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Western Civilization : A Brief History

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780618370313

ISBN10:
0618370315
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/3/2004
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $195.33
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Summary

Western Civilization: A Brief Historyemphasizes the history of ideas presented within a political chronology. Perry's distinctive writing style and unique approach make this abridged version ofWestern Civilization: Ideas, Politics & Society,7/e an engaging text for the Western civilization survey course. The Fifth Edition includes coverage of recent events--from the creation of the EU to the war in Iraq--and provides students with the pedagogical tools to analyze and interpret events in context. Chapter introductions and chronologies allow students to easily identify important themes, while review questions serve to reinforce knowledge and aid in exam preparation. Material including Muslim artistic and cultural contributions, the French and Russian Revolutions, modern artists, and the battles of WWII has been added to enhance this edition. Graphic features include captions for all maps and an expanded color art section with a new essay on contemporary art. The "Profile" boxes--which feature men and women who made a significant impact on the cultural landscape of their time--have been expanded and updated.

Table of Contents

Maps
xv
Chronologies xvii
Preface xix
Map Essay before Part One
Part One The Ancient World: Foundation of the West to A.D. 500
2(114)
The Ancient Near East: The First Civilizations
4(18)
Prehistory
5(2)
The Rise to Civilization
7(1)
Mesopotamian Civilization
8(3)
Religion: The Basis of Mesopotamian Civilization
9(1)
Government, Law, and Economy
10(1)
Mathematics, Astronomy, and Medicine
11(1)
Egyptian Civilization
11(5)
From the Old Kingdom to the Middle Kingdom
12(1)
Religion: The Basis of Egyptian Civilization
12(1)
Divine Kingship
13(1)
Science and Mathematics
14(1)
The New Kingdom and the Decline of Egyptian Civilization
15(1)
Empire Builders
16(2)
Hittites
16(1)
Small Nations
16(1)
Assyria
17(1)
Persia: Unifier of the Near East
17(1)
The Religious Orientation of the Ancient Near East
18(4)
A Myth-Making World-View
19(1)
Near Eastern Achievements
20(2)
The Hebrews: A New View of God and the Individual
22(11)
Early Hebrew History
23(1)
God: One, Sovereign, Transcendent, Good
24(2)
The Individual and Moral Autonomy
26(1)
The Covenant and the Law
27(2)
The Hebrew Idea of History
29(1)
The Prophets
29(2)
The Legacy of the Ancient Jews
31(2)
The Greeks: From Myth to Reason
33(36)
Early Aegean Civilizations
34(1)
Evolution of the City-States
35(8)
Homer: Shaper of the Greek Spirit
35(1)
The Break with Theocratic Politics
36(1)
Sparta: A Garrison State
37(1)
Athens: The Rise of Democracy
38(2)
The Persian Wars
40(1)
The Mature Athenian Democracy
41(2)
The Decline of the City-States
43(2)
The Peloponnesian War
43(1)
The Fourth Century
43(1)
The Dilemma of Greek Politics
44(1)
Philosophy in the Hellenic Age
45(9)
The Cosmologists: A Rational Inquiry into Nature
46(2)
The Sophists: A Rational Investigation of Human Culture
48(1)
Socrates: Shaping the Rational Individual
49(2)
Plato: The Rational Society
51(2)
Aristotle: Synthesis of Greek Thought
53(1)
Art
54(1)
Poetry and Drama
55(1)
History
56(2)
Herodotus
56(1)
Thucydides
57(1)
The Hellenistic Age: The Second Stage of Greek Civilization
58(4)
Alexander the Great
59(1)
The Competing Dynasties
60(1)
Cosmopolitanism
60(2)
Hellenistic Thought and Culture
62(3)
History
62(1)
Art
62(1)
Science
62(1)
Philosophy
63(2)
The Greek Achievement: Reason, Freedom, Humanism
65(4)
Rome: From City-State to World Empire
69(30)
Evolution of the Roman Constitution
70(2)
Roman Expansion to 146 B.C.
