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Visions for Change : Crime and Justice in the 21st Century,9780130420305

Visions for Change : Crime and Justice in the 21st Century

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130420305

ISBN10:
0130420301
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Summary

Exceptionally current and complete, this collection of readings examines — in detail — critical criminal justice policies and practices as evident in all criminal justice agencies throughout the United States. Linking the past, present, and future of criminal justice, the authors discuss important issues currently impacting the system, address the challenges that lie ahead in criminal justice in the 21st century, and outline their vision for how these issues will be handled in the next century. Gangs. Gender and Race. The War on Drugs. Terrorism. Crime Victims. The Techno<45>Economic Revolution. Computer<45>Based Technologies. The Fall of the Death Penalty. HIV<45>Related Issues. Women in Policing. Constitutional Law and the Courts. Correctional Issues. For criminal justice professionals and anyone interested in criminal justice.

Table of Contents

Foreword xvii
Samuel S. Souryal
Preface xxi
Roslyn Muraskin
About the Authors and Contributors xxv
PART I OVERVIEW 1(8)
Looking to the Future of Criminal Justice
3(6)
Roslyn Muraskin
Albert R. Roberts
PART II LINKING CRIME CHALLENGES IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY 9(88)
The War on Drugs: Treatment, Research, and Substance Abuse Intervention in the Twenty-First Century
11(26)
C. Aaron McNeece
Bruce Bullington
Elizabeth L. Mayfield Arnold
David W. Springer
Abstract
11(1)
Introduction
11(1)
Justice System Interventions with Drug Users
12(2)
Current practices in drug offender intervention
14(9)
Self-Help Programs
15(1)
Individual, Family, and Group Counseling
15(1)
Psychoeducational Approaches
16(1)
Case Management
17(1)
Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime
17(1)
Acupuncture
17(1)
Urine Drug Testing
18(2)
Milieu Approaches
20(2)
Probation
22(1)
Toward a Paradigm Shift in Drug Policy
23(10)
Prohibitionist Reduction Approaches
23(1)
Enter Harm Reduction
24(3)
Medical Marijuana
27(6)
Conclusions
33(4)
The Situation of Crime Victims in the Early Decades of the Twenty-First Century
37(15)
Andrew Karmen
Abstract
37(1)
Forecasting Future Developments
37(1)
The Situation Victims Faced in the Late Twentieth Century
38(2)
Anticipating the Situation of Victims in the Early Twenty-First Century by Projecting Existing Trends
40(9)
How the Trend Toward Granting Victims Greater Formal Rights within the Criminal Justice Process Might Lead to the Emergence of Victim Advocates
40(1)
How the Trend toward Commercialization Will Lead to More Victimization Prevention Devices and Services
41(1)
How the Trend toward Privatizing Criminal Justice Functions Might Lead to Private Prosecution
42(3)
How the Trend toward Developing More Alternatives to Both Adjudication and Incarceration Might Bring About a Greater Reliance on Victim-Offender Reconciliation Programs
45(2)
How the Trend toward Differential Justice Might Increase the Gap in the Way Victims are Handled
47(2)
The Perils of Crystal-Ball Gazing
49(3)
Gangs: Status, Characteristics, Community and Police Responses, and Policy Implications
52(17)
Kenneth J. Peak
Abstract
52(1)
Introduction
52(1)
Gang Origins, Composition, and Characteristics
52(5)
Early Formation and Research
52(2)
Contemporary Status and Types of Gangs
54(1)
Graffiti and Hand Signals
55(1)
Girls in Gangs
56(1)
Revenues and Expenditures
57(1)
Responses to Gangs
57(7)
Programs or Police Crackdowns: Which Method Is Best?
57(3)
A Typology
60(1)
Related Suppression and Intervention Techniques
61(2)
Applying Community-Oriented Policing and Problem Solving
63(1)
Policy Implications for the Future
64(2)
Summary
66(3)
Looking for a New Approach to an Old Problem: The Future of Obscenity and Pornography
69(17)
Jay S. Albanese
Abstract
