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Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia,9780323019880
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Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780323019880

ISBN10:
0323019889
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/28/2003
Publisher(s):
Mosby
List Price: $81.60
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Summary

This practical resource is a concise guide designed to prepare veterinary technicians to administer anesthesia in animals. It discusses essential topics such as preanesthetic preparation of the patient, induction procedures, monitoring animals' vital signs during the anesthetic period, and postoperative care. The operation of anesthetic machines and breathing circuits are described in detail, as well as: the actions and side effects of anesthetic agents; the physiology of respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure; emergency response; and specialized techniques such as local anesthesia, postoperative analgesia, and the use of muscle-paralyzing agents and ventilators. In addition to canine and feline anesthesia, this edition has added information on anesthesia of rodents, rabbits, and other animals used in research, plus a new section on anesthesia of cattle, horses, small ruminants and pigs. This is the only book on veterinary anesthesia written explicitly for technicians, providing detailed, essential information that technicians must know. Concepts are presented in a clear, readable, well-organized format with key points, learning objectives, and review questions. Health and Safety issues surrounding anesthesia are discussed and safety procedures are outlined, as required by OSHA. Emphasis is placed on appropriate response to emergencies, and provisions of the effective pain control. Effective learning features such as objectives, key points, and review questions, help reinforce key information. All drugs and procedures included throughout the book are fully are up-to-date. Clear, useful illustrations and tables highlight important facts and concepts. A solid balance of theory and application takes the reader from learning to real-world practice. Step-by-step Procedures boxes clarify the technician's role in anesthesia delivery. Notes throughout the text highlight important precautions and/or emergency interventions. A section on client education focuses on compliance with NPO instructions and age-related complications of anesthesia. New information is provided on the use of NSAID (nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs aspirin, ibuprofen) and opioid analgesics for pain control now accepted as an indispensable aspect of anesthesia. Expanded discussions of sophisticated monitoring instruments and equipment address capnography, pulse oximetry, blood pressure measurement, and electrocardiology. An expanded section on anesthestic agents includes newer drugs such as medetomidine (Domitor) seroflurane, and analgesics such as carprofen (Rimadyl) and meloxicam (Metacam). The new title, previously published as Small Animal Anesthesia and Analgesia, reflects this edition's expanded scope and inclusion of other species. A new chapter on large animal anesthesia focuses predominantly on horses and cows. A new chapter on exotics covers various exotic pets, with an emphasis on pocket pets and birds. New line drawings and photographs of new equipment and techniques for delivery bring the book up to date with advances in the field.

Author Biography

Diane McKelvey, BSc, DVM: Kamloops Veterinary Clinic Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada K. Wayne Hollingshead, MSc, DVM: Assistant Professor, Small Animal Medicine and Surgery Animal Health Technology The University College of the Cariboo Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

