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Well-crafted Argument: A Guide And Reader,9780618438112
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Well-crafted Argument: A Guide And Reader

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780618438112

ISBN10:
0618438114
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Heinle

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Summary

The goal of this two-part argument rhetoric/reader is to equip students with a complete set of skills (writing, arguing, reasoning, critical reading and thinking, researching) necessary for writing argumentative essays in a wide variety of contexts and disciplines. The Well-Crafted Argument uses a practical, accessible, skills-based approach to teaching argument while encouraging students to develop their individual voices and visions. Part One, "The Rhetoric of Argument," covers using the writing process when writing arguments, framing arguments using three main models (Classic, Toulmin, and Rogerian), reasoning and avoiding fallacies, critical reading and thinking, research, and documentation of sources. Integrated throughout this part are 16 sample arguments, including Thomas Jefferson's "Declaration of Independence" and Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "Letter from a Birmingham Jail. "Part Two, "Reading Clusters," is an anthology of 95 readings grouped into nine clusters. The first eight clusters cover controversial topics of current interest, such as downloading music files, national security, standardized testing, censorship, and media violence. Each cluster includes a wide range of contrasting (not just opposing) views. The last cluster features famous arguments, including Plato's "Allegory of the Cave," Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal," Frederick Douglass's "I Hear the Mournful Wail of Millions," and Roe v. Wade. At least one student essay is included within each of the nine reading clusters.

Table of Contents

Preface xxv
Part I The Rhetoric of Argument
1(234)
The Nature and Process of Argument
3(35)
Why Argue?
3(1)
What Is an Argument?
4(1)
A Formal Definition of Argument
4(1)
Amplifying the Definition
5(1)
Using Evidence in Argument
5(2)
Exercise 1.1
6(1)
Using Appeals in Argument
7(10)
Exercise 1.2
11(6)
Communicating with a Purpose
17(4)
Purpose in an Argumentative Context
18(1)
Audience in an Argumentative Context
19(1)
Writer in an Argumentative Context
20(1)
Subject in an Argumentative Context
21(1)
The Process of Composing an Argument
21(3)
Freewriting to Generate Ideas Rapidly
21(1)
Immersing Yourself in the Subject
22(1)
Using Listing and Clustering
23(1)
Exercise 1.3
24(1)
Organizing the Argument
24(2)
Drafting the Argument
26(6)
Composing Openings
26(1)
Exercise 1.4
27(2)
Composing the Body of the Argument
29(1)
Composing Conclusions
29(1)
Exercise 1.5
30(1)
High Score Education
30(2)
James Paul Gee
Revising the Argument: A Form of Reevaluation
32(1)
Reading to Revise
33(5)
Using Your Reading Skills in Peer-Critiquing Workshops
33(1)
Types of Revision Tasks
34(2)
Chapter Summary
36(1)
Checklist
36(1)
Writing Projects
37(1)
Methods of Critical Reading
38(30)
Reading as the Construction of Meaning
38(1)
Active Versus Passive Reading
39(2)
Exercise 2.1
40(1)
Reading as a Writer of Arguments
41(4)
Previewing
41(3)
In-Depth Reading
44(1)
Postreading
44(1)
Exercise 2.2
45(1)
Writing a Summary
45(2)
Exercise 2.3
46(1)
Reading with a Pencil
47(3)
Say No to Trash
48(2)
Samuel Lipman
Exercise 2.4
50(1)
Reading Visual Arguments
50(1)
Exercise 2.5
51(1)
Becoming a Highly Motivated Reader
51(2)
Exercise 2.6
53(1)
Reading Responsibly
53(5)
Exercise 2.7
54(1)
``High Noon'' [editorial]
55(3)
Active Reading as Shared Reading
58(1)
Exercise 2.8
59(1)
Using the Modes of Argument as a Schema for Analysis
59(1)
The Importance of Open-Mindedness When Reading
60(8)
Exercise 2.9
61(1)
Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina
61(5)
Galileo Galilei
Chapter Summary
66(1)
Checklist
67(1)
Writing Projects
