9780199964154

Vold's Theoretical Criminology

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  • ISBN13:

    9780199964154

  • ISBN10:

    0199964157

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 11/16/2015
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

The standard text in the field, Vold's Theoretical Criminology is universally known by scholars in the discipline. Taking a largely historical approach, it discusses both classic and contemporary theories, presenting historical context and empirical research for each one. The book concludes with a chapter on assessing theories and their policy implications.

Author Biography


The late Thomas J. Bernard was Professor of Criminal Justice and Sociology at Pennsylvania State University.

Jeffrey B. Snipes is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice Studies at San Francisco State University.

Alexander L. Gerould is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice Studies at San Francisco State University.

Table of Contents


Preface
CHAPTER 1. THEORY AND CRIME
Spiritual Explanations
Natural Explanations
Scientific Theories
Causation in Scientific Theories
Three Frames of Reference
Relationships Among the Three Frames of Reference
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 2. THEORY AND POLICY IN CONTEXT: THE GREAT AMERICAN CRIME DECLINE
Crime in the United States: The Past Half-Century
Two Opposing Narratives of the Crime Wave
Explaining the 1990s Crime Decline
The City That Became Safe
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 3. CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY
The Social and Intellectual Background of Classical Criminology
Beccaria and the Classical School
From Classical Theory to Deterrence Research
Three Types of Deterrence Research
Rational Choice and Offending
Routine Activities and Victimization
Focused Deterrence: Operation Ceasefire
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 4. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
Background: Physical Appearance and Defectiveness
Lombroso, the "Born Criminal" and Positivist Criminology
Goring's Refutation of the "Born Criminal"
Body Type Theories
Family Studies
Twin and Adoption Studies
MAOA: The "Warrior" Gene
Hormones
The Central Nervous System
The Autonomic Nervous System
Environmentally Induced Biological Components of Behavior
Implications and Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 5. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
Intelligence and Crime: Background Ideas and Concepts
IQ Tests and Criminal Behavior
Delinquency, Race, and IQ
Interpreting the Association Between Delinquency and IQ
Personality and Criminal Behavior
Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder
Clinical Prediction of Future Dangerousness
Actuarial Prediction of Later Crime and Delinquency
Depression and Delinquency
Impulsivity and Crime
Policy Implications of Personality Research
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 6. DURKHEIM, ANOMIE, AND MODERNIZATION
Emile Durkheim
Crime as Normal in Mechanical Societies
Anomie as a Pathological State in Organic Societies
Durkheim's Theory of Crime
Conclusion
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 7. NEIGHBORHOODS AND CRIME
The Theory of Human Ecology
Research in the "Delinquency Areas" of Chicago
Policy Implications
Residential Succession, Social Disorganization, and Crime
Sampson's Theory of Collective Efficacy
Crime in Public Housing
Expanding Interest in Neighborhood Social Processes
Implications and Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 8. STRAIN THEORIES
Robert K. Merton and Anomie in American Society
Strain as the Explanation of Gang Delinquency
1960s Strain-Based Policies
The Decline and Resurgence of Strain Theories
Strain in Individuals
Strain in Societies
Conclusion
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 9. LEARNING THEORIES
Basic Psychological Approaches to Learning
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
Research Testing Sutherland's Theory
The Content of Learning: Cultural and Subcultural Theories
The Learning Process: Social Learning Theory
Athens's Theory of "Violentization"
Katz's Seductions of Crime
Zimbardo's Lucifer Effect
Implications
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 10. CONTROL THEORIES
Early Control Theories: Reiss to Nye
Matza's Delinquency and Drift
Hirschi's Social Control Theory
Assessing Social Control Theory
Gottfredson and Hirschi's A General Theory of Crime
Assessing Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory
Implications and Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 11. LABELING THEORIES AND CONFLICT CRIMINOLOGY
Labeling Theories
Early Conflict Theories: Sellin and Vold
Conflict Theories in a Time of Conflict: Turk, Quinney, and Chambliss and Seidman
Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law
A Unified Conflict Theory of Crime
Testing Conflict Criminology
Implications and Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 12. MARXISM AND POSTMODERN CRIMINOLOGY
Overview of Marx's Theory
Marx on Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminal Justice
The Emergence of Marxist Criminology
Marxist Theory and Research on Crime
Overview of Postmodernism
Postmodern Criminology
Conclusion
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 13. GENDER AND CRIME
The Development of Feminist Criminology
Schools of Feminist Criminology
Gender in Criminology
Why Are Women's Crime Rates So Low?
Why Are Men's Crime Rates So High?
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 14. DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES
The Great Debate: Criminal Careers, Longitudinal Research, and the Relationship Between Age and Crime
Criminal Propensity Versus Criminal Career
The Transition to Developmental Criminology
Three Developmental Directions
Thornberry's Interactional Theory
Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control
Tremblay's Developmental Origins of Physical Aggression
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 15. INTEGRATED THEORIES
Elliott's Integrated Theory of Delinquency and Drug Use
The Falsification Versus Integration Debate
Braithwaite's Theory of Reintegrative Shaming
Tittle's Control Balance Theory
Coercion and Social Support
Bernard and Snipes's Approach to Integrating Criminology Theories
Agnew's General Theory
Robinson's Integrated Systems Theory
Integrated Systems Theory
Conclusion
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 16. ASSESSING CRIMINOLOGY THEORIES
Science, Theory, Research, and Policy
Individual Difference Theories
Structure/Process Theories
Theories of the Behavior of Criminal Law
Conclusion
Index

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