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Water Supply and Pollution Control

by ; ; ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131409705

ISBN10:
0131409700
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $170.00

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Summary

For upper-division undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in civil and environmental engineering. This bestselling text has been revised and modernized to meet the needs of today's environmental engineering students who will be engaged in the design and management of water and wastewater systems. It emphasizes the application of the scientific method to problems associated with the development, movement, and treatment of water and wastewater. Recognizing that all waters are potential sources of supply, the authors present treatment processes in the context of what they can do, rather than dividing them along clean water or waste water lines. An abundance of examples and homework problems amplify the concepts presented.

Author Biography

Warren Viessman, Jr. is Professor Emeritus with the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, College of Engineering University of Florida.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1(5)
1.1 Drinking Water Systems
1(2)
1.2 Drainage and Sewerage Systems
3(2)
References
5(1)
Chapter 2 Water Management 6(14)
2.1 From Projects to Issues
6(1)
2.2 Institutions
7(1)
2.3 Integrated Water Management
8(2)
2.4 Roadblocks to Be Overcome
10(1)
2.5 Environmental Regulation and Protection
10(5)
2.6 Effects of Environmental Regulations
15(1)
2.7 A Look to the Future
16(2)
2.8 Conclusions
18(1)
Problems
18(1)
References
18(2)
Chapter 3 Water Resources Development 20(49)
Water Quantity
20(4)
3.1 Soil Moisture
21(1)
3.2 Surface Waters and Groundwater
21(1)
3.3 Runoff Distribution
22(1)
3.4 Groundwater Distribution
22(2)
Water Quality
24(2)
3.5 Groundwater
26(1)
3.6 Surface Water
26(1)
Hydrology and Water Management
26(2)
3.7 The Water Budget
27(1)
Surface Water Sources
28(1)
3.8 Basin Characteristics Affecting Runoff
28(1)
3.9 Natural and Regulated Runoff
28(1)
3.10 Storage
29(1)
Reservoirs
29(7)
3.11 Determination of Required Reservoir Capacity
30(1)
3.12 Methods of Computation
30(2)
3.13 Frequency of Extreme Events
32(1)
3.14 Probabilistic Mass Type of Analysis
33(1)
3.15 Losses from Storage
34(2)
Groundwater
36(90)
3.16 The Subsurface Distribution of Water
36(1)
3.17 Aquifers
37(1)
3.18 Fluctuations in Groundwater Level
37(2)
3.19 Safe Yield of an Aquifer
39(1)
3.20 Groundwater Flow
39(5)
3.21 Hydraulics of Wells
44(11)
3.22 Boundary Effects
55(1)
3.23 Regional Groundwater Systems
56(3)
3.24 Salt Water Intrusion
59(1)
3.25 Groundwater Recharge
60(1)
3.26 Concurrent Development of Groundwater and Surface Water Sources
61(1)
3.27 Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR)
62(1)
Problems
63(4)
References
67(2)
Chapter 4 Water Use 69(48)
4.1 Water Sources
69(3)
4.2 Water-Using Sectors
72(9)
4.3 The Impact of Climate Change on Water Availability and Use
81(2)
4.4 Water Use Trends
83(5)
4.5 Factors Affecting Water Use
88(1)
4.6 Population
89(11)
4.7 Water Use Forecasting
100(11)
Problems
111(2)
References
113(4)
Chapter 5 Wastewater Generation 117(9)
5.1 Quantities of Wastewater
117(1)
5.2 Waste Flows from Urban Areas
117(5)
5.3 Industrial Waste Volumes
122(1)
5.4 Agricultural Wastes
123(1)
5.5 A Closing Note
123(1)
Problems
123(1)
References
124(2)
Chapter 6 Conveying and Distributing Water 126(82)
6.1 Aqueducts
126(1)
6.2 Hydraulic Considerations
127(11)
6.3 Design Considerations
138(1)
Distribution Systems
139(54)
6.4 System Configurations
139(1)
6.5 Distribution System Components
140(4)