69(1)
New Concern for an Old Problem
69(1)
Methods and Sources
70(1)
What Is Pornography?
71(1)
The Pornography Industry
72(1)
The Pornography-Harm Link
73(2)
Sex Education and Citizen Action
75(1)
Law and Law Enforcement
76(2)
Explaining the Differences in the Obscenity Commissions
78(2)
The Rise of the Internet
80(1)
Issues for the Future
81(5)
Obscenity: Front Sex to Violence
81(2)
Why Is Pornography So Popular?
83(3)
Murder and Mayhem in the Media: Public Perceptions (and Misperceptions) of Crime and Criminality
86(11)
Charles B. Fields
Robert A. Jerin
Abstract
86(1)
Introduction
86(1)
Crime Reporting and Public Perceptions
87(3)
Crime Reporting and Official Crime Statistics
90(3)
Conclusions
93(4)
PART III POLICING NOW AND IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY 97(62)
Police Response to Domestic Violence Complaints: Bridging Yesterday to Now
99(25)
Albert R. Roberts
Stephen L. Ruland
Vincent E. Henry
Abstract
99(1)
Introduction
99(1)
Police Response to Domestic Violence in the Mid-1990s
100(9)
Historical Overview
102(1)
The Impact of Feminism
102(1)
The Impact of Research
103(3)
Research on Deterrent Effects of Arrest
106(1)
Pro-arrest Policies
107(2)
A Model Domestic Violence Intervention Program
109(11)
Summary and Conclusions
120(4)
The Influence of Community in Community Policing in the Twenty-First Century
124(13)
Michael J. Palmiotto
Abstract
124(1)
Introduction
124(2)
The Crime Problem
126(1)
Community-Oriented Policing
127(2)
Community Defined
127(1)
Community-Oriented Policing Philosophy
128(1)
Policing in the Early Twenty-First Century
129(5)
Community Influence
130(1)
Citizen Police Academies
131(1)
Community Advisory Councils
131(1)
Civilian Oversight
132(1)
Privatizing the Police
133(1)
Conclusions
134(3)
Legal Issues in Policing
137(22)
Robert J. Meadows
Abstract
137(1)
Introduction
137(1)
The Police and the Community
138(4)
Domestic Violence and the Police
142(3)
Controlling the Police
145(1)
Civil Liability in Policing
146(5)
The Exclusionary Rule and Policing
151(3)
Conclusions
154(5)
PART IV THE COURTS AND FUTURE INTERPRETATION OF LAW 159(144)
The Rise and Fall of the U.S. Death Penalty in the Twenty-First Century
161(37)
Kenneth C. Haas
Abstract
161(1)
Introduction
162(1)
The Post-Gregg Confusion
163(1)
The Post-Gregg Years: 1976-1983
163(4)
The Post-Gregg Years (1983-Present)
167(13)
The Supreme Court and the Prospects for Abolishing Capital Punishment
180(10)
Conclusions
190(8)
The Future Impact of International Law on the U.S. Death Penalty
198(19)
Christopher M. Cevasco
Introduction
198(1)
International Obligations of the United States
199(7)
Customary International Law
200(2)
International Treaties
202(4)
The Death Row Phenomenon
206(3)
The Execusion of Juvenile Offenders
209(1)
The Execution of Foreign Nationals
209(3)
Conclusions
212(5)
The Bill of Rights in the Twenty-First Century
217(21)
Alexander B. Smith
Harriet Pollack
Matthew Muraskin
Abstract
217(1)
Introduction
218(1)
The State of the Law as of the End of the Twentieth Century
219(6)
First Amendment
219(1)
Fourth Amendment
219(2)
Fifth Amendment
221(1)
Sixth Amendment
222(1)
Eighth Amendment
223(2)
New Issues for the Twenty-First Century
225(10)
First Amendment
225(2)
Fourth Amendment
227(1)
Fifth Amendment
228(2)
Sixth Amendment
230(1)
Eighth Amendment
231(4)
Criminal Justice Issues Not Related to the Bill of Rights
235(1)
Conclusions
235(3)
A Comparative Analysis of Victim Impact Testimony in Capital Cases in New Jersey and Texas
238(27)
Ronald L. Reisner
Peter J. Nelligan
Abstract
238(1)
Introduction
238(1)
The Changing Legal Role of Victims
239(1)
The Victims' Rights Movement
240(1)
Victim Impact Statements
241(1)
Victims' Rights in Texas
242(1)
Capital Murder and Capital Punishment in Texas
243(1)
Victims' Rights in New Jersey
244(1)
Capital Murder and Capital Punishment in New Jersey
245(2)
Methodology
247(1)
Results
248(2)
Relationships
250(2)
Character Testimony
252(2)
Short-Term Impact
254(2)
Long-Term Impact
