaw and Pharyngeal Musculature
386(1)
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
386(1)
Comparative Anatomy
387(14)
Postcranial Musculature
387(1)
Axial Musculature
387(3)
Appendicular Musculature
390(6)
Cranial Musculature
396(1)
Branchiomeric Musculature
396(4)
Hypobranchial Musculature
400(1)
Overview
401(5)
The Respiratory System
406(39)
Introduction
406(3)
Respiratory Organs
409(5)
Gills
409(1)
Lungs
409(1)
Gas Bladders
409(1)
Cutaneous Respiratory Organs
410(1)
Accessory Air-breathing Organs
410(1)
Breathing and Embryos
411(3)
Ventilatory Mechanisms
414(3)
Cilia
414(1)
Muscular Mechanisms
414(1)
Water Ventilation: Dual Pump
414(1)
Air Ventilation: Buccal Pump
415(1)
Air Ventilation: Aspiration Pump
416(1)
Phylogeny
417(15)
Agnathans
417(2)
Elasmobranchs
419(1)
Bony Fishes
420(1)
Overview of Fish Respiration
420(1)
Gills
420(1)
Lungs and Gas Bladders
421(2)
Amphibians
423(1)
Amphibian Larvae
423(2)
Amphibian Adults
425(1)
Reptiles
426(1)
Mammals
427(1)
Ventilation
428(1)
Gas Exchange
429(1)
Birds
430(2)
Form and Function
432(5)
Patterns of Gas Transfer
432(1)
Rates of Gas Transfer
433(4)
Breathing in Water
437(1)
Breathing in Air
437(1)
Evolution of Respiratory Organs
437(5)
Acid-Base Regulation
437(1)
Ventilation
438(1)
Ciliary Pumps
438(1)
Muscular Pumps
439(1)
Water-to-Land Transition
439(1)
Air-breathing Organs
439(1)
Advantages of Movement to Land
439(1)
Air-breathing Mechanisms
440(1)
Bird Lungs and Air Sacs
441(1)
Overview
442(3)
The Circulatory System
445(51)
Introduction
445(1)
Cardiovascular System
446(42)
Blood
446(1)
Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries
446(1)
Arteries
447(1)
Hemodynamics of Circulation
447(1)
Veins
448(1)
Microcirculation
448(1)
Single and Double Circulation
449(1)
Embryonic Development of the Cardiovascular System
450(1)
Phylogeny of the Cardiovascular System
451(4)
Arterial Vessels
455(5)
Venous Vessels
460(7)
Hearts
467(1)
Basic Vertebrate Heart
467(2)
Fishes
469(3)
Amphibians
472(2)
Reptiles
474(7)
Birds and Mammals
481(1)
Cardiovascular System: Matching Design to Environmental Demands
481(3)
Accessory Air-breathing Organs
484(1)
Diving Birds and Mammals
484(1)
Heart Flow
484(1)
Ontogeny of Cardiovascular Function
485(1)
Fetal Circulation in Placental Mammals
485(1)
Changes at Birth
485(2)
Heat Transfer
487(1)
Lymphatic System
488(4)
Lymphatic Vessels
489(2)
Lymphatic Tissue
491(1)
Form and Function
491(1)
Overview
492(4)
The Digestive System
496(42)
Introduction
496(1)
Preview
497(1)
Components of the Digestive System
497(31)
Buccal Cavity
497(1)
Boundaries
497(1)
Palate
498(1)
Teeth
499(10)
Tongue
509(1)
Pharynx
510(3)
Alimentary Canal
513(2)
Esophagus
515(1)
Stomach
515(1)
Intestines
516(2)
Cloaca
518(1)
Specializations of the Alimentary Canal
518(2)
Vascularization of the Gastrointestinal Tract
520(1)
Fishes
520(1)
Tetrapods
521(3)
Associated Glands of Digestion
524(1)
Oral Glands
524(2)
Liver
526(1)
Pancreas
527(1)
Function and Evolution of the Digestive System
528(7)
Absorption
528(1)
Feces
528(1)
Mechanical Breakdown of Food
529(1)
Mastication
529(1)
Gizzards
529(1)
Chemical Breakdown of Food
529(1)
Gastric Fermentation
530(3)
Intestinal Fermentation
533(1)
Gastric versus Intestinal Fermenters
533(2)
Size and Fermentation
535(1)
Digesting Toxins
535(1)
Overview
535(3)
The Urogenital System
538(47)
Introduction
538(1)
Urinary System
538(18)
Structure of the Mammalian Kidney
538(2)
Embryonic Development
540(1)
Nephrotome to Nephric Tubules
540(1)
Tripartite Concept of Kidney Organization
541(3)
Kidney Phylogeny
544(1)
Fishes
544(1)
Tetrapods
545(1)
Kidney Function and Structure
546(1)
Excretion: Removing the Products of Nitrogen Metabolism
546(2)
Osmoregulation: Regulating Water and Salt Balance