6.6 System Requirements
144(1)
6.7 Distribution System Design and Analysis
144(3)
6.8 Hydraulic Design
147(23)
6.9 Network Modeling Software
170(15)
6.10 Distribution Reservoirs and Service Storage
185(8)
Pumping
193(15)
6.11 Pumping Head
193(1)
6.12 Power
193(1)
6.13 Cavitation
194(1)
6.14 System Head
195(1)
6.15 Pump Characteristics
195(2)
6.16 Selection of Pumps
197(2)
Problems
199(7)
References
206(2)
Chapter 7 Wastewater and Storm Water Systems 208(78)
Hydraulics
208(1)
7.1 Uniform Flow
209(4)
7.2 Gradually Varied Flow and Surface Profiles
213(4)
7.3 Velocity
217(1)
Design of Sanitary Sewers
218(15)
7.4 House and Building Connections
218(1)
7.5 Collecting Sewers
219(1)
7.6 Intercepting Sewers
219(1)
7.7 Materials
220(1)
7.8 System Layout
221(2)
7.9 Hydraulic Design
223(8)
7.10 Protection Against Floodwaters
231(1)
7.11 Inverted Siphons
231(1)
7.12 Wastewater Pumping Stations
232(1)
Storm Water Management
233(1)
7.13 Alternative Strategies
233(1)
Water Quality
233(3)
7.14 Best Management Practices
235(1)
7.15 Treatment Processes
236(1)
Water Quantity
236(50)
7.16 Hydrologic Considerations
237(1)
7.17 Design Flow
237(1)
7.18 Runoff Estimates
238(22)
7.19 System Layout
260(1)
7.20 Storm Water Inlets
260(4)
7.21 Hydraulic Design
264(9)
7.22 Storm Water Storage
273(4)
Problems
277(6)
References
283(3)
Chapter 8 Water Quality 286(44)
Microbiological Quality
286(8)
8.1 Waterborne Diseases
287(4)
8.2 Coliform Bacteria as Indicator Organisms
291(3)
Chemical Quality of Drinking Water
294(14)
8.3 Monitoring Drinking Water for Pathogens
295(1)
8.4 Assessment of Chemical Quality
296(3)
8.5 Chemical Contaminants
299(9)
Quality Criteria for Surface Waters
308(8)
8.6 Water Quality Standards
308(1)
8.7 Pollution Effects on Aquatic Life
309(1)
8.8 Conventional Water Pollutants
310(3)
8.9 Toxic Water Pollutants
313(3)
Selected Pollution Parameters
316(14)
8.10 Total and Suspended Solids
316(1)
8.11 Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demands
317(5)
8.12 Coliform Bacteria
322(3)
Problems
325(3)
References
328(2)
Chapter 9 Systems for Treating Wastewater and Water 330(21)
Wastewater Treatment Systems
330(9)
9.1 Purpose of Wastewater Treatment
331(1)
9.2 Selection of Treatment Processes
332(7)
Water Treatment Systems
339(12)
9.3 Water Sources
339(4)
9.4 Selection of Water Treatment Processes
343(4)
9.5 Water-Processing Sludges
347(4)
Chapter 10 Physical Treatment Processes 351(67)
Flow-Measuring Devices
351(3)
10.1 Measurement of Water Flow
351(1)
10.2 Measurement of Wastewater Flow
352(2)
Screening Devices
354(1)
10.3 Water-Intake Screens
354(1)
10.4 Screens in Wastewater Treatment
354(1)
10.5 Shredding Devices
355(1)
Hydraulic Characteristics of Reactors
355(10)
10.6 Residence Time Distribution
356(1)
10.7 Ideal Reactors
357(4)
10.8 Dispersed Plug Flow
361(4)
Mixing and Flocculation
365(5)
10.9 Rapid Mixing
365(1)
10.10 Flocculation
366(4)
Sedimentation
370(14)
10.11 Fundamentals of Sedimentation
370(1)
10.12 Types of Clarifiers
371(3)
10.13 Sedimentation in Water Treatment
374(3)
10.14 Sedimentation in Wastewater Treatment
377(5)
10.15 Grit Chambers in Wastewater Treatment
382(2)
Filtration
384(34)
10.16 Gravity Granular-Media Filtration
384(3)
10.17 Description of a Typical Gravity Filter System
387(5)
10.18 Flow Control Through Gravity Filters
392(6)
10.19 Head Losses Through Filter Media
398(3)
10.20 Backwashing and Media Fluidization
401(6)
10.21 Pressure Filters
407(1)
10.22 Membrane Filtration
407(4)
Problems
411(5)
References
416(2)
Chapter 11 Chemical Treatment Processes 418(102)
Chemical Considerations
418(17)
11.1 Inorganic Chemicals and Compounds
419(4)
11.2 Hydrogen Ion Concentration
423(1)
11.3 Alkalinity and pH Relationships
424(1)
11.4 Chemical Equilibria