72(5)
The Uniting of Italy
73(1)
The Conquest of the Mediterranean World
73(2)
The Consequences of Expansion
75(2)
Culture in the Republic
77(1)
The Collapse of the Republic
78(3)
The Gracchian Revolution
78(1)
Rival Generals
79(1)
Julius Caesar
80(1)
The Republic's Last Years
81(1)
Augustus and the Foundations of the Roman Empire
81(1)
The Pax Romana
82(7)
The Successors of Augustus
82(2)
The ``Time of Happiness''
84(2)
Roman Culture and Law During the Pax Romana
86(3)
Signs of Trouble
89(3)
Social and Economic Weaknesses
90(1)
Cultural Stagnation and Transformation
90(2)
The Decline of Rome
92(4)
Third-Century Crisis
92(1)
Diocletian and Constantine: The Regimented State
92(2)
Tribal Migrations and Invasions
94(1)
Reasons for Rome's Decline
94(2)
The Roman Legacy
96(3)
Early Christianity: A World Religion
99(17)
The Origins of Christianity
100(4)
Judaism in the First Century B.C.
100(1)
Jesus: Moral Transformation of the Individual
101(1)
Saint Paul: From a Jewish Sect to a World Religion
102(2)
The Spread and Triumph of Christianity
104(3)
The Appeal of Christianity
104(2)
Christianity and Rome
106(1)
Christianity and Greek Philosophy
106(1)
Development of Christian Organization, Doctrine, and Attitudes
107(4)
The Primacy of the Bishop of Rome
108(1)
The Rise of Monasticism
108(1)
The Scriptural Tradition and Doctrinal Disputes
109(1)
Christianity and Society
109(1)
Christianity and the Jews
110(1)
Saint Augustine: The Christian World-View
111(1)
Christianity and Classical Humanism: Alternative World-Views
112(4)
Part Two The Middle Ages: The Christian Centuries 500-1400
116(54)
The Rise of Europe: Fusion of Classical, Christian, and Germanic Traditions
116(32)
The Medieval East
119(4)
Byzantium
119(1)
Islam
120(3)
Latin Christendom in the Early Middle Ages
123(6)
Political, Economic, and Intellectual Transformation
123(2)
The Church: Shaper of Medieval Civilization
125(1)
The Kingdom of the Franks
126(1)
The Era of Charlemagne
126(2)
The Breakup of Charlemagne's Empire
128(1)
Feudal Society
129(1)
Vassalage
129(1)
Feudal Warriors
130(1)
Noblewomen
130(1)
Agrarian Society
130(2)
Economic Expansion During the High Middle Ages
132(3)
An Agricultural Revolution
132(1)
The Revival of Trade
133(1)
The Rebirth of Towns
133(2)
The Rise of States
135(3)
England
135(2)
France
137(1)
Germany
137(1)
The Growth of Papal Power
138(6)
Gregorian Reform
138(1)
The Crusades
139(3)
Dissenters and Reformers
142(1)
Innocent III: The Apex of Papal Power
143(1)
Christians and Jews
144(4)
The Flowering and Dissolution of Medieval Civilization
148(22)
Revival of Learning
149(1)
The Medieval World-View
150(3)
The Universe: Higher and Lower Worlds
150(2)
The Individual: Sinful but Redeemable
152(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Law
153(3)
Saint Anselm and Abelard
153(1)
Saint Thomas Aquinas: The Synthesis of Faith and Reason
154(1)
Science
155(1)
Recovery of Roman Law
156(1)
Literature
156(2)
Architecture
158(1)
The Fourteenth Century: An Age of Adversity
158(2)
Art Essay: Art as History: The Ancient World Through the Middle Ages after
160(1)
The Decline of the Papacy
161(2)
Conflict with France
162(1)
The Great Schism and the Conciliar Movement
162(1)
Fourteenth-Century Heresies
163(1)
Breakup of the Thomistic Synthesis
163(1)
The Middle Ages and the Modern World: Continuity and Discontinuity
164(6)
Part Three The Rise of Modernity: From the Renaissance to the Enlightenment 1350--1789