548(7)
Evolution
555(1)
Preadaptation
555(1)
Origin of Vertebrates
555(1)
Reproductive System
556(27)
Structure of the Mammalian Reproductive System
556(1)
Embryonic Development
556(1)
Gonads and Gametes
556(2)
Reproductive Tracts
558(1)
Overview
558(2)
Female Reproductive System
560(1)
Ovary
560(1)
Genital Ducts
560(2)
Oviduct
562(1)
Uterus
563(2)
Male Reproductive System
565(1)
Testis
565(1)
Genital Ducts
565(3)
Copulatory Organs
568(4)
Cloaca
572(5)
Urinary Bladder
577(1)
Function and Evolution
578(1)
Potency and Fertility
578(1)
External and Internal Fertilization
579(2)
Delays in Gestation
581(2)
Overview
583(2)
The Endocrine System
585(33)
Survey of Endocrine Organs
585(20)
Thyroid Gland
585(1)
Structure and Phylogeny
585(2)
Function
587(2)
Ultimobranchial Body and Parathyroid Gland
589(1)
Ultimobranchial Body
589(1)
Parathyroid Gland
589(2)
Form and Function
591(1)
Adrenal Gland
591(1)
Structure and Phylogeny
591(3)
Function
594(1)
Pancreatic Islets
595(1)
Structure and Phylogeny
595(1)
Function
595(2)
Pituitary Gland
597(1)
Structure
597(1)
Phylogeny
597(3)
Function
600(3)
Gonads
603(1)
Pineal Gland
603(1)
Secondary Endocrine Organs
603(1)
Gastrointestinal Tract
604(1)
Kidneys
604(1)
Endocrine Coordination
605(10)
Mammalian Reproduction
605(1)
Male
605(1)
Female
606(6)
Metamorphosis in Frogs
612(1)
Fundamentals of Hormonal Control
613(1)
Functional and Structural Linkage
613(1)
Target Tissue Responses
614(1)
The Endocrine System and the Environment
614(1)
Evolution
615(1)
Overview
616(2)
The Nervous System
618(45)
Introduction
618(3)
Types of Cells within the Nervous System
618(1)
Neuroglia
618(1)
Neurons
619(1)
Transmission of Information
619(2)
Neurosecretory Cells
621(1)
Peripheral Nervous System
621(17)
Spinal Nerves
622(1)
Cranial Nerves
623(7)
Evolution
630(2)
Functions of the Peripheral Nervous System
632(1)
Spinal Reflexes
632(1)
The Autonomic Nervous System
633(5)
Central Nervous System
638(22)
Embryology
639(1)
Spinal Cord
639(3)
Spinal Reflexes
642(1)
Spinal Tracts
642(1)
Brain
643(1)
Phylogeny
643(1)
Form and Function
644(14)
Functional Associations of Parts of the Central Nervous System
658(2)
Overview
660(3)
Sensory Organs
663(43)
Introduction
663(1)
Components of a Sensory Organ
664(1)
General Sensory Organs
664(2)
Free Sensory Receptors
664(1)
Encapsulated Sensory Receptors
665(1)
Associated Sensory Receptors
665(1)
Proprioception
665(1)
Mechanisms of Perceiving Stimuli from General Sensory Receptors
666(1)
Special Sensory Organs
666(35)
Chemoreceptors
666(1)
Nasal Passages
667(2)
Vomeronasal Area
669(1)
Mouth
670(1)
Radiation Receptors
671(2)
Photoreceptors
673(11)
Infrared Receptors
684(1)
Mechanoreceptors
684(1)
Lateral Line System
685(1)
Vestibular Apparatus
686(2)
Auditory System
688(1)
Functions of the Ear
689(9)
Electroreceptors
698(1)
Structure and Phylogeny
698(1)
Form and Function
699(2)
Additional Special Sensory Organs
701(1)
Overview
701(5)
Conclusions
706(19)
Introduction
706(3)
Structural Analysis
709(1)
Functional Analysis
710(4)
How Does It Work?
710(1)
Functional Coupling, Functional Compromise
711(1)
Multiple Functions
712(1)
Performance
713(1)
Ecological Analysis
714(1)
Evolutionary Analysis
714(5)
Historical Constraints
714(1)
Primitive and Advanced
714(1)
Diversity of Type/Unity of Pattern
715(2)
Mosaic Evolution
717(1)
Morphology and Modules
717(2)
Mode and Tempo of Evolution
719(3)
Remodeling
720(1)
Embryonic Changes
721(1)
Hox Genes
721(1)
Evolutionary Significance
722(1)
The Promise of Vertebrate Morphology
722(3)
Appendix A 725(2)
Appendix B 727(3)
Appendix C 730(4)
Appendix D 734(4)
Glossary 738(14)
Credits 752(5)
Index 757


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