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Very Young Children with Special Needs, Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package,9780133399929
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Very Young Children with Special Needs, Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package

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This title is only available as a loose-leaf version with Pearson eText, or an electronic book.


Once again, the author team of Vikki F. Howard, Betty Fry Williams, Denielle Miller, and Estee Aiken have written a comprehensive introduction to early childhood special education and early intervention resource for professionals preparing to work with infants, toddlers and preschool children with disabilities and their families. Very Young Children with Special Needs: A Foundation for Educators, Families, and Service Providers, Loose Leaf Version, 5/e remains a foundational text that is practical, offering readers a thorough review of early intervention and early childhood special education, and the most detailed information available about the causes of disabling conditions in young children. Readers will be provided with “best practices” for supporting diverse families, five philosophical issues important to effective intervention and support to young children and their families, and unique coverage of typical child development across physical, emotional, language and cognitive domains.



0133399923 / 9780133399929 Very Young Children with Special Needs: A Foundation for Educators, Families, and Service Providers, Loose-Leaf Version with Pearson eText -- Access Card


Package consists of:   

0133112152 / 9780133112153 Very Young Children with Special Needs: A Foundation for Educators, Families, and Service Providers Loose Leaf Version

0133397874 / 9780133397871 Very Young Children with Special Needs: A Foundation for Educators, Families, and Service Providers, Pearson eText -- Access Card  

Author Biography

Vikki F. Howard began her career working with families with infants and toddlers in Eastern Ohio.  Later she served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Jamaica, serving families with very young children and school aged children with disabilities.  As a professor at Gonzaga University, Dr. Howard collaborated with Dr. Williams to develop an ECSE program.  She is author of many articles, chapters and funded grants associated with infants, toddlers and preschoolers with disabilities and their families.  Currently, she teaches at the University of Montana Western where she directs the special education program and collaborates with tribal colleges in Montana to deliver special education pre-service education.


Betty Fry Williams has over 30 years teaching in schools with very young children with disabilities and in higher education.  She is professor of education at Whitworth University in Spokane Washington, where she chairs the Special Education program and teaches courses in early childhood special education.  Her body of professional work reflect her interests in behavior analysis, methods of teaching infants, toddlers and preschoolers with disabilities and autism.


Denielle Miller retired from public school teaching after 25 years of serving children with special needs.  She taught students ages 3-21. Denielle received her BS and MA from Montana State University-Billings. She is currently working for Side-by-Side K-12 Consulting and for the Office of Public Instruction as a consultant for the Montana Behavior Initiative (MBI) and Response to Intervention (RTI). In addition, she provides professional development to Headstart teachers on several of Montana’s Native American reservations. Denielle trains and assists schools in setting up school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports and creating literacy rich environments. She is an adjunct professor in the special education department at the U of M Western.


Estee Aiken has worked in early childhood education for more than a decade across numerous states. She has spent the last five years educating pre-service teachers, predominantly in preparation for careers in the field of early childhood. In addition to her interest in the education of very young children, she also works with and conducts research with gifted children. Estee currently teaches in the Education Department at the University of Montana Western. 

Table of Contents


Part 1  Foundations

Chapter 1  Philosophy of Early Education                                                                 

The Importance of an Attitude of Science     

What Is an Attitude of Science?   

The History of Disability Rights     




What Is Meant by Personalization in Early Education and Intervention?    

The Implications of Personalization    

The Importance of Being Culturally Sensitive     

Population Trends    


Family Composition    

Summary on Diversity    

The Importance of Serving Children in the Context of a Family    

What Is a Family?    


The Importance of Working Collaboratively     

Close Up: The 2011 Annual Report of the Children’s Defense Fund

Teaming Models    

Collaboration in Early Intervention    

Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities: Relationship-Based Approaches

