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Welding Principles and Applications

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780827382404

ISBN10:
0827382405
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/30/1997
Publisher(s):
CENGAGE Delmar Learning
List Price: $236.66

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This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 9/30/1997.
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Summary

This all-encompassing guide covers all aspects of welding, as progressively guiding them from the absolute basics to AWS Certified Welder Test preparation. Experiments and practices are designed to familiarize the student with a wide range of machine settings, production of quality welds, while minimizing wasted stock and nonskilled work such as grinding and finishing.Based on standards established by the American Welding Society, the student learns to develop industry-acceptable practices for professional application.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xv
Index of Experiments and Practices xvi
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
Introduction to Welding
Introduction
2(1)
Welding Defined
3(1)
Uses of Welding
4(2)
Welding Processes
6(4)
Occupational Opportunities in Welding
10(2)
Training for Welding Occupations
12(1)
Experiments and Practices
12(2)
Metric Units
14(5)
Safety in Welding
Introduction
19(1)
Burns
20(1)
Eye and Ear Protection
21(4)
Respiratory Protection
25(1)
Material Specification Data Sheets (MSDS's)
26(1)
Ventilation
26(1)
Electrical Safety
27(1)
General Work Clothing
28(1)
Special Protective Clothing
28(2)
Handling and Storing Cylinders
30(1)
Fire Protection
31(2)
Equipment Maintenance
33(1)
Work Area
33(1)
Hand Tools
34(1)
Power Tools
34(2)
Metal Cutting Machines
36(1)
Material Handling
37(1)
Safety First
38(6)
SECTION 2 SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING
Shielded Metal Arc Equipment, Setup, and Operation
Introduction
44(1)
Welding Current
45(2)
Types of Welding Power
47(1)
Open Circuit Voltage
47(1)
Operating Voltage
48(1)
Arc Blow
48(1)
Types of Power Sources
49(3)
Generators and Alternators
52(1)
Rectifiers
53(1)
Duty Cycle
54(1)
Welding Cables
55(1)
Electrode Holders
55(2)
Work Clamps
57(1)
Setup
58(3)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Plate
Introduction
61(2)
Effect of Too High or Too Low Current Settings
63(1)
Electrode Size and Heat
64(1)
Arc Length
65(1)
Electrode Angle
66(3)
Electrode Manipulation
69(1)
Positioning of the Welder and the Plate
70(1)
Practice Welds
71(1)
Stringer Beads
72(2)
Square Butt Joint
74(4)
Lap Joint
78(3)
Tee Joint
81(5)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Pipe
Introduction
86(1)
Pipe and Tubing
87(4)
Preparation and Fitup
91(1)
Practice Welds
92(3)
1G Horizontal Rolled Position
95(4)
2G Vertical Fixed Position
99(2)
5G Horizontal Fixed Position
101(1)
6G 45° Inclined Position
102(5)
Advanced Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Introduction
107(1)
Root Pass
108(5)
Hot Pass
113(2)
Filler Pass
115(2)
Cover Pass
117(1)
Plate Preparation
117(2)
Preparing Specimens for Testing
119(2)
Restarting a Weld Bead
121(1)
Preheating and Postheating
121(9)
Poor Fit
130(8)
SECTION 3 CUTTING AND GOUGING
Flame Cutting
Introduction
138(1)
Eye Protection for Flame Cutting
139(1)
Cutting Torches
139(2)
Cutting Tips
141(2)
Oxyfuel Cutting, Setup, and Operation
143(3)
Hand Cutting
146(3)
Layout
149(1)
Selecting the Correct Tip and Setting the Pressure
149(2)
The Chemistry of a Cut
151(1)
The Physics of a Cut
152(3)
Plate Cutting
155(1)
Methods of Improving Cuts
155(1)
Distortion
156(2)
Cutting Applications
158(1)
Pipe Cutting
159(6)
Plasma Arc Cutting
Introduction
165(1)
Plasma
166(1)
Arc Plasma
166(1)
Plasma Torch
166(2)
Power and Gas Cables
168(2)
Power Requirements
170(1)
Heat Input
171(1)
Distortion
171(1)
Applications
172(3)
Gases
175(1)
Machine Cutting
176(1)
Manual Cutting
177(1)
Plasma Arc Gouging
178(1)
Safety
179(7)
Related Cutting Processes
Introduction
186(1)
Laser Beam Cutting (LBC) and Laser Beam Drilling (LBD)
186(1)
Lasers
187(2)
Applications
189(1)
Laser Beam Cutting
189(1)