67(1)
Using the Classical Model in Your Arguments
68(21)
Argument in the Ancient World
68(1)
The Classical Model of Argument
69(20)
Organizing Your Argument Using the Classical Model
70(1)
Exercise 3.1
71(1)
Student Essay: Ecology vs. Land Development in Trinidad and Tobago
71(3)
Justine Hearn
Elements of a Classical Argument in Action
74(4)
Exercise 3.2
78(1)
School Vouchers: The Wrong Choice for Public Education
79(3)
Anti-Defamation League
Exercise 3.3
82(1)
Why School Vouchers Can Help Inner-City Children
The Honorable Kurt L. Schmoke
82(5)
Chapter Summary
87(1)
Checklist
88(1)
Writing Projects
88(1)
Using the Toulmin Model in Your Arguments
89(22)
The Toulmin Model of Argument
89(22)
The Claim
91(1)
The Data or Grounds
92(1)
The Warrant and Its Backing
93(2)
The Qualifier
95(1)
A Sample Analysis Using the Toulmin Model
96(1)
Professions for Women
96(5)
Virginia Woolf
Exercise 4.1
101(1)
Student Essay: Tobacco: Ignorance Is No Longer an Excuse
101(3)
Daniel Neal
Organizing Your Argument Using the Toulmin Model
104(2)
Exercise 4.2
106(1)
Exercise 4.3
107(1)
Declaration of Independence
107(2)
Thomas Jefferson
Chapter Summary
109(1)
Checklist
110(1)
Writing Projects
110(1)
Using the Rogerian Model in Your Arguments
111(31)
The Rogerian Model of Argument
111(31)
Finding Common Ground
112(1)
Developing Multiple Perspectives
113(1)
Organizing Your Argument Using the Rogerian Model
114(1)
Exercise 5.1
115(1)
Let's Talk About Sexual Harassment in Middle School
116(4)
Kimberly Shearer Palmer
Exercise 5.2
120(1)
Letter from Birmingham Jail
120(14)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Chapter Summary
134(1)
Summary and Comparison of the Classical, Toulmin, and Rogerian Models
134(1)
Checklist
135(1)
Writing Projects
135(1)
Student Essay: Who Owns Our Children?
136(6)
Daniela Gibson
Reasoning: Methods and Fallacies
142(27)
Argumentative Reasoning
142(1)
The Nature of Fallacies
143(1)
Strategies of Reasoning
143(7)
Deduction
144(2)
Exercise 6.1
146(2)
Induction
148(1)
Categorization
148(1)
Analogy
149(1)
Authorization
150(1)
Plea
150(1)
Errors in Reasoning: A Taxonomy
150(19)
Errors of Deduction
151(1)
Errors of Induction
152(2)
Errors of Categorization
154(1)
Errors of Analogy
155(1)
Errors of Authorization
155(1)
Errors in Pleading
156(1)
Exercise 6.2
157(1)
Exercise 6.3
158(1)
Love Is a Fallacy
159(8)
Max Shulman
Chapter Summary
167(1)
Checklist
167(1)
Writing Projects
168(1)
Researching Your Argument
169(26)
The Three Faces of Research
169(1)
Searching Before You Research: Taking a Mental Inventory
169(2)
Exercise 7.1
170(1)
Focusing Your Research for Argumentative Essays
171(2)
Purpose-Based Questions
171(1)
Audience-Based Questions
171(1)
Writer-Based Questions
172(1)
Subject-Based Questions
172(1)
Formulating a Strong Thesis
173(1)
Exercise 7.2
173(1)
Researching Using the Internet
174(1)
Useful Types of Internet Resources
175(1)
Listservers
175(1)
Newsgroups
175(1)
Databases
175(1)
Forums
176(1)
Searching on the Web
176(2)
Using Boolean Search Strategies
177(1)
Useful Web Sites for Writers of Arguments
178(2)
Exercise 7.3
180(1)
Researching Using Print Resources
180(3)
Locating Articles
180(1)
Using Additional Print Reference Works
181(1)
Exercise 7.4
182(1)
Gathering Information from E-mail, Telephone Conversations, Interviews, and Surveys
183(3)
Using E-mail or the Telephone
183(1)
Conducting an Interview
183(1)
Conducting a Survey
184(1)
Designing a Questionnaire
185(1)
Taking Effective Research Notes
186(1)
The Role of Serendipity in Research
186(1)
Exercise 7.5
187(1)
Evaluating Your Sources
187(2)
Accuracy
188(1)
Relevance
188(1)
Reliability
188(1)
Clarity
188(1)
Thoroughness
189(1)
Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism
189(1)
Exercise 7.6
190(1)
Incorporating Outside Sources into Your Argument
190(5)
Exercise 7.7
192(1)
Chapter Summary
193(1)
Checklist
193(1)
Writing Projects
194(1)
Documenting Your Sources: MLA and APA Styles
195(40)
Citation of Source Material: A Rationale
195(1)
Which Documentation Style to Use?
