9780195216035

Voices of the Poor : From Many Lands

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780195216035

  • ISBN10:

    0195216032

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-02-21
  • Publisher: A World Bank Publication

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Summary

The 'Voices of the Poor' series consists of three volumes which present the findings of a multicountry research initiative to understand poverty from the perspective of the poor. The project was undertaken for the World Development Report 2000/2001 called 'Attacking Poverty' (ISBN: 0195211294). Using participatory and qualitative research methods, the series gathers the views, experiences and aspirations of more than 60,000 men and women from 60 countries who live in poverty. This final volume in the series contains 14 country case studies which consider the diversity of the experiences of poverty throughout the world. It discusses four major patterns that emerge from the different regions and contexts studied. The book concludes by setting out a vision of development which focuses on five areas of action to increase the assets and capabilities of poor people, and so empower them to move out of poverty. The other volumes in the series are: 'Can Anyone Hear Us?' (2000, ISBN: 0195216016) and 'Crying Out for Change' (2000, ISBN: 0195216024).

Table of Contents

Foreword xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Introduction
1(16)
Methodological Framework and Study Process
2(5)
Study Background
2(1)
Research Partnerships
3(1)
Sampling Framework
4(1)
Data Analyses
5(1)
Follow-up
6(1)
Challenges in Writing and Editing this Book
7(1)
The Importance of Context Specificity
8(4)
Organization of the Book
12(5)
Ghana --- ``Empty Pockets''
17(34)
Hunger and Illbeing
20(10)
No Money
23(1)
Diverse Obstacles to Farming
24(3)
Joblessness
27(1)
Coping
28(2)
Government Is Important, but Its Help Falls Short
30(8)
Missing Basic Services
31(4)
Faith in Chiefs and Churches
35(2)
Little Regard for NGOs
37(1)
Growing Responsibilities for Women, but Few Rights
38(4)
Economic Gains?
39(2)
Widespread Gender Violence
41(1)
Conclusion
42(9)
Malawi --- Tangled Web
51(34)
Doing Well and Doing Poorly: No Plate-Drying Rack
54(2)
Caught in a Web of Misery
56(17)
Empty Stomachs
56(1)
Early Marriage, High Fertility, and Less Land
57(1)
Costly Fertilizers and Devalued Currency
58(1)
Precarious Jobs
59(1)
Weather Vagaries
60(1)
No Credit
61(2)
Inadequate Water and Roads
63(1)
The Reach for Schooling
64(1)
Endangered Health
65(2)
Divorced and Widowed Women
67(1)
Children Left Behind without Hope
68(1)
Theft and Other Crime
69(2)
Trapped in the Tangle
71(2)
A Few Break Free
73(2)
Turning to Each Other
75(2)
Conclusion
77(8)
Nigeria --- Illbeing and Insecurity
85(28)
Downward Slide
88(3)
Poor Governance
91(3)
Poorly Functioning Private Sector
92(2)
Religious and Community-Based Institutions: Trusted but Noninclusive
94(2)
Illbeing
96(7)
Bodily Risks
97(1)
Eroding Physical Environemnt and Dilapidated Infrastructure
98(1)
Seasonal Stresses
98(1)
Crime and Conflict
99(1)
Education's Mixed Promise
100(2)
Signs of Hope
102(1)
The Gulf of Gender Inequities
103(3)
Domestic Violence
104(1)
The Stigma of Women without Men
105(1)
Conclusion
106(7)
Bangladesh --- Waves of Disaster
113(34)
Poor People's Many Risks
116(14)
Hunger, Weakness, and Poor Health
118(2)
Lack of Assets
120(2)
Insecure Livelihoods
122(4)
Floods and Erosion
126(1)
Crime, Violence, and Police Harassment
127(1)
Dowry
128(2)
Sources of Vulnerability and Abuse of Women
130(3)
Institutions in Bangladesh
133(5)
Failing Grades for Local Government