Laser Beam Drilling
190(1)
Laser Equipment
190(1)
Air Carbon Arc Cutting
191(1)
Manual Torch Design
192(3)
Safety
195(4)
Oxygen Lance Cutting
199(1)
Application
199(1)
Water Jet Cutting
199(1)
Applications
200(6)
SECTION 4 GAS SHIELDED WELDING
Gas Metal Arc Welding Equipment, Setup, and Operation
Introduction
206(2)
Metal Transfer
208(5)
Filler Metal Specifications
213(1)
Wire Melting and Deposition Rates
213(1)
Welding Power Supplies
213(3)
Molten Weld Pool Control
216(4)
Equipment
220(5)
Spot Welding
225(5)
Gas Metal Arc Welding
Introduction
230(1)
Setup
230(7)
Gas Density and Flow Rates
237(1)
Arc-Voltage and Amperage Characteristics
238(1)
Electrode Extension
239(2)
Welding Gun Angle
241(1)
Effect of Shielding Gas on Welding
241(2)
Practices
243(1)
Metal Preparation
244(1)
Flat Position, 1G and 1F Position
245(4)
Vertical Up 3G and 3F Positions
249(2)
Vertical Down 3G and 3F Positions
251(1)
Horizontal 2G and 2F Positions
252(1)
Overhead 4G and 4F Positions
253(2)
Pulsed-Arc Metal Transfer, 1G Position
255(3)
Axial Spray
258(5)
Flux Cored Arc Welding Equipment, Setup, and Operation
Introduction
263(1)
Principles of Operation
264(2)
Equipment
266(1)
Advantages
266(1)
Limitations
267(1)
Electrodes: Methods of Manufacturing
267(1)
Flux
268(4)
Shielding Gas
272(1)
Welding Techniques
273(6)
Flux Cored Arc Welding
Introduction
279(1)
Practices
280(3)
Flat-Position Welds
283(1)
Square-Groove Welds
284(2)
V-Groove and Bevel-Groove Welds
286(5)
Fillet Welds
291(6)
Vertical Welds
297(5)
Horizontal Welds
302(4)
Overhead-Position Welds
306(4)
Thin-Gauge Welding
310(7)
Other Constant Potential Welding Processes
Introduction
317(1)
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
318(1)
Weld Travel
318(1)
Electrode Feed
319(1)
Contact Tip
320(1)
Electrode
320(1)
Flux
320(1)
Advantages of SAW
321(1)
Disadvantages
321(1)
Arc Starting
322(1)
Weld Backing
322(1)
Hand-Held SAW
322(1)
Experiments
322(1)
Electroslag Welding (ESW)
323(2)
Electrogas Welding (EGW)
325(4)
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Equipment, Setup, Operation, and Filler Metals
Introduction
329(3)
Types of Tungsten
332(1)
Shaping the Tungsten
333(2)
GTA Welding Equipment
335(4)
Types of Welding Currents
339(2)
Shielding Gases
341(2)
Remote Controls
343(8)
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Plate
Introduction
351(1)
Torch Angle
352(1)
Filler Rod Manipulation
352(1)
Tungsten Contamination
353(1)
Current Setting
354(1)
Gas Flow
355(2)
Practice Welds
357(24)
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Pipe
Introduction
381(1)
Practices
382(1)
Joint Preparation
382(1)
Root
383(2)
Backing Gas
385(2)
Filler Metal
387(4)
Hot Pass
391(3)
Filler Pass
394(1)
Cover Pass
395(11)
SECTION 5 RELATED PROCESSES
Welding Joint Design, Welding Symbols, and Fabrication
Introduction
406(1)
Weld Joint Design
407(6)
Mechanical Drawings
413(5)
Welding Symbols
418(1)
Indicating Types of Welds
418(1)
Weld Location
419(1)
Location Significance of Arrow
420(1)
Fillet Welds
421(1)
Plug Welds
421(1)
Spot Welds
422(1)
Seam Welds
423(1)
Groove Welds
423(2)
Backing
425(1)
Flanged Welds
425(2)
Nondestructive Testing Symbols
427(3)
Fabrication
430(4)
Layout
434(8)
Material Shapes
442(3)
Assembly
445(1)
Assembly Tools
446(1)
Fitting
447(1)
Tack Welding
448(1)
Welding
449(2)
Finishing
451(6)
Welding Codes, Standards and Welding Cost
Introduction
457(1)
Codes, Standards, Procedures, and Specifications
458(1)
Welding Procedure Qualification
459(1)
General Information
460(11)
Welding Costs
471(1)
Cost Estimation
472(2)
Weld Metal Cost
474(7)
Factors for Cost Formulas
481(4)
Comparing Weld Metal Costs
485(3)
Other Useful Formulas
488(4)
Testing and Inspection of Welds
Introduction
492(1)
Quality Control
492(1)
Discontinuities and Defects
493(6)
Destructive Testing
499(9)
Nondestructive Testing
508(12)
Welder Certification
Introduction
520(1)
Qualified and Certified Welders
521(1)
AWS Entry-Level Welder Qualification and Welder Certification
521(8)
Welding Skill Development
529(2)
Welder Qualification and Certification Test Instructions for Practices
531(1)
Dimensional Tolerances
531(4)
Dimensional Tolerances
535(3)
Layout, Assembly, and Fabrication of Weldments