256(4)
Conclusions
260(5)
Reaffirming Juvenile Justice
265(22)
Peter J. Benekos
Alida V. Merlo
Abstract
265(1)
Introduction
265(1)
History of Juvenile Justice
266(4)
Transformation
267(1)
Racial Disparity
268(1)
Lessons from the First 100 Years
269(1)
Emergent Themes and Trends in Juvenile Justice
270(3)
Good News: Crime Continues to Decline
270(1)
Politics, Public Opinion, and National Issues
271(1)
Prevention and Early Intervention
271(1)
Public Support for Prevention
272(1)
Future Models for Juvenile Justice
272(1)
Promising Strategies for Youth Intervention
273(5)
Specialty Courts
273(2)
Collaborative Intensive Community Treatment Program
275(1)
Project CRAFT
276(1)
Identifying Risk Factors
276(1)
Parenting Programs
277(1)
Low-Birth Weight Babies
278(1)
Issues for the Future
278(9)
Gangs
278(1)
Disproportionate Minority Representation
279(1)
Capital Punishment
280(1)
Adultification
281(1)
Models of Juvenile Justice
281(6)
A Study of the Criminal Motivations of Sentenced Jail Inmates
287(16)
Robert J. Meadows
Kimberly L. Anklin
Abstract
287(1)
Introduction
287(5)
Method
292(1)
Participants
292(1)
Procedure
293(1)
Discussion
293(7)
Appendix: Inmate Study
300(3)
PART V TECHNOLOGY IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY 303(66)
Technology and Criminal Justice
305(17)
Joseph J. Grau
Abstract
305(1)
Technological Society
305(3)
The High-Tech Crime Scene
308(10)
High-Tech Crime Scene Infobanks
310(5)
High-Tech Crime Surveillance Technology
315(1)
The Clipper Chip
315(1)
The High-Tech Criminal
316(2)
Technology and Criminal Justice Management
318(2)
Conclusions
320(2)
The Technoeconomic Revolution: Reengineering Criminal Justice Organizations and Workplaces
322(9)
Rosemary L. Gido
Abstract
322(1)
Introduction
322(1)
Workforce Issues for the Decade
323(2)
Change in U.S. Workforce Composition
323(2)
Information Technology and Workplace Organization
325(1)
Twenty-First Century Workforce Trends: Personnel Dilemmas for Criminal Justice Organizations and Workplaces
325(1)
Barriers to Criminal Justice Organizational Change
326(1)
Reactivity and Inertia
326(1)
Gender and Racial Barriers
327(1)
Emerging Models of Criminal Justice Organization Change
327(1)
Community Policing
327(1)
Conclusions
328(3)
Prosecuting Environmental Crime in the Twenty-First Century
331(20)
Donald J. Rebovich
Abstract
331(1)
Introduction
331(1)
A New Criminal Role: The Local Environmental Prosecutor
332(1)
Barriers to Effective Environmental Prosecution: What Is Currently Known
333(2)
Factors Affecting Environmental Prosecution in the Future
335(8)
Wider Acceptance of Strict Penalties for Environmental Offenses
335(2)
Self-Auditing Privileges
337(1)
Environmental Equity
338(1)
Displacement of Environmental Crime
339(1)
Standards for the Admissibility of Scientific Evidence: The Daubert Test
340(1)
Training
341(1)
Experimentation with New Technologies/Strategies
342(1)
Discussion and Implications for Future Research
343(8)
The Impact of Computer Based Technologies on Criminal Justice: Transition to the Twenty-First Century
351(18)
William G. Archambeault
Abstract
351(1)
Introduction
351(1)
Rise of the Information Society and Computer Dependency
352(1)
Computer-Based Technologies and Criminal Justice of the 1990s
353(10)
Database Management
355(1)
Computer-Assisted Organizational Communications
356(2)
Computer Assisted Diagnosis, Instruction, and Training
358(1)
Computer-Assisted Monitoring of Offenses
359(4)
Computer-Related Crime
363(1)
Criminal Justice Twenty-First Century: Implications and Conclusions
363(6)
PART VI CORRECTIONAL ISSUES IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY 369(56)
An Introduction to Prison Privatization: Issues for the Twenty-First Century
371(19)
Michael Hallett
Abstract
371(1)
Introduction: Forces Driving Prison Privatization
371(7)
Mandatory Sentencing
373(1)
Prison Overcrowding and Cost of Incarceration
374(1)
Current Use of Private Prisons
375(3)
Themes in the Debate about Prison Privatization
378(12)
The Cost Conundrum