425(1)
11.5 Ways of Shifting Chemical Equilibria
426(1)
11.6 Chemical Process Kinetics
427(5)
11.7 Colloidal Dispersions
432(3)
Water Coagulation
435(7)
11.8 Coagulation Process
435(2)
11.9 Coagulants
437(4)
11.10 Polymers
441(1)
Water Softening
442(13)
11.11 Chemistry of Lime-Soda Ash Process
442(2)
11.12 Process Variations in Lime-Soda Ash Softening
444(10)
11.13 Cation Exchange Softening
454(1)
Iron and Manganese Removal
455(4)
11.14 Chemistry of Iron and Manganese
455(1)
11.15 Preventive Treatment
456(1)
11.16 Iron and Manganese Removal Processes
457(2)
Chemical Disinfection and By-Product Formation
459(9)
11.17 Chemistry of Chlorination
459(4)
11.18 Chlorine Dioxide
463(1)
11.19 Ozone
464(1)
11.20 Disinfection By-Products
465(2)
11.21 Control of Disinfection By-Products
467(1)
11.22 Disinfection/Disinfection By-Products Rule
468(1)
Disinfection of Potable Water
468(13)
11.23 Concept of the C.t Product
469(3)
11.24 Surface Water Disinfection
472(4)
11.25 Groundwater Disinfection
476(5)
Disinfection of Wastewater
481(5)
11.26 Conventional Effluent Disinfection
481(3)
11.27 Tertiary Effluent Disinfection
484(2)
Taste and Odor
486(1)
11.28 Control of Taste and Odor
486(1)
Fluoridation
487(2)
11.29 Fluoridation
488(1)
Corrosion and Corrosion Control
489(3)
11.30 Electrochemical Mechanism of Iron Corrosion
489(1)
11.31 Corrosion of Lead Pipe and Solder
490(1)
11.32 Corrosion of Sewer Pipes
491(1)
Reduction of Dissolved Salts
492(8)
11.33 Distillation of Seawater
492(2)
11.34 Reverse Osmosis
494(6)
Volatile Organic Chemical Removal
500(3)
11.35 Design of Air-Stripping Towers
500(3)
Synthetic Organic Chemical Removal
503(17)
11.36 Activated Carbon Adsorption
504(1)
11.37 Granular Activated Carbon Systems
505(1)
Problems
506(11)
References
517(3)
Chapter 12 Biological Treatment Processes 520(124)
Biological Considerations
520(21)
12.1 Bacteria and Fungi
521(1)
12.2 Algae
522(1)
12.3 Protozoans and Higher Animals
523(1)
12.4 Metabolism, Energy, and Synthesis
524(3)
12.5 Enzyme Kinetics
527(2)
12.6 Growth Kinetics of Pure Bacterial Cultures
529(4)
12.7 Biological Growth in Wastewater Treatment
533(2)
12.8 Factors Affecting Growth
535(2)
12.9 Population Dynamics
537(4)
Characteristics of Wastewater
541(7)
12.10 Flow and Strength Variations
542(3)
12.11 Composition of Wastewater
545(3)
Trickling (Biological) Filters
548(24)
12.12 Biological Process in Trickling Filtration
549(1)
12.13 Trickling-Filter Operation and Filter Media Requirements
550(2)
12.14 Trickling-Filter Secondary Systems
552(3)
12.15 Efficiency Equations for Stone-Media Trickling Filters
555(5)
12.16 Efficiency Equations for Plastic-Media Trickling Filters
560(9)
12.17 Combined Trickling-Filter and Activated-Sludge Processes
569(1)
12.18 Description of Rotating Biological Contactor Media and Process
570(2)
Activated Sludge
572(44)
12.19 BOD Loadings and Aeration Periods
573(4)
12.20 Operation of Activated-Sludge Processes
577(1)
12.21 Activated-Sludge Treatment Systems
578(13)
12.22 Kinetics Model of the Activated-Sludge Process
591(5)
12.23 Laboratory Determination of Kinetic Constants
596(5)
12.24 Application of the Kinetics Model in Process Design
601(4)
12.25 Oxygen Transfer and Oxygenation Requirements
605(5)
12.26 Determination of Oxygen Transfer Coefficients
610(6)
Stabilization Ponds
616(9)
12.27 Description of a Facultative Pond
616(2)
12.28 BOD Loadings of Facultative Ponds
618(1)
12.29 Advantages and Disadvantages of Stabilization Ponds
619(2)
12.30 Completely Mixed Aerated Lagoons
621(4)
Odor Control
625(4)
12.31 Sources of Odors in Wastewater Treatment
625(1)
12.32 Methods of Odor Control
626(2)
Individual On-Site Wastewater Disposal
628(1)
12.33 Septic Tank-Absorption Field System