170(80)
Transition to the Modern Age: Renaissance and Reformation
172(25)
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
173(3)
The Renaissance Outlook
176(3)
Humanism
176(2)
A Revolution in Political Thought
178(1)
Renaissance Art
179(2)
The Spread of the Renaissance
181(2)
Erasmian Humanism
181(1)
French and English Humanism
182(1)
The Renaissance and the Modern Age
183(1)
Background to the Reformation: The Medieval Church in Crisis
183(1)
The Lutheran Revolt
184(3)
The Break with Catholicism
185(1)
The Appeal and Spread of Lutheranism
186(1)
The Spread of the Reformation
187(5)
Calvinism
187(2)
France
189(1)
England
189(2)
The Radical Reformation
191(1)
The Catholic Response
192(1)
The Reformation and the Modern Age
193(4)
Political and Economic Transformation: National States, Overseas Expansion, Commercial Revolution
197(26)
Toward the Modern State
198(1)
Hapsburg Spain
199(4)
Ferdinand and Isabella
200(1)
The Reign of Charles V: King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor
201(1)
Philip II
201(1)
The End of the Spanish Hapsburgs
202(1)
The Growth of French Power
203(4)
Religion and the French State
203(1)
The Consolidation of French Monarchical Power
204(3)
The Growth of Limited Monarchy and Constitutionalism in England
207(2)
The Tudor Achievement
207(1)
The English Revolution, 1640--1660 and 1688--1689
207(2)
The Holy Roman Empire: The Failure to Unify Germany
209(2)
European Expansion
211(5)
Forces Behind the Expansion
212(1)
The Portuguese Empire
213(1)
The Spanish Empire
214(2)
Black Slavery and the Slave Trade
216(1)
The Price Revolution
216(1)
The Expansion of Agriculture
217(1)
The Expansion of Trade and Industry
218(2)
Innovations in Business
218(1)
Different Patterns of Commercial Development
219(1)
The Fostering of Mercantile Capitalism
220(1)
Toward a Global Economy
221(2)
Intellectual Transformation: The Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment
223(27)
The Medieval View of the Universe
224(1)
A New View of Nature
225(4)
Nicolaus Copernicus: The Dethronement of the Earth
225(1)
Galileo: Uniformity of Nature and Experimental Physics
226(2)
Attack on Authority
228(1)
Johannes Kepler: Laws of Planetary Motion
228(1)
The Newtonian Synthesis
229(1)
Prophets of Modern Science
230(1)
Francis Bacon: The Inductive Method
230(1)
Rene Descartes: The Deductive Method
230(1)
The Meaning of the Scientific Revolution
231(2)
The Age of Enlightenment: Affirmation of Reason and Freedom
233(1)
Christianity Assailed: The Search for a Natural Religion
234(1)
Political Thought
235(3)
Seventeenth-Century Antecedents: Hobbes and Locke
235(1)
Montesquieu
236(1)
Voltaire
237(1)
Rousseau
237(1)
Social and Economic Thought
238(6)
Epistemology, Psychology, and Education
239(1)
Freedom of Conscience and Thought
239(1)
Humanitarianism
240(3)
Laissez-Faire Economics
243(1)
The Idea of Progress
243(1)
Conflicts and Politics
244(2)
Warfare and Revolution
244(1)
Enlightened Despotism
245(1)
The Enlightenment and the Modern Mentality
246(4)
Part Four The Modern West: Progress and Breakdown 1789--1914
250(146)
The Era of the French Revolution: Affirmation of Liberty and Equality
252(26)
The Old Regime
253(5)
The First Estate
253(1)
The Second Estate
253(1)
The Third Estate
254(1)
Inefficient Administration and Financial Disorder
255(1)
The Roles of the Enlightenment and the American Revolution
256(1)
A Bourgeois Revolution?