133(1)
Dependence on Moneylenders
134(1)
NGOs: Reliable and Trustworthy
135(2)
Religious Institutions: Important but Limited
137(1)
Conclusion
138(9)
India --- Gains and Stagnation in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh
147(34)
Experiences of Wellbeing and Illbeing
152(8)
Criteria of Wellbeing
152(4)
Community Problems and Priorities
156(4)
Mixed Trends
160(1)
Contribution of Institutions to Wellbeing
161(9)
Leading Institutions in Netarhat
161(1)
State Institutions
162(5)
Local Institutions
167(3)
Gender Relations
170(3)
More Varied Livelihoods
171(1)
Changes in Household Decision Making
171(1)
Domestic Violence
172(1)
Still a Long Way to Go
173(1)
Conclusion
173(8)
Indonesia --- Coping with Vulnerability and Crisis
181(32)
Exposed on Many Fronts
184(9)
Market Shocks
185(3)
Lack of Assets and Access to Common Property Resources
188(2)
Remoteness, Isolation, and Lack of Bargaining Power
190(1)
Seasonal and Environmental Stresses and Shocks
191(2)
Reducing Insecurity: Role of Formal and Informal Institutions
193(9)
Little Trust in Public Institutions
193(6)
Struggling to Get Credit: Formal and Informal Sources
199(1)
Building Informal Survival Networks
200(2)
Gender Relations Increase Women's Vulnerability
202(5)
Improvements over Time
203(1)
The Devastation of Divorce
204(1)
Domestic Abuse Declining but Still Prevalent
205(2)
Conclusion
207(6)
Bosnia and Herzegovina --- War-Torn Lives
213(26)
Loss upon Loss
216(4)
Physical and Emotional Suffering
217(1)
Destruction of the Middle Class
217(1)
The War Is to Blame
218(2)
Unemployment and the Collapse of Industry
220(1)
The Displaced: Seeking House and Home
221(2)
Organizing in Glogova
221(1)
Squalor in Tombak
222(1)
Displaced People in Capljina
223(1)
Struggling to Cope
223(4)
New Roles for Women and Men
224(1)
Violence in the Home
225(1)
Young People Lose Hope
226(1)
Nowhere to Turn
227(6)
The Failure of State Institutions
227(2)
Business Owners, War Profiteers, and Returnees
229(2)
Humanitarian Aid Falters
231(1)
Relying on Relatives Near and Far
232(1)
Conclusion
233(6)
Bulgaria --- Reeling from Change
239(36)
The Struggling Majority
242(9)
Unkept Promises
245(1)
Unemployment: The Double Loss
246(1)
Alienation and Humiliation
247(1)
``We Are Like Refuse'': Child Outcasts
248(3)
Continuing Struggles for Minorities
251(3)
Navigating the Changes
254(4)
The Return to Subsistence Agriculture
254(1)
The ``Real'' Economy
255(3)
The Helpful Institutions: ``Your Own People''
258(7)
State Institutions
259(5)
NGOs Stepping In
264(1)
The Legacy of Patriarchy
265(3)
Conclusion
268(7)
Kyrgyz Republic --- Crumbling Support, Deepening Poverty
275(26)
Kok Yangak, a Town in Crisis
279(1)
Communities in Struggle
280(6)
Precarious Livelihoods
282(1)
Absence of Basic Infrastructure
283(2)
Mounting Social Problems
285(1)
Limited Institutional Support
286(5)
State Institutions: Fractured and Lacking Accountability
286(4)
Social Networks: Invaluable but Stretched
290(1)
Conflicting Gender Roles
291(5)
Unsettled Times for Households
292(1)
Reports of Domestic Abuse
293(2)
Women and Men in Society
295(1)
Conclusion
296(5)
The Russian Federation --- Struggling against the Tide
301(32)
The New Poor and the New Elite
305(5)
The Unraveling of a ``Normal Life''
305(3)
The ``New Russians''
308(2)
Struggling to Hang On
310(7)
Delayed Wages, Vanishing Jobs
310(2)
Informal Work and Subsistence Agriculture
312(1)
Lawlessness and Ineffective Police
313(2)
Alcoholism
315(1)
Health Risks
316(1)
Decaying Governance
317(7)
Bureaucratic Disintegration and Corruption
319(2)
The Private Sector
321(1)
Civic and Religious Groups
322(1)
