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The Voice of Reason Fundamentals of Critical Thinking,9780195141221
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The Voice of Reason Fundamentals of Critical Thinking

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780195141221

ISBN10:
0195141229
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/9/2001
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $88.48

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Summary

Lively, comprehensive, and contemporary, The Voice of Reason: Fundamentals of Critical Thinking covers three principal areas: thought and language, systematic reasoning, and modes of proof. It employs highly accessible explanations and a multitude of examples drawn from social issues andvarious academic fields, showing students and other readers how to construct and criticize arguments using the techniques of sound reasoning. The Voice of Reason examines the traditional elements of the field and also explores new ground. The first section of the book elucidates the relationship between thought and language, explaining how words function. It discusses meaning, connotation, vagueness, ambiguity, and definition,identifying the linguistic elements that can produce mistakes in thinking. The next section describes the rules of systematic reasoning, examining such topics as truth, relevance, and adequacy; deductive logic (categorical, hypothetical, and disjunctive); and induction (cause and effect, analogy,generalization, and hypothesis). Sixteen fallacies in thinking are also described through extensive illustrations and applications. The final section of the book offers a unique study of what constitutes proof in several different areas--including politics, advertising, law, and social issues--aswell as in the academic disciplines of literature, science, history, and ethics. The author describes the various rules of evidence, using essays by major figures in each field as examples. An ideal text for courses in critical thinking, informal logic, and reasoning and writing, The Voice of Reason offers numerous pedagogical features including a host of examples; assignments, exercises, and puzzles at both the halfway point and at the end of each chapter; cartoons andquotations throughout; and practical applications of theoretical concepts. An extensive Instructor's Manual contains answers to the exercises that appear throughout the text.

Table of Contents

Analytic Table of Contents xi
Preface xvii
Critical Thinking
1(22)
By Force of Argument
1(2)
Avoiding Self-Contradiction
3(10)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
9(4)
How Words Have Meaning
13(4)
Using Terms and Mentioning Them
17(6)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
18(5)
Part I. Thought and Language
The Way Words Work
23(20)
The Basic Ingredients: Intension and Extension
23(2)
The Connotation of Words
25(8)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
28(5)
Vagueness-Seeing Dimly
33(2)
Ambiguity-Seeing Double
35(8)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
39(4)
Language and Definition
43(24)
Types of Definitions: Stipulative and Reportive
43(5)
Synonym and Example Definitions
48(2)
Applications
50(6)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
51(5)
Avoiding Definition Mistakes
56(3)
Applications
59(8)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
61(6)
Part II. Systematic Reasoning
Disagreements, Claims, and Reasons
67(26)
Types of Disagreements: Factual and Verbal
67(3)
Interpretive and Evaluative Disagreements
70(5)
Applications
75(6)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
77(4)
Reasoning Things Out: Truth and Relevance in Arguments
81(4)
Adequate Proof and Alternative Possibilities
85(2)
Summary
87(1)
Applications
88(5)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
88(5)
Common Mistakes in Thinking
93(21)
Argument to the Person and from Authority
93(5)
Threat of Force and Appeal to Pity
98(4)
Applications
102(2)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
102(2)
Straw Person and Poisoning the Well
104(3)
The Slippery Slope and the Gambler's Fallacy
107(4)
Applications
111(3)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
111(3)
More Subtle Errors of Thought
114(20)
The Fallacy of Sweeping Generalization and Hasty Generalization
114(3)
Begging the Question and Complex Question
117(2)
Applications
119(4)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
120(3)
The Argument From Ignorance and to the Masses
123(4)
False Cause and Irrelevant Conclusion
127(3)
Applications
130(4)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
131(3)
Reasoning in a Formal Way
134(19)
The Structure of Arguments: Conclusions and Premises (Claims and Warrants)
134(3)
Paraphrasing Statements and Seeing Implications
137(6)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
140(3)
Syllogisms and Enthymemes
143(3)
Validity and Truth
146(7)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
149(4)
Patterns of Deductive Thinking
153(25)
Using Categorical Arguments
154(3)
Applications
157(6)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
161(2)
Hypotheticals: The If/Then Form
163(2)
Applications
165(6)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
168(3)
Disjunctives: Either/Or Alternatives
171(1)
Applications
172(6)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
175(3)
Inductive Thinking: Identifying Causes, Drawing Analogies
178(29)
Causation: The Consequent and The Subsequent
179(3)
Establishing Causal Connections
182(9)
Summary
191(1)
Applications
191(4)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
192(3)
Similes, Metaphors, and Analogies
195(3)
Using Analogical Arguments Effectively
198(4)
Summary
202(1)
Applications
203(4)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
203(4)
Deriving Generalizations, Forming Hypotheses
207(26)
Generalizing and Describing
207(2)
Using a Fair Sample
209(3)
Applications
212(6)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
214(4)
The Explanatory Hypothesis
218(2)
Developing an Adequate Hypothesis
220(6)
Summary
226(1)
Applications
226(1)
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
227(6)
Part III. Modes of Proof
Discourse Communities
233(50)
The Rhetoric of Politicians
233(3)
``Keynote Address, Democratic National Convention 1984''
236(7)
Mario Cuomo
Persuasion in Advertising
243(3)
``Ogilvy on Advertising''
246(11)
David Ogilvy
The Legal Case
257(2)
``Gregg v. Georgia,'' Supreme Court
259(14)
Debates About Social Issues
273(1)
``Pornography, Obscenity, & the Case for Censorship''
274(9)
Irving Kristol
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
280(3)
Arguments in the Disciplines
283(47)
Literary Explication
284(1)
``Robert Frost: The Way to the Poem''
285(8)
John Ciardi
Scientific Verification
293(3)
``Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids''
296(3)
J. D. Watson
F. H. C. Crick
``Can We Know the Universe? Reflections on a Grain of Sand''
299(4)
Carl Sagan
Historical Explanation
303(3)
``The Causes of the Great Crash''
306(10)
John Kenneth Galbraith
Ethical justification
316(3)
``A Defense of Abortion''
319(11)
Judith Jarvis Thomson
Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles
326(4)
APPENDIX 330(5)
Classifying: Genus and Differentia
330(2)
Analytic and Synthetic Sentences
332(3)
Partial Solution Guide to Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles 335(26)
Index 361


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