195(1)
A Guide to MLA Documentation Style
196(1)
Presenting Quoted Material
196(4)
Using Quotation Marks and Block-Style Quotation Format
196(1)
Quoting Verbatim
197(1)
Using an Ellipsis
197(1)
Paraphrasing
198(2)
Using Author/Page In-Text Citations
200(2)
Preparing the MLA List Works Cited
202(5)
Citing Print Sources
203(1)
Citing Nonprint Sources
204(3)
Sample Student Paper: MLA Documentation Format
Daniela Gibson, ``Why We Should Punish''
207(8)
A Guide to APA Documentation Style
215(1)
Presenting Quoted Material
215(3)
Using Quotation Marks and Block-Style Quotation Format
215(1)
Quoting Verbatim
216(1)
Using an Ellipsis
216(1)
Paraphrasing
217(1)
Using Author/Year In-Text Citations
218(2)
Preparing the APA List of References
220(4)
Citing Print Sources
221(1)
Citing Nonprint Sources
222(2)
Sample Student Paper: APA Documentation Format
224(11)
Jarrett Green, ``Child Molestation: Anything but Your Typical Crime''
Part II Reading Clusters
235(520)
Intellectual Property: How Should IP Rights Be Protected? (Law)
237(44)
Introduction
237(1)
How Might the Downloading of Music Files Best Be Regulated?
238(1)
Troubletown [editorial cartoon]
238(2)
Lloyd Dangle
Jim Rogan Speaks on Intellectual Property Rights: ``We Have to Treat Theft as Theft''
240(2)
Protecting Music
242(1)
Lawrence Lessig
The Internet Debacle: An Alternate View
243(9)
Janis Ian
Thread My Music's Yours
252(2)
Bill Thompson
Penalties Frighten Music Traders: Survey Reports Copyright Laws Are Not Daunting
254(3)
Benny Evangelista
Student Essay: Why I've Stopped Sharing Music
257(2)
Powell Fraser
Issues for Further Research: Copyright Term Limits
259(1)
Mouse Trap: Disney's Copyright Conquest
259(5)
Jeffrey Rosen
Speech on Copyright Extension Before Congress
264(2)
Dianne Feinstein
Issues for Further Research: Artistic Fair Use
266(1)
Changing Copyright
266(5)
Issues for Further Research: Cultural Property
271(1)
``White Indians'': Appropriation and the Politics of Display
271(10)
Deborah Root
Connections Across the Clusters
279(1)
Writing Projects
280(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
280(1)
National Security. How Can the United States Best Protect Itself? (Political Science)
281(49)
Introduction
281(1)
What Effects Could the Patriot Act Have on Individual Liberties?
282(1)
``So, It's Agreed'' [editorial cartoon]
282(1)
Chris Slane
Patriot Act a Vital Tool Against Terrorism
283(3)
Kevin V. Ryan
Faking Out the Constitution
286(2)
Kevin Danaher
Scott Lynch
Civil Liberties After 9/11
288(12)
Robert H. Bork
The USA PATRIOT Act and Patron Privacy on Library Internet Terminals
300(7)
Mary Minow
Freedom vs. Security: Delicate Balance: The Case for ``Smart Profiling'' as a Weapon in the War on Terror
307(7)
Fareed Zakaria
Student Essay: Promoting Global and Regional Security in the Post--Cold War World
314(4)
Elspeth Simpson
Issues for Further Research: Budgeting for Security
318(1)
The Cost of Securing the Homeland
318(5)
Michael Scardaville
Issues for Further Research: The Problem of North Korea
323(1)
What North Korea Wants: Guarantee Its Security
323(3)
David Kang
What If Negotiations with North Korea Fail?
326(4)
Victor Cha
Connections Across the Clusters
329(1)
Writing Projects
329(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
329(1)
Cyberspace and Education: How Does Computer Technology Influence Learning? (Education)
330(51)
Introduction
330(1)
Information Accessing
330(1)
The Virtual Classroom
330(1)
What Are the Benefits and Drawbacks of Distance Learning?
