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Western Civilization : Ideas, Politics, and Society

by Unknown
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780618271009

ISBN10:
0618271007
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/14/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $111.33
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Summary

This text presents the Western intellectual tradition within a chronology of political history. Its accessible writing style appeals to students and instructors because of its brevity, simplicity of presentation, selective choice of content, and clear explanations. Comparative timelines appear at the end of each text part to show the relationship between the political and intellectual history of the West. A full-color map with an essay on physical geography appears at the beginning of each volume to help students orient themselves to European geography. Primary source excerpts integrated throughout the narrative show students the materials that historians work with every day.

Table of Contents

Maps
xxi
Chronologies xxiii
Preface xxv
Acknowledgments xxix
Map Essay
Part One The Ancient World: Foundation of the West to A.D. 500
2(194)
The Ancient Near East: The First Civilizations
4(29)
The Rise to Civilization
5(6)
The Paleolithic Age
5(3)
The Neolithic Revolution
8(1)
The First Civilizations
9(2)
Mesopotamian Civilization
11(6)
Religion: The Basis of Mesopotamian Civilization
12(3)
Government and Law
15(1)
Business and Trade
16(1)
Writing, Mathematics, Astronomy, and Medicine
16(1)
Egyptian Civilization
17(6)
From the Old Kingdom to the Middle Kingdom
17(1)
Religion: The Basis of Egyptian Civilization
18(1)
Divine Kingship
19(1)
Science and Mathematics
20(1)
The New Kingdom and the Decline of Egyptian Civilization
21(2)
Empire Builders
23(5)
Hittites
24(1)
Small Nations
25(1)
Assyria
25(1)
The Neo-Babylonian Empire
26(1)
Persia: Unifier of the Near East
27(1)
The Religious Orientation of the Near East
28(5)
A Mythmaking World-View
29(1)
Near Eastern Achievements
30(3)
The Hebrews: A New View of God and the Individual
33(17)
Outline of Hebrew History
34(5)
The Israelite Kingdom
35(1)
Conquest, Captivity, and Restoration
36(2)
The Hebrew Scriptures
38(1)
God: One, Sovereign, Transcendent, Good
39(1)
The Individual and Moral Autonomy
40(1)
The Covenant and the Law
41(2)
The Hebrew Idea of History
43(1)
The Prophets
44(4)
Social Justice
45(1)
Universalism
46(1)
Individualism
47(1)
The Legacy of the Ancient Jews
48(2)
The Greek City-State: Democratic Politics
50(24)
Early Aegean Civilizations
52(2)
The Rise of Hellenic Civilization
54(3)
Homer, Shaper of the Greek Spirit
54(2)
Greek Religion
56(1)
Evolution of the City-State
57(5)
The Break with Theocratic Politics
57(1)
Sparta: A Garrison State
58(1)
Athens: The Rise of Democracy
59(3)
Athenian Greatness
62(5)
The Persian Wars
62(1)
The Delian League
62(1)
The Mature Athenian Democracy
63(3)
Pericles: Symbol of Athenian Democracy
66(1)
The Decline of the City-States
67(2)
The Peloponnesian War
67(2)
The Fourth Century
69(1)
The Dilemma of Greek Politics
69(5)
Greek Thought: From Myth to Reason
74(28)
Philosophy
75(14)
The Cosmologists: A Rational Inquiry into Nature
76(2)
The Sophists: A Rational Investigation of Human Society
78(1)
Socrates: The Rational Individual
79(3)
Plato: The Rational Society
82(4)
Aristotle: A Synthesis of Greek Thought
86(3)
Art
89(1)
Poetry and Drama
89(7)
Aeschylus
93(1)
Sophocles
93(1)
Euripides
94(1)
Aristophanes
95(1)
History
96(2)
Herodotus
96(1)
Thucydides
97(1)
The Greek Achievement: Reason, Freedom, Humanism
98(4)
The Hellenistic Age: Cultural Diffusion
102(17)
Alexander the Great
