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A book that helps students see the big picture
Ways of the World has quickly become one of the most widely adopted new world history textbooks and offers a genuine alternative for your world history survey. Designed as a brief text, Ways of the World focuses on the big picture of significant historical trends, themes, and developments. Author Robert W. Strayer, a pioneer in the world history movement with years of classroom experience, provides a thoughtful and insightful synthesis. The brief narrative allows you to supplement with your own readings and course materials and provides an affordable option for your students. The second edition rolls out Bedford/St. Martin's new digital history tools, including LearningCurve, an adaptive quizzing engine that garners over a 90% student satisfaction rate, and LaunchPad, the all new interactive e-book and course space that puts high quality easy-to-use assessment at your fingertips. Easy to integrate into your campus LMS, and featuring video, additional primary sources, a wealth of adaptive and summative quizzing, and more, LaunchPad cements student understanding of the text while helping them make progress toward learning outcomes. It's the best content joined up with the best technology. Available in combined and split volumes and in a variety of electronic formats. Also available in a docutext edition with sources.
Robert W. Strayer (PhD, University of Wisconsin) taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at SUNY College at Brockport, where he received Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. His scholarship includes work in African history (Kenya: Focus on Nationalism, 1975; The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa, 1978); Soviet history (Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?,1998; The Communist Experiment, 2007) and World History (The Making of the Modern World, 1988, 1995; Ways of the World, 2009, 2011). He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee.
Table of Contents
PrefaceVersions and Supplements MapsSpecial FeaturesPrologue: The Three Cs of World History: Change, Comparison, and Connection Context in World History: Change Context in World History: Comparison Context in World History: Connection 12 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century The Shapes of Human Communities Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois Herding Peoples: Central Asia and West Africa Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe Ming Dynasty China European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas The Aztec Empire The Inca Empire Webs of Connection A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era, 1500–2012 Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the Fifteenth Century Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000–2000 *Portrait: Zheng He, China's Non-Chinese Admiral Part Four: The Early Modern World, 1450–1750 The Big Picture Debating the Character of an Era An Early Modern Era? A Late Agrarian Era? *Mapping Part Four 13 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters, 1450–1750 European Empires in the Americas The European Advantage The Great Dying The Columbian Exchange Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas Colonies of Sugar Settler Colonies in North America The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire Experiencing the Russian Empire Russians and Empire Asian Empires Making China an Empire Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire Reflections: The Centrality of Context in World History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Ethnic Composition of Colonial Societies in Latin America *Portrait: Do–a Marina, Between Two Worlds 14. Economic Transformations: Commerce and Consequence, 1450–1750 Europeans and Asian Commerce A Portuguese Empire of Commerce Spain and the Philippines The East India Companies Asian Commerce Silver and Global Commerce The "World Hunt": Fur in Global Commerce Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade The Slave Trade in Context The Slave Trade in Practice Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa Reflections: Economic Globalization—Then and Now Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers (1501-1866) *Portrait: Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, To Slavery and Back 15 Cultural Transformations: Religion and Science, 1450–1750 The Globalization of Christianity Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation Christianity Outward Bound Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World China: New Directions in an Old Tradition India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science The Question of Origins: Why Europe? Science as Cultural Revolution Science and Enlightenment Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century European Science beyond the West Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the Sixteenth Century Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the Scientific Revolution *Portrait: Ursula de Jesus, An Afro-Peruvian Slave and Christian Visionary Part Five: The European Moment In World History, 1750–1914 The Big Picture European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism Eurocentric Geography and History Countering Eurocentrism *Mapping Part Five 16 Atlantic Revolutions, Global Echoes, 1750–1914 Atlantic Revolutions in a Global Context Comparing Atlantic Revolutions The North American Revolution, 1775–1787 The French Revolution, 1789–1815 The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804 Spanish American Revolutions, 1810–1825 Echoes of Revolution The Abolition of Slavery Nations and Nationalism Feminist Beginnings Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism *Portrait: Kartini, Feminism and Nationalism in Java 17 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750–1914 Explaining the Industrial Revolution Why Europe? Why Britain? The First Industrial Society The British Aristocracy The Middle Classes The Laboring Classes Social Protest Europeans in Motion Variations on a Theme: Comparing Industrialization in the United States and Russia The United States: Industrialization without Socialism Russia: Industrialization and Revolution The Industrial Revolution and Latin America in the Nineteenth Century After Independence in Latin America Facing the World Economy Becoming like Europe? Reflections: History and Horse Races Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide *Portrait: Ellen Johnston, Factory Girl and Poet 18 Colonial Encounters in Asia and Africa, 1750–1950 Industry and Empire A Second Wave of European Conquests Under European Rule Cooperation and Rebellion Colonial Empires with a Difference Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market Economies of Wage Labor: Migration for Work Women and the Colonial Economy: Examples from Africa Assessing Colonial Development Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era Education Religion "Race" and "Tribe" Reflections: Who Makes History? Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Long-Distance Migration in an Age of Empire, 1846–1940 *Portrait: Wanjiku of Kenya, An Ordinary Woman in Extraordinary Times 19 Empire in Collision: Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia, 1800–1914 Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis The Crisis Within Western Pressures The Failure of ConservativeModernization The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century "The Sick Man of Europe" Reform and Its Opponents Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power The Tokugawa Background American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration Modernization Japanese Style Japan and the World Reflections: Success and Failure in History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further StudyLearningCurve Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835–1836 *Portrait: Commissioner Lin, Confronting the Opium Trade Part Six: The Most Recent Century, 1914–2012 The Big Picture Since World War I: A New Period in World History?*Mapping Part Six 20 Collapse at the Center: World War, Depression, and the Rebalancing of Global Power, 1914–1970s The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914–1918 An Accident Waiting to Happen Legacies of the Great War Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan The Fascist Alternative in Europe Hitler and the Nazis Japanese Authoritarianism A Second World War The Road to War in Asia The Road to War in Europe The Outcomes of Global Conflict The Recovery of Europe Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression *Portrait: Etty Hillesum, Witness to the Holocaust 21 Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conflict: The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917–Present Global Communism Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism Russia: Revolution in a Single Year China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle Building Socialism in Two Countries Communist Feminism Socialism in the Countryside Communism and Industrial Development The Search for Enemies East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War Military Conflict and the Cold War Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry Paths to the End of Communism China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: China under Mao, 1949–1976 *Portrait: Anna Dubova, A Peasant Woman and Soviet Communist 22 The End of Empire: The Global South on the Global Stage, 1914–Present Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence The End of Empire in World History Explaining African and Asian Independence Comparing Freedom Struggles The Case of India: Ending British Rule The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid Experiments with Freedom Experiments in Political Order: Party, Army, and the Fate of Democracy Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities, Varying Outcomes Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1950-2011 *Portrait: Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Muslim Pacifist 23 Capitalism and Culture: A New Phase of Global Interaction, since 1945 The Transformation of the World Economy Reglobalization Growth, Instability, and Inequality Globalization and an American Empire The Globalization of Liberation: Focus on Feminism Feminism in the West Feminism in the Global South International Feminism Religion and Global Modernity Fundamentalism on a Global Scale Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the World of Islam Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism Experiencing the Anthropocene Era: Environment and Environmentalism The Global Environment Transformed Green and Global Final Reflections: Pondering the OAR Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve *Snapshot: Global Development and Inequality: 2011 *Portrait: Rachel Carson, Pioneer of Environmentalism Notes Index Acknowledgments About the Author