628(1)
Marine Wastewater Disposal
629(15)
12.34 Ocean Outfalls
629(2)
Problems
631(11)
References
642(2)
Chapter 13 Processing of Sludges 644(92)
Sources, Characteristics, and Quantities of Waste Sludges
644(14)
13.1 Weight and Volume Relationships
645(3)
13.2 Characteristics and Quantities of Wastewater Sludges
648(7)
13.3 Characteristics and Quantities of Water-Processing Sludges
655(3)
Arrangement of Unit Processes in Sludge Disposal
658(10)
13.4 Selection of Processes for Wastewater Sludges
658(6)
13.5 Selection of Processes for Water Treatment Sludges
664(4)
Gravity Thickening
668(3)
13.6 Gravity Sludge Thickeners in Wastewater Treatment
668(2)
13.7 Gravity Sludge Thickeners in Water Treatment
670(1)
Gravity Belt Thickening
671(6)
13.8 Description of a Gravity Belt Thickener
672(1)
13.9 Layout of a Gravity Belt Thickener System
672(2)
13.10 Sizing of Gravity Belt Thickeners
674(3)
Flotation Thickening
677(4)
13.11 Description of Dissolved-Air Flotation
678(1)
13.12 Design of Dissolved-Air Flotation Units
679(2)
Biological Sludge Digestion
681(16)
13.13 Anaerobic Sludge Digestion
681(1)
13.14 Single-Stage Floating-Cover Digesters
682(2)
13.15 High-Rate (Completely Mixed) Digesters
684(2)
13.16 Volatile Solids Loadings and Digester Capacity
686(4)
13.17 Aerobic Sludge Digestion
690(4)
13.18 Open-Air Drying Beds
694(1)
13.19 Composting
695(2)
Pressure Filtration
697(11)
13.20 Description of Belt Filter Press Dewatering
697(3)
13.21 Application of Belt Filter Dewatering
700(2)
13.22 Sizing of Belt Filter Presses
702(2)
13.23 Description of Filter Press Dewatering
704(2)
13.24 Application of Pressure Filtration
706(2)
Centrifugation
708(7)
13.25 Description of Centrifugation
708(2)
13.26 Applications of Centrifugation
710(5)
Cycling of Waste Solids in Treatment Plants
715(2)
13.27 Suspended-Solids Removal Efficiency
715(2)
Final Disposal or Use
717(19)
13.28 Land Application
718(5)
13.29 Codisposal in a Municipal Solid-Waste Landfill
723(1)
13.30 Surface Land Disposal
724(1)
Problems
724(10)
References
734(2)
Chapter 14 Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes and Water Reuse 736(94)
Limitations of Secondary Treatment
737(4)
14.1 Effluent Standards
737(2)
14.2 Flow Equalization
739(2)
Selection of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes
741(2)
14.3 Selecting and Combining Unit Processes
742(1)
Suspended-Solids Removal
743(6)
14.4 Granular-Media Filtration
743(4)
14.5 Direct Filtration with Chemical Coagulation
747(2)
Carbon Adsorption
749(2)
14.6 Granular-Carbon Columns
749(1)
14.7 Activated-Sludge Treatment with Powdered Activated Carbon
750(1)
Phosphorus Removal
751(9)
14.8 Biological Phosphorus Removal
752(1)
14.9 Biological-Chemical Phosphorus Removal
753(4)
14.10 Tracing Phosphorus Through Treatment Processes
757(3)
Nitrogen Removal
760(21)
14.11 Tracing Nitrogen Through Treatment Processes
761(2)
14.12 Biological Nitrification
763(8)
14.13 Biological Denitrification
771(4)
14.14 Single-Sludge Biological Nitrification-Denitrification
775(6)
Water Reuse
781(49)
14.15 Water Quality and Reuse Applications
781(7)
14.16 Agricultural Irrigation
788(7)
14.17 Agricultural Irrigation Reuse, Tallahassee, Florida
795(7)
14.18 Citrus Irrigation and Groundwater Recharge, Orange County and City of Orlando, Florida
802(4)
14.19 Urban Reuse
806(1)
14.20 Urban Reuse, St. Petersburg, Florida
807(4)
14.21 Indirect Reuse to Augment Drinking Water Supply
811(3)
14.22 Fred Hervey Water Reclamation Plant, El Paso, Texas
814(3)
14.23 Direct Injection for Potable Supply, El Paso, Texas
817(5)
14.24 Water Factory 21 and Groundwater Replenishment System, Orange County, California
822(8)
Problems 830(11)
References 841(3)
Appendix 844(11)
Index 855