257(1)
The Moderate Stage, 1789--1791
258(3)
Formation of the National Assembly
258(1)
Storming of the Bastille
258(1)
The Great Fear
259(1)
October Days
260(1)
Reforms of the National Assembly
260(1)
The Radical Stage, 1792--1794
261(6)
The Sans-Culottes
261(1)
Foreign Invasion
262(1)
The Jacobins
263(1)
The Nation in Arms
264(1)
The Republic of Virtue and the Reign of Terror
264(2)
The Fall of Robespierre
266(1)
Napoleon and France: Return to Autocratic Rule
267(2)
An Enlightened Despot
267(2)
Legal, Educational, and Financial Policies
269(1)
Napoleon and Europe: Diffusion of Revolutionary Institutions
269(2)
The Fall of Napoleon
271(2)
Failure to Subdue England
271(1)
The Spanish Ulcer
271(1)
The German War of Liberation
272(1)
Disaster in Russia
272(1)
Final Defeat
273(1)
The Meaning of the French Revolution
273(5)
The Industrial Revolution: The Transformation of Society
278(15)
Britain First
279(2)
Changes in Technology
279(2)
Society Transformed
281(4)
Changes in Social Structure
282(1)
Working-Class Life
283(2)
The Rise of Reform in Britain
285(2)
Responses to Industrialization
287(3)
Liberalism
287(1)
Early Socialism
288(2)
Industrialism in Perspective
290(3)
Thought and Culture in the Early Nineteenth Century
293(16)
Romanticism: A New Cultural Orientation
294(3)
Exalting Imagination and Feelings
294(2)
Nature, God, History
296(1)
The Impact of the Romantic Movement
297(1)
German Idealism
297(1)
The Challenge Posed by Hume's Empiricism
297(1)
Immanuel Kant
298(1)
G. W. F. Hegel
298(1)
Conservatism: The Value of Tradition
298(4)
Hostility to the French Revolution
300(1)
The Quest for Social Stability
301(1)
Liberalism: The Value of the Individual
302(2)
The Sources of Liberalism
302(1)
Individual Liberty
303(1)
Liberalism and Democracy
303(1)
Nationalism: The Sacredness of the Nation
304(5)
The Emergence of Modern Nationalism
304(1)
Nationalism and Liberalism
305(4)
Surge of Liberalism and Nationalism: Revolution, Counterrevolution, and Unification
309(21)
The Congress of Vienna
310(2)
Statesmen and Issues
310(1)
The Settlement
311(1)
Revolutions, 1820--1829
312(2)
Revolutions, 1830--1832
314(1)
The Revolutions of 1848: France
314(2)
The February Revolution
314(1)
The June Days: Revolution of the Oppressed
315(1)
The Revolutions of 1848: Germany, Austria, and Italy
316(4)
The German States: Liberalism Discredited
316(2)
Austria: Hapsburg Dominance
318(1)
Italy: Continued Fragmentation
319(1)
The Revolutions of 1848: An Assessment
320(1)
The Unification of Italy
321(2)
Mazzini: The Soul of the Risorgimento
321(1)
Cavour and Victory over Austria
322(1)
Garibaldi and Victory in the South
323(1)
Italian Unification Completed
323(1)
The Unification of Germany
323(4)
Prussia, Agent of Unification
323(1)
Bismarck and the Road to Unity
324(3)
Nationality Problems in the Hapsburg Empire
327(3)
Thought and Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century: Realism and Social Criticism
330(15)
Realism and Naturalism
331(1)
Positivism
332(1)
Darwinism
333(3)
Natural Selection
333(1)
Darwinism and Christianity
334(1)
Social Darwinism
334(2)
Marxism
336(4)
A Science of History
336(1)
Class Conflict
337(1)
The Destruction of Capitalism
338(1)
Critics of Marx
339(1)
Liberalism in Transition
340(1)
John Stuart Mill
340(1)
Thomas Hill Green
340(1)
Feminism: Extending the Principle of Equality
341(4)
Europe in the Late Nineteenth Century: Modernization, Nationalism, Imperialism
345(30)
The Advance of Industry
346(3)
Accelerated Urbanization
348(1)
The Rise of Socialist Parties
349(1)
Great Britain: Reform and Unrest
349(3)
Social Reform
350(1)
Feminist Agitation
350(1)
The Irish Question
351(1)
France: A Troubled Nation
352(1)
Germany: The Power State
353(1)
Italy: Unfulfilled Expectations
354(1)
Russia: Tsarist Autocracy
355(1)
The Rise of Racial Nationalism
356(6)
Volkish Thought
358(1)
Anti-Semitism
359(3)
The Emergence of the New Imperialism
362(2)
Causes
362(1)
Control and Resistance
363(1)
European Domination of Asia
364(4)
India
364(2)
China
366(2)
Japan
368(1)
The Scramble for Africa
368(4)
The Berlin Conference
370(1)
The British in Africa
370(2)
Other European Countries in Africa
372(1)
The Legacy of Imperialism
372(3)