The Importance of Ethical Conduct and Advocacy    

Advocacy Issues    

How to Get Involved in Advocacy    

In Conclusion     

Study Guide Questions    


CHAPTER 2   Relationship-Based Teaming with Families                     

Close Up: Paraeducators in Special Education Programs

Relationship-Based Services to Families   

Facts Related to Understanding Families    

Parental Responses to the Diagnosis of a Disability    

Family Hardiness   

Barriers to Relationships    

Communication Between Parents and Professionals    

Active Listening    

Communicating Well    

Special Skills for Communicating with Parents at the Time of Diagnosis     

Conferencing with Parents    

Responses to Family Priorities     

Constraints and Conflicts    

Cultural Constraints    

Close Up: The Journey to Accepting Support

Formation of Collaborative Teams     

Teaming and IDEIA   

Responsibilities of Collaborative Teams    

In Conclusion     

Study Guide Questions    


Part 2  Human Development, Typical and Atypical

CHAPTER 3   Principles of Human Development                                       

Importance and Use of Knowledge of Human Development    

Prenatal Growth and Development     

Child Growth and Development     

Close Up: The Effect of War on Children in Iraq

Patterns of Growth    


Developmental Patterns   

Physical Growth    

Theories of Development    

Principles and Patterns of Development     

Infants Are Highly Competent Organisms    

Infants Are Socially Interactive    

Infants Are Active Learners   

Infant Development Is Multidimensional    

Developmental Sequencing Is Universal    

Skills Become More Specialized    

Plasticity Is a Phenomenon of Brain Development    

Critical Learning Periods Exist in Normal Development    

Infant Relationships Are the Key to Cognitive Development   

Children Undergo Several Transitions    

Individual Differences Exist Among Children    

Factors Influencing Development     

Family Structure    


Psychological Factors    




In Conclusion     

Study Guide Questions


CHAPTER 4   Human Development: Birth to Six                                         

Milestones of Development     

Motor Development     

Gross Motor Development    

Fine Motor Skills    

Language Development    

Language Form   

Morphological Development   

Language Content    

Language Use    

Factors Affecting Language Development    

Cognitive Development     

Theories of Cognition    

Social-Emotional Development     

Social Play    

Self-Help Development     

Independent Eating and Drinking Skills    

Dressing Skills    

Toileting Skills    

Personal Responsibility    

In Conclusion     

Study Guide Questions    


CHAPTER 5   Development and Risk During Prenatal, Natal, and Postnatal Stages                                                                                                    

Prenatal Growth and Development     

Effects of Prematurity on Body Systems    

Maternal Conditions Affecting Pregnancy Outcomes    

Preconceptual Maternal Conditions    

Prenatal Maternal Conditions    

Common Conditions of Gestation    

Maternal/Infant Natal Complications     

Prolapsed Cord/Entangled Cord    

Neonatal Conditions     

Hypoxic—Ischemic Perinatal Brain Injury   

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome    

Close Up: Why Does the United States Have Such a High Infant Mortality Rate?

Postnatal Conditions     


Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)    

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)    

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)   


Neutral Thermoregulation    

Intraventricular Hemmorhage (IVH)    

Apnea of Prematurity    


Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)    



Failure to Thrive    

Intervention for Infants Born Prematurely     

In Utero Toxins and Pregnancy Outcomes     

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome    

Prenatal Exposure to Drugs    

Implications for Infants and Children Prenatally Exposed to Drugs    

Chemical Toxic Exposure in Fetal Environment     

In Conclusion     

Study Guide Questions    


CHAPTER 6   Conditions Affecting the Neurological Function    

Diagnostic Tools     

X rays   

Computerized Axial Tomography    

Magnetic Resonance Imaging    

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy   

Functional Imaging    



Neurological Disabilities     

Cerebral Palsy    


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)    

Traumatic Brain Injury    

Close Up: The Promise of Stem Cell Research

Congenital Physical Malformations     

Neural Tube Defects    



In Conclusion     

Study Guide Questions   


CHAPTER 7   Inborn Variations of Development                                     


Cellular Activity of Genetics   

Single Gene Disorders    

Chromosome Disorders   

Multifactorial Disorders   

Prenatal Testing    

Gene Therapy   

Genetic Variations in Development     

Cystic Fibrosis    

Close Up: Designer Babies

Down Syndrome    

Fragile X Syndrome    

Muscular Dystrophy    


Sickle Cell Disease    

Turner Syndrome    

Syndromes with Unknown Causes     

Autism Spectrum Disorder   

Tourette Syndrome    

Physical Anomalies     

Congenital Heart Defects    

Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate    

In Conclusion     

Study Guide Questions    


CHAPTER 8   Sensory Impairments and Infections                                  

Hearing Impairments    

Hearing Process   

Hearing Loss    

Identification of Hearing Loss    

Developmental Implications and Resolutions    

Informing and Working with Parents    

Visual Impairments    

Visual Process    

Causes of Visual Impairment    

Close Up: Childhood Epidemics of the 21st Century

Developmental Implications and Resolutions    

Informing and Working with Parents    

Infections in Early Childhood     

Bacterial Infections    

Viral Infections    

Meningitis and Encephalitis    

In Conclusion     

Study Guide Questions    


Part 3  Educational Programs and Services

CHAPTER 9   Discretionary Programs for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs                                                                                     

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act: Public Law 108-446     

IDEIA, Part C Regulations     

Family-Centered Early Intervention    

Service Coordination    

Interagency Services    

Eligible Children    

Developmental Delay

Procedural Safeguards    


IDEIA Guidelines for Assessment    

Eligibility Determination    

Program Planning    

Close Up: Randomized Trial of Intensive Early Intervention for Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

Family Assessment    

Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Development    

Selecting IFSP Family-Centered Outcomes

A Sample IFSP    

Effective Family-Centered Early Intervention     

Evidence-Based Practice     

In Conclusion     

Study Guide Questions    


CHAPTER 10   Mandated Services for Young Children   

A Change of Perspective     

Parent Rights and Responsibilities     

The Individualized Education Program     

Present Levels of Academic and Functional Performance   

Annual Goals and Short-Term Objectives    

Guidelines for Developing Good Objectives    

Special Education and Related Services    

Least Restrictive Environment    

Other Considerations     

Instructional Methods    

Experiences and Activities    


The Physical Environment    

Material Adaptations   

Data Collection and Evaluation    

Assistive Technology    

Close Up: The Changing Culture of Childhood: A Perfect Storm

Supplementary Aids and Services    

Challenging Behavior    

Creating Quality IEPS     

Best Practices in Preschool Intervention     

Successful Inclusion    

In Conclusion    

Study Guide Questions    



Author Index                                                                                                                                                           

Subject Index

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