378(4)
Free Market Competition (Benefits) versus Service-Provider Captivity (Risks)
382(2)
Moral, Racial, and Ethnical Issues
384(2)
High Turnover
386(1)
Legal issues
386(4)
Court-Ordered Reform of Jails: Past, Present, and Future
390(18)
Wayne N. Welsh
Abstract
390(1)
Introduction
390(2)
Characteristics of Jails
392(1)
Causes of Overcrowding
392(3)
Crime Rates
392(1)
Legal and Political Environments
393(1)
Demographic, Economic, and Social Conditions
393(1)
Resources and Expenditures
394(1)
Public Attitudes and the ``Get-Tough'' Movement
394(1)
Court Intervention
395(2)
The Role of the Courts
395(1)
The Legal Process: Judges, Lawyers, and Defendants
395(1)
Court-Ordered Change and Compliance
396(1)
Impacts of Court-Ordered Reform
397(2)
Changes in Institutional Conditions
397(1)
Organizational Impacts
397(1)
Unintended Impacts
398(1)
Systemwide Impacts
398(1)
Prisoner Litigation: End of the Road?
399(2)
Implications for Criminal Justice Policy
401(1)
Conclusions
402(6)
Sentencing into the Twenty-First Century: Sentence Enhancement and Life without Parole
408(17)
Etta F. Morgan
Robert T. Sigler
Abstract
408(1)
Introduction
408(1)
Cycles in Orientation toward the Sentencing of Criminal Offenders
408(3)
Mediating Influences
411(1)
Contemporary Practices
412(1)
Habitual Offender Statutes
413(2)
Sentence Enhancement
415(2)
Restricted Housing
417(1)
Determinate Sentences and Parole
417(1)
Into the Twenty-First Century
418(7)
PART VII GENDER AND RACE ISSUES IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY 425(74)
Women and the Law: An Agenda for Change in the Twenty-First Century
427(12)
Roslyn Muraskin
Martin L. O'Connor
Abstract
427(1)
Introduction
427(2)
History
429(1)
Sexual Harassment
430(2)
The Need for a National Commitment to End Violence Against Women
432(3)
Summary
435(1)
Agenda for Change
436(3)
New Directions for Incarcerated Women with HIV in the Twenty-First Century: The Corrections Demonstration Project
439(24)
Mark M. Lanier
Ronald J. Braithwaite
Kimberly R. Jacob Arriola
Abstract
439(1)
Introduction
440(1)
Women with HIV and AIDS
441(1)
AIDS in Correctional Facilities
441(1)
Incarcerated Women
442(1)
Unique Problems
442(4)
Medical Problems
443(1)
Compounding Medical Problems
443(1)
Psychological Stress
444(2)
HIV/AIDS Medical Treatment
446(3)
HIV/AIDS Treatment in Prison
447(2)
Theoretical Models
449(2)
Policy Recommendations
451(3)
Case Management
452(1)
Counseling
452(1)
Health Services
452(1)
Postrelease Services
453(1)
Alternative Sanctions (Community Corrections)
453(1)
Research Initiatives
454(3)
Summary and Conclusions
457(6)
The Administration of Justice Based on Gender and Race
463(17)
Etta F. Morgan
Abstract
463(1)
A Theoretical Beginning
463(2)
The Pathway to Civil Rights and Affirmative Action
465(2)
The Administration of Law
467(3)
Female Criminality
470(1)
Extralegal Factors
471(3)
Gender
471(1)
Race
472(2)
The Future
474(2)
Conclusions
476(4)
The New Millennium: Women in Policing in the Twenty-First Century
480(19)
Donna C. Hale
Mark Lanier
Abstract
480(1)
Introduction
480(2)
Methodology: Students' Perceptions of Women in American Policing
482(1)
Findings
483(4)
Graduate Students' Examination of Women in American Policing
487(1)
Discussion
487(3)
Implications
490(2)
In the Classroom
490(1)
Use of the Media in the Classroom
490(1)
Star Trek: A Depiction of Women's Work and Women's Place in Space Travel
491(1)
Conclusions
492(7)
PART VIII CONCLUSIONS 499(6)
The Future Is Now: Summing Up
501(4)
Roslyn Muraskin
EPILOGUE 505(18)
Criminal Justice in the New Millenium: The Crises of System and Science
507(16)
David V. Baker
Richard P. Davin
Abstract
507(1)
Introduction
508(1)
The Crisis in Justice Administration
508(14)
Police Lawlessness
509(2)
Courts and Partiality
511(2)
Sentencing Disparity
513(3)
Eugenics
516(1)
Gender and Criminal Justice
517(3)
The Death Penalty
520(2)
The Crisis in the Discipline of Criminal Justice
522(1)
Index 523


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