Excerpts

This seventh edition ofWater Supply and Pollution Controlhas been updated and its coverage of topics expanded to meet the contemporary needs of civil and environmental engineering students. As we embark upon the twenty-first century, engineers responsible for providing safe water supplies to the inhabitants of this planet, and for treating wastes to render them reusable, will face many challenges. These include providing needed quantities of good-quality water for drinking and other household purposes, especially in water-short areas, and dealing with wastes that sometimes contain staggering levels of harmful substances. The engineers of tomorrow must be equipped to deal with a diversity of issues, such as forecasting future levels of population; estimating the potential for technological developments to reduce water requirements; recognizing that allocating water to meet human and other traditional water needs must also compete with water requirements for sustaining natural systems; exploring the impacts of climate change on local to global water supplies; and designing water supply and wastewater management systems to take into account technical, economic, environmental, social, legal, and political elements. The notion of continually striving to provide more water is giving way to one of husbanding this precious natural resource. Water Supply and Pollution Controlhas been revised to include new material on standards, water and wastewater treatment processes, water distribution system analysis and design, water quality, advanced wastewater treatment for recycling, storm water management, and urban hydrology. In particular, there are major revisions of the chapters, or sections, on water supply and use (Chapters 3 and 4), water distribution (Chapter 6), hydraulics and hydrology of sewer and storm drainage systems (Chapter 7), monitoring of drinking water for pathogens (Chapter 8), membrane filtration (Chapter 10), disinfection/disinfection by-products rule (Chapter 11), biological treatment processes (Chapter 12), and indirect reuse to augment drinking water supply (Chapter 14). New topics, such as security of potable water supplies, the use of membranes in water treatment, and the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to water supply and wastewater management problems, have been introduced. There are more practical examples, and many new problems have been added. Consistent with the original intent of the book, the emphasis is on theapplicationof scientific methods to problems associated with the development, movement, and treatment of water and wastewater. The book's tradition of presenting treatment processes in the context of what they can do, rather than in the context of water or wastewater treatment, is becoming more and more appropriate as we move toward the concept of total water management, recognizing that all waters are potential sources of supply. Water reuse is increasingly becoming an important national consideration. On the water supply side, more attention is paid to the sharing of water with natural systems and the impacts that this has on the quantities of water available for traditional water-using sectors, including public water supply. Many solved examples and homework problems serve to amplify the concepts presented in the text, and appropriate Web addresses have been provided where applicable. Numerous sources have been drawn upon to provide subject matter for the book, and the authors have endeavored to provide suitable acknowledgment for them. The authors also wish to acknowledge the advice and assistance of students, professors, and practicing engineers who have reviewed and commented on previous editions. Particular recognition is given to those who helped prepare the manuscript for the seventh edition, namely, Audrey Hammer and Bette Viessman. We are indebted to them for their perseverance and understanding and for the excellent quality of their


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