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A book that helps students see the big picture
Ways of the World has quickly become one of the most widely adopted new world history textbooks and offers a genuine alternative for your world history survey. Designed as a brief text, Ways of the World focuses on the big picture of significant historical trends, themes, and developments. Author Robert W. Strayer, a pioneer in the world history movement with years of classroom experience, provides a thoughtful and insightful synthesis. The brief narrative allows you to supplement with your own readings and course materials and provides an affordable option for your students. The second edition rolls out Bedford/St. Martin's new digital history tools, including LearningCurve, an adaptive quizzing engine that garners over a 90% student satisfaction rate, and LaunchPad, the all new interactive e-book and course space that puts high quality easy-to-use assessment at your fingertips. Easy to integrate into your campus LMS, and featuring video, additional primary sources, a wealth of adaptive and summative quizzing, and more, LaunchPad cements student understanding of the text while helping them make progress toward learning outcomes. It's the best content joined up with the best technology. Available in combined and split volumes and in a variety of electronic formats. Also available in a docutext edition with sources.
Robert W. Strayer (PhD, University of Wisconsin) taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at SUNY College at Brockport, where he received Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. His scholarship includes work in African history (Kenya: Focus on Nationalism, 1975; The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa, 1978); Soviet history (Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?,1998; The Communist Experiment, 2007) and World History (The Making of the Modern World, 1988, 1995; Ways of the World, 2009, 2011). He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee.
Table of Contents
Preface Versions and Supplements Maps Special Features Prologue: From Cosmic History to Human History The History of the Universe The History of a Planet The History of the Human Species... in a Single Paragraph Why World History? Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs of World History Snapshot: A History of the Universe as a Cosmic Calendar Part One: First Things First: Beginnings in History, to 500 b.c.e. The Big Picture Turning Points in Early World History The Emergence of Humankind The Globalization of Humankind The Revolution of Farming and Herding The Turning Point of Civilization A Note on Dates *Mapping Part One 1 Chapter One: First Peoples; First Farmers: Most of History in a Single Chapter, To 4000 b.c.e. Out of Africa to the Ends of the Earth: First Migrations Into Eurasia Into Australia Into the Americas Into the Pacific The Ways We Were The First Human Societies Economy and the Environment The Realm of the Spirit Settling Down: The Great Transition Breakthroughs to Agriculture Common Patterns Variations The Globalization of Agriculture Triumph and Resistance The Culture of Agriculture Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture Pastoral Societies Agricultural Village Societies Chiefdoms Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic Second Thoughts What's the Significance Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Paleolithic Era in Perspective *Portrait: Ishi, The Last of His People 2 First Civilizations: Cities, States, and Unequal Societies, 3500 b.c.e.–500 b.c.e. Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations Introducing the First Civilizations The Question of Origins An Urban Revolution The Erosion of Equality Hierarchies of Class Hierarchies of Gender Patriarchy in Practice The Rise of the State Coercion and Consent Writing and Accounting The Grandeur of Kings Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt Environment and Culture Cities and States Interaction and Exchange Reflections: "Civilization": What’s in a Word? Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Writing in Ancient Civilizations *Portrait: Paneb of Egypt Part Two: Second Wave Civilizations in World History, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e. The Big Picture After the First Civilizations: What Changed and What Didn’t? Continuities in Civilization Changes in Civilization Snapshot: World Population during the Age of Agricultural Civilization *Mapping Part Two 3 State and Empire in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e. Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks The Persian Empire The Greeks Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese Rome: From City-State to Empire China: From Warring States to Empire Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires The Collapse of Empires Intermittent Empire: The Case of India Reflections: Enduring Legacies of Second-Wave Empires Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Distinctive Features of Second-Wave Eurasian Civilizations *Portrait: Trung Trac, Resisting the Chinese Empire 4 Culture and Religion in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e. China and the Search for Order The Legalist Answer The Confucian Answer The Daoist Answer Cultural Traditions of Classical India South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation The Buddhist Challenge Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion Moving toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the Middle East Zoroastrianism Judaism The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for a Rational Order The Greek Way of Knowing The Greek Legacy The Birth of ChristianityÉwith Buddhist Comparisons The Lives of the Founders The Spread of New Religions Institutions, Controversies, and Divisions Reflections: Religion and Historians Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Thinkers and Philosophies of the Second-Wave Era *Portrait: Perpetua, Christian Martyr 5 Society and Inequality in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e. Society and the State in China An Elite of Officials The Landlord Class Peasants Merchants Class and Caste in India Caste as Varna Caste as Jati The Functions of Caste Slavery: The Case of the Roman Empire Slavery and Civilization The Making of Roman Slavery Resistance and Rebellion Comparing Patriarchies A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China Contrasting Patriarchies in Athens and Sparta Reflections: Arguing with Solomon and the Buddha Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Social Life and Duty in India *Portrait: Ge Hong, a Chinese Scholar in Troubled Times 6 Commonalities and Variations: Africa and the Americas, 500 b.c.e.