538(31)
Performance Qualification Test Record
569(2)
Railroad Welding
Introduction
571(1)
Rail Types
572(3)
Continuous Welded Track
575(1)
Rail Repairs
575(4)
Gouging
579(1)
Cracks
579(1)
Rail Ends
580(1)
Arc Welding (AW)
580(3)
Flash Welding (FW)
583(1)
Thermite Welding (TW)
583(7)
SECTION 6 RELATED PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGY
Welding Metallurgy
Introduction
590(1)
Heat, Temperature, and Energy
591(2)
Mechanical Properties of Metal
593(2)
Structure of Matter
595(1)
Crystalline Structures of Metal
595(1)
Phase Diagrams
596(5)
Strengthening Mechanisms
601(6)
Heat Treatments Associated with Welding
607(2)
Thermal Effects Caused by Arc Welding
609(1)
Gases in Welding
610(3)
Metallurgical Defects
613(5)
Weldability of Metals
Introduction
618(1)
Steel Classification and Identification
619(1)
Carbon and Alloy Steels
619(3)
Tool Steel
622(1)
High-Manganese Steel
622(1)
Low-Alloy, High-Tensile Strength Steels
623(1)
Stainless Steels
623(1)
Chromium-Molybdenum Steel
624(1)
Cast Iron
624(2)
Copper and Copper Alloys
626(1)
Aluminum Weldability
626(1)
Titanium
626(1)
Magnesium
626(1)
Repair Welding
627(6)
Filler Metal Selection
Introduction
633(7)
SMAW Operating Information
640(1)
Core Wire
641(1)
Functions of the Flux Covering
641(1)
Filler Metal Selection
641(2)
AWS Filler Metal Classifications
643(1)
Carbon Steel
643(9)
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
652(5)
Welding Automation and Robotics
Introduction
657(1)
Manual Joining Process
658(1)
Semiautomatic Joining Processes
658(1)
Machine Joining Processes
659(1)
Automatic Joining Processes
660(1)
Automated Joining
660(1)
Industrial Robots
661(11)
Future Automation
672(4)
Other Welding Processes
Introduction
676(1)
Resistance Welding (RW)
677(7)
Electron Beam Welding (EBW)
684(2)
Ultrasonic Welding (USW)
686(1)
Inertia Welding Process
687(3)
Laser Welding (LBW)
690(1)
Plasma-Arc Welding Process (PAW)
691(1)
Stud Welding (SW)
692(1)
Hardfacing
693(3)
Thermal Spraying (THSP)
696(2)
Cold Welding (CW)
698(8)
SECTION 7 OXYFUEL
Oxyfuel Welding and Cutting Equipment, Setup, and Operation
Introduction
706(1)
Pressure Regulators
707(6)
Welding and Cutting Torches Design and Service
713(3)
Welding and Heating Tips
716(1)
Reverse Flow and Flashback Valves
717(2)
Hoses and Fittings
719(1)
Backfires and Flashbacks
720(1)
Types of Flames
721(1)
Leak Detection
722(5)
Manifold Systems
727(2)
Safety
729(4)
Oxyfuel Gases and Filler Metals
Introduction
733(1)
Fuel Gases
734(1)
Flame Rate of Burning
735(1)
Acetylene (C2H2)
736(3)
Liquefied Fuel Gases
739(1)
Pressure
739(1)
Methylacetylene-Propadiene (MPS)
739(3)
Propane and Natural Gas
742(1)
Hydrogen
742(3)
Filler Metals
745(1)
Mild Steel
746(3)
Oxyacetylene Welding
Introduction
749(1)
Mild Steel Welds
750(7)
Outside Corner Joint
757(1)
Butt Joint
758(2)
Lap Joint
760(3)
Tee Joint
763(2)
Out-of-Position Welding
765(1)
Vertical Welds
765(1)
Butt Joint
766(1)
Lap Joint
766(1)
Tee Joint
767(1)
Horizontal Welds
768(1)
Horizontal Stringer Bead
768(1)
Butt Joint
769(1)
Lap Joint
769(1)
Tee Joint
769(1)
Overhead Welds
770(1)
Stringer Bead
770(1)
Mild Steel Pipe and Tubing
771(1)
Horizontal Rolled Position 1G
771(2)
Horizontal Fixed Position 5G
773(2)
Vertical Fixed Position 2G
775(1)
45° Fixed Position 6G
775(1)
Thin-Wall Tubing
776(4)
Soldering, Brazing, and Braze Welding
Introduction
780(1)
Advantages of Soldering and Brazing
781(2)
Physical Properties of the Joint
783(1)
Fluxes
784(2)
Soldering and Brazing Methods
786(4)
Filler Metals
790(4)
Joint Design
794(8)
Building Up Surfaces and Filling Holes
802(2)
Soldering
804(8)
APPENDIX
I. Conversion of Decimal Inches to Millimeters and Fractional Inches to Decimal Inches and Millimeters
812(1)
II. Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary (Standard) Units and Metric Units (SI)
813(2)
III. Abbreviations and Symbols
815(1)
IV. Metric Conversions Approximations
816(1)
V. Pressure Conversion
816(1)
VI. Structural Metal Shape Designations
817(14)
VII. Welding Codes and Specifications
831(1)
VIII. Welding Associations and Organizations
832(3)
Glossary 835(50)
Index 885


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