331(1)
``Computer-Based Education'' [cartoon]
331(1)
P. C. Vey
Virtual Schooling: Going the Distance---Any Distance---to School
332(7)
Mary Anne Mather
The Web Is Not Yet Suitable for Learning
339(5)
Alfred Bork
David R. Britton, Jr.
Education on the Web: A Rejoinder
344(4)
Patricia Cravener
Teaching in Your Pajamas: Lessons of Online Classes
348(3)
Peggy Minnis
The Virtual University
351(5)
Nicholas Confessore
Ten Ways Online Education Matches, or Surpasses, Face-to-Face Learning
356(7)
Mark Kassop
Issues for Further Research: Educating Students About the Internet
363(1)
Student Essay: You Log On, But You Can't Log Off
363(3)
Andrea De Anda
Character Education for Cyberspace: Developing Good Netizens
366(5)
Andrew J. Milson
Beong-Wan Chu
Issues for Further Research: Computers and the Concept of Knowledge
371(1)
Perseus Unbound
371(5)
Sven Birkerts
Excerpt from The Age of Spiritual Machines
376(5)
Ray Kurzweil
Connections Across the Clusters
379(1)
Writing Projects
379(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
379(2)
Standardized Testing: What Does It Measure of Individual Performance? (Psychology)
381(54)
Introduction
381(1)
How Much Weight Should Be Given to Standardized Tests?
382(1)
Accelerated Direct Success [advertisement parody]
382(2)
Alfie Kohn
Standardized Testing: Meritocracy's Crooked Yardstick
384(12)
Peter Sacks
High Marks for Standardized Tests
396(3)
Louis V. Gerstner, Jr.
Standardized Testing of Children 3 Through 8 Years of Age
399(2)
National Association for the Education of Young Children
Student Essay: Why Are the ``Standards'' So Low in Education?
401(2)
Gina Takasugi
The Magical Aura of the IQ
403(5)
Jerome Kagan
Issues for Further Research: Cultural Bias and the SAT
408(1)
Eliminating Standardized Tests in College Admissions: The New Affirmative Action?
408(10)
Rebecca Zwick
Should the SAT Account for Race?
418(9)
Nathan Glazer
Abigail Thernstrom
Student Essay: Buying Brainpower: Good Scores on the SATs Come at a High Price
427(2)
Alex Nickel
Issues for Further Research: Advanced Placement Exams
429(1)
Questions for Advanced Placement
429(6)
Tamar Lewin
Connections Across the Clusters
433(1)
Writing Projects
433(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
433(2)
Speech and Media Regulation: How Should the Tensions Between the Two Be Resolved? (Media Studies)
435(70)
Introduction
435(1)
How Should the First Amendment's Freedom of Speech Guarantee Be Applied?
436(1)
Panel from 2024 [cartoon]
436(2)
Ted Rall
Speech Overview
438(6)
Rodney Smolla
Campus Speech Issues
444(14)
Martin P. Golding
The Risky Proposition of Free Speech
458(2)
Paul August
Three Student Essays: Holding Your Tongue at Oakland High
460(2)
Daniel Jackson
Alicia Garcia
Michelle Lei
Banned Books: Two Case Histories
462(17)
Nicholas J. Karolides
A Letter to the Chairman of the Drake School Board
479(3)
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.
Against Pornography
482(12)
George P. Elliott
Issues for Further Research: Effects of Media Violence
494(1)
Statement Linking Media Violence to Violence in Kids Draws Criticism
494(4)
Cheryl Arvidson
TV Isn't Violent Enough
498(3)
Mike Oppenheim
Issues for Further Research: Textbook Sanitizing
501(1)
Language Police Bar ``Old,'' ``Blind''
501(4)
Connections Across the Clusters
503(1)
Writing Projects
504(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
504(1)
Space Exploration: What Are the Costs, Both Economic and Human? (Economics, Astronomy)
505(62)
Introduction
505(1)
How Might the Expense of Space Travel Be Justified?
506(1)
``Some of You May Be Asking If We Belong in Space'' [editorial cartoon]
506(1)
Bob Gorrell
Why Send Humans to Mars?