Family and Friends
322(2)
Women's Increasing Responsibilities
324(2)
Conclusion
326(7)
Argentina --- Life Used to Be Better
333(30)
Lost Livelihoods and the New Labor Markets
337(2)
Insecurity and Struggling Families
339(8)
Gender Roles Overturned
341(2)
Abuse at Home
343(1)
Effects on the Next Generation
344(3)
Pervasive Crime
347(2)
Police Brutality
348(1)
Safer Places in the Countryside
349(1)
Limited Community and Governmental Responses to Poverty
349(6)
Community-Based Actions and Partnerships
350(3)
Government Helps Poor People Survive
353(2)
Problems beyond Poor Communities
355(1)
Conclusion
356(7)
Brazil --- Gains and Losses in the Favelas
363(32)
Joblessness, Underemployment, and Workplace Abuses
366(3)
Life amid Violence
369(8)
Fear in the Streets
369(2)
Fear in the Home
371(4)
Violence, Substance Abuse, and Children
375(2)
Poverty, Power, and Social Class
377(2)
Poor Brazilians' Interactions with Institutions
379(10)
What Works and What Doesn't in Novo Horizonte
381(2)
Progress in the Favelas
383(3)
Self-Help in Brazilian Favelas
386(3)
Conclusion
389(6)
Ecuador --- The Perils of Poverty
395(34)
Problems and Priorities
398(10)
Hunger
398(1)
Livelihood and Property Insecurity
399(4)
Violence and Race
403(1)
Interlocking Environmental Risks
404(3)
Striving for Education
407(1)
Encounters with Institutions
408(9)
Government Services
409(3)
NGOs and Churches
412(1)
Community Action
413(4)
Gender Dynamics in the Family
417(3)
Conclusion
420(9)
Jamaica --- Island in a Turbulent World
429(32)
Buffeted by Global Forces
432(7)
Scarce Livelihoods
432(4)
Extreme Weather and Environmental Change
436(1)
The Local and Global Drug Trade
437(2)
The Struggle for a Better Life
439(4)
Going Away to Get By
439(1)
Local Entrepreneurship
440(1)
Education Loses Its Appeal
441(2)
Poor People and Public Services
443(3)
Government and ``Polittricks''
443(2)
Valued Institutions in Little Bay
445(1)
A Caring Culture under Strain
446(6)
Helping the Young and Less Fortunate
447(1)
Resisting Crime and Conflict
448(2)
Maroon Traditions under Stress
450(2)
Women Reach for Independence and Security
452(3)
Conclusion
455(6)
Conclusion --- An Empowering Approach to Poverty Reduction
461(34)
Poor People's Assets and Capabilities
462(9)
Material Assets
462(2)
Bodily Health
464(1)
Bodily Integrity
464(1)
Emotional Integrity
465(1)
Respect and Dignity
466(1)
Social Belonging
467(1)
Cultural Identity
467(2)
Imagination, Information, and Education
469(1)
Organizational Capacity
469(1)
Political Representation and Accountability
470(1)
Impact of Economic Turmoil and Policy Changes
471(6)
Economy-wide Stresses, Deteriorating Livelihoods and Incomes
472(3)
Rising Prices
475(1)
Crumbling Public Services
476(1)
The Culture of Mediating Institutions: State, Market, and Civic
477(3)
Corruption
477(1)
Clientelism and Patronage
478(1)
Lawlessness, Crime, and Conflict
478(1)
Discriminatory Behavior
479(1)
Alienation and Hopelessness
480(1)
Households under Stress
480(7)
The Persistent Insecurity of Women
481(2)
``Let the Children Be All Right''
483(4)
Addressing State Failure: An Empowering Approach to Development
487(8)
Promote Pro-poor Economic Policies
488(1)
Invest in Poor People's Assets and Capabilities
489(1)
Support Partnerships with Poor People
490(1)
Address Gender Inequity and Children's Vulnerability
491(1)
Protect Poor People's Rights
492(3)
Appendix 1 --- Development Indicators for Fourteen Country Case Studies 495(6)
Appendix 2 --- Country Currencies and the 1999 Exchange Rate 501(2)
Appendix 3 --- Overview of Study Themes and Methods 503

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