–1200 c.e. Continental Comparisons African Civilizations Meroe: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom Along the Niger River: Cities without States Civilizations of Mesoamerica The Maya: Writing and Warfare Teotihuacan: The Americas’ Greatest City Civilizations of the Andes Chavin: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement Moche: A Civilization of the Coast Wari and Tiwanaku: Empires of the Interior Alternatives to Civilization: Bantu Africa Cultural Encounters Society and Religion Alternatives to Civilization: North America The Ancestral Pueblo: Pit Houses and Great Houses Peoples of the Eastern Woodlands: The Mound Builders Reflections: Deciding What’s Important: Balance in World History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Continental Population in the Second-Wave Era *Portrait: Piye, Kushite Conqueror of Egypt Part Three: An Age of Accelerating Connections, 500–1500 The Big Picture Defining a Millennium Third-Wave Civilizations: Something New, Something Old, Something Blended The Ties That Bind: Transregional Interaction in the Third Wave Era *Mapping Part Three 7 Commerce and Culture, 500–1500 Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia The Growth of the Silk Roads Goods in Transit Cultures in Transit Disease in Transit Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara Commercial Beginnings in West Africa Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the Western Hemisphere Reflections: Economic Globalization—Ancient and Modern Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Economic Exchange along the Silk Roads Snapshot: Economic Exchange in the Indian Ocean Basin *Portrait: Thorfinn Karlsefni, Viking Voyager 8 China and the World: East Asian Connections, 500–1300 Together Again: The Reemergence of a Unified China A "Golden Age" of Chinese Achievement Women in the Song Dynasty China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order in the Making The Tribute System in Theory The Tribute System in Practice Cultural Influence across an Ecological Frontier Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan Korea and China Vietnam and China Japan and China China and the Eurasian World Economy Spillovers: China’s Impact on Eurasia On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary China and Buddhism Making Buddhism Chinese Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism Reflections: Why Do Things Change? Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve *Snapshot: Chinese Technological Achievements *Portrait: Izumi Shikibu, Japanese Poet and Lover 9 The Worlds of Islam: Afro-Eurasian Connections, 600–1500 The Birth of a New Religion The Homeland of Islam The Messenger and the Message The Transformation of Arabia The Making of an Arab Empire War, Conquest, and Tolerance Conversion Divisions and Controversies Women and Men in Early Islam Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison The Case of India The Case of Anatolia The Case of West Africa The Case of Spain The World of Islam as a New Civilization Networks of Faith Networks of Exchange Reflections: Past and Present: Choosing Our History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Key Achievements in Islamic Science and Scholarship *Portrait: Mansa Musa, West African Monarch and Muslim Pilgrim 10 The Worlds of Christendom: Contraction, Expansion, and Division, 500–1300 Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa Asian Christianity African Christianity Byzantine Christendom: Building on the Roman Past The Byzantine State The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence Byzantium and the World The Conversion of Russia Western Christendom: Rebuilding in the Wake of Roman Collapse Political Life in Western Europe, 500–1000 Society and the Church, 500–1000 Accelerating Change in the West, 1000–1300 Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition The West in Comparative Perspective Catching Up Pluralism in Politics Reason and Faith Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and Surprise in the Worlds of Christendom Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve *Snapshot: European Borrowing *Portrait: Cecilia Penifader, An English Peasant and Unmarried Woman 11 Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol Moment, 1200–1500 Looking Back and Looking Around: The Long History of Pastoral Nomads The World of Pastoral Societies Before the Mongols: Pastoralists in History Breakout: The Mongol Empire From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire Explaining the Mongol Moment Encountering the Mongols: Comparing Three Cases China and the Mongols Persia and the Mongols Russia and the Mongols The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network Toward a World Economy Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm The Plague: An Afro-Eurasian Pandemic Reflections: Changing Images of Nomadic Peoples Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Varieties of Pastoral Societies *Portrait, Khutulun, A Mongol Wrestler Princess 12 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century The Shapes of Human Communities Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois Herding Peoples: Central Asia and West Africa Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe Ming Dynasty China European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas The Aztec Empire The Inca Empire Webs of Connection A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era, 1500–2012 Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the Fifteenth Century Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000–2000 *Portrait: Zheng He, China's Non-Chinese Admiral Notes Index Acknowledgments About the Author
*New to this edition