507(8)
Carl Sagan
Space: You Can't Get There from Here
515(6)
Neil De Grasse Tyson
In Search of a Space Policy That Goes Somewhere
521(3)
Pat Dasch
Flowers for Mars
524(3)
Christopher P. McKay
Some Thoughts on SETI
527(3)
Christopher Chyba
Student Essay: Is Space Travel Worth the Expense?
530(8)
William N. Boenig
Issues for Further Research: The Columbia Shuttle Disaster
538(1)
Painful Questions from an Ex-Astronaut [Interview with Sally Ride]
538(5)
Claudia Dreifus
Failure Is Always an Option
543(3)
Henry Petroski
Issues for Further Research: The Moon as a Commercial Enterprise
546(1)
What Should We Do with the Moon?
546(12)
Fred Guterl
The Race Back to the Moon
558(9)
Tom McNichol
Connections Across the Clusters
565(1)
Writing Projects
565(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
566(1)
Science and Religion: If Common Ground Exists, Where Does It Lie? (Earth Science, Philosophy)
567(57)
Introduction
567(1)
What Is the Basis of the Conflict Between Science and Religion?
568(1)
B.C. [comic strip]
568(1)
Johnny Hart
A Designer Universe?
569(9)
Steven Weinberg
The New Convergence
578(8)
Gregg Easterbrook
Science vs. Religion in Future Constitutional Conflicts
586(6)
Delos B. McKown
Miracles and Explanations
592(8)
Chet Raymo
Fossils
600(1)
J. T. Barbarese
Fecundity
601(4)
Annie Dillard
Issues for Further Research: Creationism vs. Evolution
605(1)
Unresolved Problems of Evolution
605(5)
Henry M. Morris
Darwinism Defined: The Difference Between Fact and Theory
610(6)
Stephen Jay Gould
Issues for Further Research: Religion in Public Schools
616(1)
The Real Message of Creationism
616(4)
Charles Krauthammer
Student Essay: Too Much Confrontation: Why Creationism Should Not Be Taught alongside Evolution
620(4)
Mark Rodriguez
Connections Across the Clusters
622(1)
Writing Projects
622(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
622(2)
Multicultural Learning: What Are the Priorities? (Education, Cultural Studies)
624(60)
Introduction
624(1)
Who, If Anyone, Benefits from Multicultural Education?
625(1)
Politically Correct [editorial cartoon]
625(1)
Jim Huber
Multicultural Education in Social Studies
626(6)
Guichun Zong
Jesus Garcia
Angene Wilson
Language and Literature from a Pueblo Indian Perspective
632(6)
Leslie Marmon Silko
Equality and the Classics
638(4)
Dinesh D'Souza
A Historian in Wonderland: Through the Looking Glass
642(9)
Lawrence W. Levine
Student Essay: The Importance of Multicultural Education in Global Society
651(6)
Chris Garber
Issues for Further Research: Bilingual Education
657(1)
Two Languages Are Better Than One
657(6)
Wayne P. Thomas
Virginia P. Collier
Speaking a Public Language
663(7)
Richard Rodriguez
Issues for Further Research: Engaging Disenfranchised Students
670(1)
The Politics of Remediation
670(5)
Mike Rose
Literacy Development for Students with No Voice: Scheme and Schema
675(9)
Ann Russell
Connections Across the Clusters
682(1)
Writing Projects
682(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
682(2)
Famous Arguments: What Do They Teach Us About the Art of Persuasion? (History Across the Curriculum)
684(71)
Introduction
684(1)
Tragedy of Vietnam [photograph]
685(1)
Nick Ut
Allegory of the Cave
686(8)
To His Coy Mistress
694(2)
Andrew Marvell
A Modest Proposal
696(6)
Jonathan Swift
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
702(13)
Jonathan Edwards
Keynote Address at the First Woman's Rights Convention
715(4)
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
I Hear the Mournful Wail of Millions
719(5)
Frederick Douglass
Roe v. Wade: Original Transcript of the Argument Before the U.S. Supreme Court, 1972
724(4)
The Obligation to Endure
728(4)
Rachel Carson
The Perils of Obedience
732(13)
Stanley Milgram
The Character of Hamlet's Mother
745(7)
Carolyn G. Heilbrun
Connections Across the Clusters
752(1)
Writing Projects
753(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
753(2)
Glossary of Rhetorical Terms 755(5)
Index of Authors and Titles 760(6)
Index of Terms 766


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