9781405162500

Volcanoes : Global Perspectives

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781405162500

  • ISBN10:

    1405162503

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 5/17/2010
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Volcanoes are a vital presence in our world, and play a key role in maintaining the human eco-environment through soil enrichment and atmospheric inputs. They are also hazardous features, whose eruptions have not only killed many hundreds of thousands of people in recorded history, but have also greatly influenced both the development of human culture and the evolution of human species. Volcanoes commonly form beautiful landscapes, and form the principal features of national parks all over the world, serving as magnets that attract millions of visitors each year. Hundreds of millions of other people live on or in the shadows of active volcanoes. Most of these people have only a shallow, passing interest in the volcanoes they see, but there is a certain large, enthusiastic cohort of these people whose fascination with volcanoes leads them travel to see volcanoes close-up, and to seek authoritative volcanological information.The study of volcanoes and volcanic activity is an essential component of all introductory geology courses. Although the typical exposure to volcanology is superficial in most introductory courses, advanced undergraduate courses and specialized graduate courses require authoritative textbooks on volcanology - either for reference, or as the backbone of focused courses and seminars. We believe our book would best serve college-level students poised to enter the earth sciences professionally, and will also serve as an important reference for interested lay readers and earth scientists in general. * Four color throughout with dozens of superb color photographs * Suitable for students with no mathematical background * End-chapter study questions for students

Author Biography

Jack Lockwood worked for the US Geological Survey for over 30 years, including 20 years in Hawaii, based at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. He now runs a consulting business, Geohazards Consultants International.

Richard (Rick) Hazlett is Coordinator of the Environmental Analysis Program and a member of the Geology Department at Pomona College in Claremont, California, where he teaches an upper-level course in physical volcanology.

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction
Eruptions, Jargon, and History
A 'grey volcano' in eruption - Galunggung - 1982
A 'red volcano' in eruption - Kilauea - 1974
Some basic terminology
History of volcanology
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
The Big Picture
Global Perspectives - Plate Tectonics and Volcanism
Birth of a theory
Volcanoes along divergent plate boundaries
Volcanoes along convergent plate boundaries
Intraplate volcanoes
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
The Nature of Magma - Where Volcanoes Come From
Origins of magma
The physics and chemistry of melting
Classification of magma and igneous rocks
Principal magma types
Magmatic and volcanic gases
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
The Physical Properties of Magma and Why it Erupts
Magma temperatures
Magma rheology
Magma ascent and emplacement
'Frozen magma' - subvolcanic intrusives
Triggers for volcanic eruptions - why volcanoes erupt
Repose intervals
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
Volcanic Eruptions And Their Products
Classifying Volcanic Eruptions
Rittman diagrams
Lacroix classification system
Geze classification diagram
Volcanic explosivity index VEI
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
Effusive Volcanic Eruptions and Their Products
Surface textures - Pahoehoe and Effusive eruption types
Pahoehoe surface structures
Pahoehoe internal structures
Aa surfaces and structures
Block lavas
Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric lava flows
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
An Overview of Explosive Eruptions and Their Products
Ejecta classification
Explosive eruption styles and their products
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
A Closer Look at Large-scale Explosive Eruptions
Measuring the sizes of Plinian eruptions
Plinian eruption dynamics
Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs)
PDC flow regimes
Phreatoplinian eruptions
Precursors to Plinian eruptions
Super-eruptions
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
Volcanic Landforms And Settings
Constructional (Positive)Volcanic Landforms
Large igneous provinces
Shield volcanoes
Composite volcanoes
Minor volcanic landforms
Volcano old age and extinction
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
Negative
Volcanic Landforms - Craters and Calderas
Small craters
Calderas
Subcaldera intrusions
Post-caldera resurgence
Volcano-tectonic depressions
Caldera formation mechanisms
Caldera roots - relationships to plutonic rocks
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
Mass-wasting Processes and Products
Landslides and avalanche
Lahars and hyperconcentrated flows
Lahar dynamics
Lahar facies
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
Volcanoes Unseen and Far Away
Submarine and subglacial volcanoes - the meeting of fire, water, and ice
Extraterrestrial volcanoes
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
Humanistic Volcanology
Volcanoes: Life, Climate, and Human History
Volcanoes and the origin of life
Volcanoes, atmosphere, and climate
Volcanic influence on soil fertility and agriculture
Volcanoes and human history
Social impact of volcanic eruptions
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
Volcanic Hazards and Risk - Monitoring and Mitigation
Hazards and risk
Volcanic hazards
Volcanic risk
Volcanic crisis management
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
Economic Volcanology
Earth energy relationships
Volcano energy
Geothermal power
Volcanoes and ore deposits
Other useful volcanic materials
Additional reading
Questions for thought, study, and discussion
Epilogue: The Future of Volcanology
References
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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