Modern Consciousness: New Views of Nature, Human Nature, and the Arts
375(21)
Irrationalism
376(4)
Nietzsche
376(3)
Bergson
379(1)
Sorel
380(1)
Freud: A New View of Human Nature
380(3)
Social Thought: Confronting the Irrational and the Complexities of Modern Society
383(2)
Durkheim
383(1)
Pareto
384(1)
Weber
384(1)
The Modernist Movement
385(4)
Breaking with Conventional Modes of Esthetics
386(1)
Modern Art
387(2)
Modern Physics
389(2)
The Enlightenment Tradition in Disarray
391(5)
Part Five Western Civilization in Crisis: World Wars and Totalitarianism 1914--1945
396(92)
World War I: The West in Despair
398(31)
Aggravated Nationalist Tensions in Austria-Hungary
399(3)
The German System of Alliances
402(1)
The New German Empire
402(1)
Bismarck's Goals
402(1)
The Triple Entente
403(1)
Fear of Germany
403(1)
German Reactions
403(1)
The Drift Toward War
404(3)
The Bosnian Crisis
404(1)
Balkan Wars
404(1)
Assassination of Francis Ferdinand
405(1)
Germany Encourages Austria
406(1)
The Question of Responsibility
406(1)
War as Celebration
407(1)
Stalemate in the West
408(4)
Other Fronts
412(1)
The Collapse of the Central Powers
413(1)
American Entry
413(1)
Germany's Last Offensive
413(1)
The Peace Conference
414(5)
Wilson's Hope for a New World
414(2)
Problems of Peacemaking
416(1)
The Settlement
417(1)
Assessment and Problems
418(1)
The Russian Revolution of 1917
419(5)
The Problems of the Provisional Government
420(1)
Lenin and the Rise of Bolshevism
421(2)
Lenin's Opportunity
423(1)
The Bolsheviks Survive
423(1)
The War and European Consciousness
424(5)
The Era of Totalitarianism
429(39)
The Nature of Totalitarianism
430(1)
Communist Russia
431(3)
War Communism and the New Economic Policy
432(1)
One-Party Dictatorship
433(1)
The Stalin Revolution
434(5)
Modernizing Russia: Industrialization and Collectivization
435(2)
Total Control
437(2)
The Nature and Appeal of Fascism
439(2)
The Rise of Fascism in Italy
441(3)
Postwar Unrest
441(1)
Mussolini's Seizure of Power
441(1)
The Fascist State in Italy
442(2)
The New German Republic
444(2)
Threats from Left and Right
444(1)
Economic Crisis
445(1)
Fundamental Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic
445(1)
The Rise of Hitler
446(2)
The Nazi Party
447(1)
Hitler's World-View
447(1)
Hitler Gains Power
448(1)
Art Essay: Art as History: The Renaissance to the Present after
448(1)
Nazi Germany
449(3)
The Leader-State
450(1)
Shaping the ``New Man''
450(2)
Mass Support
452(1)
Liberalism and Authoritarianism in Other Lands
452(2)
The Spread of Authoritarianism
452(1)
The Western Democracies
453(1)
Intellectuals and Artists in Troubled Times
454(7)
Postwar Pessimism
455(1)
Literature and Art: Innovation, Disillusionment, and Social Commentary
456(3)
Communism: ``The God That Failed''
459(1)
Reaffirming the Christian World-View
459(1)
Reaffirming the Ideals of Reason and Freedom
460(1)
Existentialism
461(2)
The Modern Predicament
463(5)
World War II: Western Civilization in the Balance
468(20)
The Road to War
469(4)
British and French Foreign Policies
469(1)
Breakdown of Peace
469(4)
The Nazi Blitzkrieg
473(4)
The Conquest of Poland
473(1)
The Fall of France
473(1)
The Battle of Britain
474(1)
The Invasion of Russia
474(3)
The New Order
477(4)
Exploitation and Terror
477(1)
Extermination
477(2)
Resistance
479(2)
The Turn of the Tide
481(3)
War in the Pacific
481(1)
Defeat of the Axis Powers
482(2)
The Legacy of World War II
484(4)
Part Six The Contemporary World
488(35)
The West in a Global Age
490(33)
The Cold War
491(5)
Deepening Tensions
494(1)
The Growth of Military Alliances
494(1)
Confrontations
495(1)
Decolonization
496(1)
Building a New Europe: Unity and Recovery
497(3)
Great Britain and France
497(1)
Italy and Germany
498(2)
The Soviet Bloc
500(9)
Stalin's Last Years
500(1)
Khrushchev
500(3)
The Gorbachev Years
503(1)
The End of the Cold War
504(1)
The Collapse of Communism
505(3)
The Death of an Ideal?
508(1)
The Post-Cold War World
509(7)
Eastern Europe After 1989
509(2)
Post-Communist Russia and the Former Soviet Republics
511(2)
Western Europe
513(3)
Our Global Age: Tensions and Concerns
516(7)
Epilogue: Reaffirming the Core Values of the Western Tradition 523
Index 1


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