Table of Contents

The Preanesthetic Period
1(50)
Patient Evaluation
2(13)
Patient History
2(3)
Physical Examination
5(6)
Diagnostic Tests
11(3)
Classification of Patient Status
14(1)
Selection of the Anesthetic Protocol
15(2)
Factors that Influence Selection
15(2)
Preanesthetic Patient Care
17(7)
Withholding Food Before Anesthesia
17(1)
Correction of Preexisting Problems
18(1)
Intravenous Catheterization
18(6)
Other Preanesthetic Care
24(1)
Preanesthetic Agents
24(27)
Reasons for Use
25(2)
Anticholinergics (Parasympatholytics)
27(4)
Tranquilizers and Sedatives
31(1)
Phenothiazines
32(2)
Benzodiazepines
34(2)
Alpha-2 Agents
36(3)
Opioids
39(12)
General Anesthesia
51(68)
Definition of General Anesthesia
51(1)
Components of General Anesthesia
52(2)
Preanesthesia
52(1)
Induction
53(1)
Maintenance
53(1)
Recovery
53(1)
Safety of General Anesthesia
54(1)
Classical Stages and Planes of Anesthesia
55(4)
Stage I
56(1)
Stage II
56(1)
Stage III
56(2)
Stage IV
58(1)
Overview of Anesthetic Stages and Planes
58(1)
Induction Techniques and Agents
59(6)
Injectable Agents
59(3)
Inhalation Agents
62(3)
Monitoring during the Induction Period
65(1)
Endotracheal Intubation
65(10)
Advantages
66(1)
Problems
66(9)
Maintenance of Anesthesia
75(30)
Monitoring Vital Signs
76(6)
Use of Instruments to Monitor Vital Signs
82(8)
Determination of SaO2
90(7)
Reflexes and Other Indicators of Anesthetic Depth
97(6)
Judging Anesthetic Depth
103(2)
Recording Information During Anesthesia
105(1)
Patient Positioning and Comfort During Anesthesia
105(5)
Recovery from General Anesthesia
110(9)
Stages of Recovery
110(1)
Anesthetist's Role in the Recovery Period
110(9)
Anesthetic Agents and Techniques
119(46)
Comparison of Inhalation and Injectable Anesthesia
119(2)
Injectable Anesthetics
121(21)
Barbiturates
121(10)
Cyclohexamines
131(7)
Neuroleptanalgesia
138(1)
Propofol
138(3)
Etomidate
141(1)
Guaifenesin
141(1)
Inhalation Anesthetics
142(15)
Characteristics of an Ideal Agent
142(1)
Classes of Inhalation Agents
143(2)
Mechanism of Action
145(1)
Effect of Inhalation Agents on Vital Systems
145(1)
Distribution and Elimination
146(1)
Physical Properties
147(3)
Halothane
150(1)
Isoflurane
151(2)
Sevoflurane
153(1)
Methoxyflurane
154(1)
Other Halogenated Agents
155(1)
Nitrous Oxide
156(1)
Agents Used in the Postanesthetic Period
157(8)
Doxapram
158(7)
Anesthetic Equipment
165(52)
Endotracheal Tubes
166(4)
Anesthetic Machines and Breathing Circuits
170(2)
Components of the Anesthesia Delivery System
172(15)
Compressed Gas Supply
173(7)
Anesthetic Machine
180(1)
Breathing Circuit
181(6)
Vaporizers
187(7)
Precision Vaporizers
188(2)
Nonprecision Vaporizers
190(1)
VOC versus VIC
190(2)
Factors that Influence Vaporizer Function
192(2)
Operation of the Anesthetic Machine
194(13)
Rebreathing Systems
195(1)
Nonrebreathing Systems
195(4)
Choice of Rebreathing versus Nonrebreathing Systems
199(1)
Carrier Gas Flow Rates
200(5)
Safety Concerns with a Total Rebreathing System
205(2)
Care and Use of Anesthetic Equipment
207(10)
Daily Setup
207(1)
Ongoing Maintenance
207(10)
Workplace Safety
217(21)
Hazards of Waste Anesthetic Gas
217(14)
Short-Term Effects
218(1)
Long-Term Effects
218(2)
Assessment of Risk
220(2)
Reducing Exposure to Waste Anesthetic Gas
222(9)
Monitoring Waste Gas Levels
231(1)
Safe Handling of Compressed Gases
231(1)
Fire Safety Precautions
231(1)
Use and Storage of Compressed Gas Cylinders
231(1)
Accidental Exposure to Injectable Agents
232(6)
Anesthetic Problems and Emergencies
238(48)
Reasons Why Anesthetic Problems and Emergencies Arise
239(19)
Human Error
239(2)
Equipment Failure
241(3)
Anesthetic Agents
244(1)
Patient Factors
244(14)
Response to Anesthetic Problems and Emergencies
258(28)
Role of the Veterinary Technician in Emergency Care
258(1)
Emergency Situations that May Arise during Anesthesia
259(17)
Problems that May Arise in the Recovery Period
276(10)
Special Techniques
286(29)
Local Anesthesia
286(14)
Agents
287(1)
Characteristics
287(1)
Mechanism of Action
288(1)
Route of Administration of Local Anesthetics
289(7)
Toxicity of Local Anesthetics
296(4)
Controlled Ventilation
300(7)
Ventilation in the Awake Animal
301(1)
Ventilation in the Anesthetized Animal
301(1)
Types of Controlled Ventilation
302(5)
Risks of Controlled Ventilation
307(1)
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
307(8)
Analgesia
315(35)
Principles of Analgesia
315(2)
What is Analgesia?
315(1)
Why Treat Pain?
316(1)
General Principles of Analgesia
317(7)
Physiology of Pain
317(1)
Monitoring Signs of Pain
318(3)
Methods of Pain Control
321(3)
Pharmacologic Analgesia
324(2)
Preemptive Analgesia
324(1)
Mechanisms of Pain Relief
325(1)
Classes of Analgesic Drugs
326(24)
Opioid Agents
326(11)
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
337(6)
Other Analgesic Agents
343(1)
Combination Therapy
344(1)
Home Analgesia
345(5)
Anesthesia of Rodents and Rabbits
350(37)
Patient Evaluation
350(11)
Handling and Restraint
351(9)
Physical Examination of Small Mammals
360(1)
Diagnostic Tests
361(1)
Preanesthetic Patient Care
361(1)
Withholding Food Before Anesthesia
361(1)
Correction of Preexisting Problems
362(1)
Preanesthetic Agents
362(3)
Anticholinergics
363(1)
Phenothiazines
363(1)
Benzodiazepines
363(1)
Alpha-2 Adrenoreceptor Agonists
363(2)
Opioids
365(1)
General Anesthesia
365(13)
Induction Techniques and Agents
365(5)
Summary of Recommended Techniques
370
Intubation and Maintenance of Anesthesia
368(5)
Monitoring
373(5)
Postoperative Care
378(1)
Anesthetic Emergencies
378(2)
Respiratory Depression
378(1)
Circulatory Failure
379(1)
Analgesia
380(7)
Pain Assessment in Small Mammals
380(1)
Analgesic Agents
381(3)
Administration of Analgesics
384(3)
Large Animal Anesthesia
387(30)
General Considerations
387(1)
Biologic Variations
387(1)
Handling and Restraint
388(1)
Horses
388(14)
Sedation and Standing Chemical Restraint
388(2)
Field Anesthesia
390(2)
Inhalant Anesthesia
392(2)
Monitoring and Supportive Care
394(7)
Foals
401(1)
Cattle
402(5)
Sedation and Chemical Restraint
404(1)
General Anesthesia
404(1)
Monitoring and Supportive Care
405(1)
Calves
406(1)
Small Ruminants
407(4)
Swine
408(3)
Regional/Local Anesthetic Techniques in Large Animals
411(1)
Summary
412(5)
Appendix A Standard Values and Equivalents 417(3)
Appendix B Catheter Comparison Scale 420(1)
Appendix C Equipment for Intravenous (IV) Induction and Inhalation Anesthesia 421(1)
Appendix D Equipment and Drugs for Use in an Emergency Crash Kit 422


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