105(1)
Hellenistic Society
106(4)
Competing Dynasties
106(1)
Cosmopolitanism
106(3)
Hellenism and the Jews
109(1)
Hellenistic Culture
110(7)
Literature, History, and Art
110(1)
Science
111(1)
Philosophy
112(5)
The Hellenistic Legacy
117(2)
The Roman Republic: City-State to World Empire
119(22)
Evolution of the Roman Constitution
120(4)
Roman Expansion to 146 B.C.
124(6)
The Uniting of Italy
124(1)
Conquest of the Mediterranean World
125(2)
Consequences of Expansion
127(3)
Culture in the Republic
130(2)
Collapse of the Republic
132(9)
Crisis in Agriculture
133(1)
The Gracchan Revolution
134(1)
Rival Generals
135(1)
Julius Caesar
136(2)
The Republic's Last Years
138(3)
The Roman Empire: A World-State
141(30)
Augustus and the Foundations of the Roman Empire
142(4)
The Pax Romana
146(12)
The Successors of Augustus
147(3)
The ``Time of Happiness''
150(3)
Roman Culture and Law During the Pax Romana
153(5)
Signs of Trouble
158(4)
Internal Unrest
158(1)
Social and Economic Weaknesses
159(1)
Cultural Stagnation and Transformation
159(1)
The Spread of Mystery Religions
160(1)
The Spiritualization of Philosophy
161(1)
The Decline of Rome
162(7)
Third-Century Crisis
162(2)
Diocletian and Constantine: The Regimented State
164(1)
Tribal Migrations and Invasions
164(2)
Reasons for Rome's Decline
166(3)
The Roman Legacy
169(2)
Early Christianity: A World Religion
171(25)
Origins of Christianity
172(7)
Judaism in the First Century B.C.
173(2)
Jesus: The Inner Person
175(2)
Saint Paul: From a Jewish Sect to a World Religion
177(2)
The Spread and Triumph of Christianity
179(5)
The Appeal of Christianity
179(2)
Christianity and Rome
181(1)
Christianity and Greek Philosophy
182(2)
The Growth of Christian Organization, Doctrine, and Attitudes
184(4)
The Primacy of the Bishop of Rome
184(1)
The Rise of Monasticism
185(1)
Scriptural Tradition and Doctrinal Disputes
185(1)
Christianity and Society
186(1)
Christianity and the Jews
187(1)
Saint Augustine: The Christian World-View
188(4)
Christianity and Classical Humanism: Alternative World-Views
192(4)
Part Two The Middle Ages: The Christian Centuries 500--1400
196(102)
The Heirs of Rome: Byzantium, Islam, and Latin Christendom
198(30)
Byzantine Civilization: The Medieval Christian East
199(5)
Conflict with the Roman Church
200(1)
Imperial Growth and Decline
200(4)
The Bequest of Byzantium
204(1)
Islamic Civilization: Its Development and Dissemination
204(6)
The Prophet: The Founding of a New Religion
204(2)
The Muslim State and Society
206(1)
The Muslim Golden Age
207(2)
Mongol Invasions and Ottoman Dominance
209(1)
Latin Christendom: The Rise of Europe
210(3)
Political and Economic Transformation
210(2)
The Waning of Classical Culture
212(1)
The Church: Shaper of Medieval Civilization
213(3)
The Church as Unifier
213(1)
Monks and the Papacy
214(2)
The Kingdom of the Franks
216(5)
The Era of Charlemagne
217(1)
Carolingian Renaissance
218(2)
The Breakup of Charlemagne's Empire
220(1)
Medieval Society
221(3)
Vassalage
222(1)
Feudal Law
223(1)
Feudal Warriors
223(1)
Noblewomen
224(1)
Agrarian Life
225
Art Essay: The Art of the Ancient World and the Middle Ages
224(4)
The High Middle Ages: Vitality and Renewal
228(30)
Economic Expansion
229(7)
Agricultural Revolution
229(3)
Revival of Trade
232(2)
Rebirth of Towns
234(2)
The Rise of States
236(5)
England
237(1)
France
238(2)
Germany
240(1)
The Emergence of Representative Institutions
241(1)
The Growth of Papal Power
241(13)
The Sacraments
242(1)
Gregorian Reform
242(4)
The Crusades
246(4)
Dissenters and Reformers
250(3)
Innocent III: The Apex of Papal Power
253(1)
Christians and Jews
254(4)
The Flowering of Medieval Culture: The Christian Synthesis
258(21)
Revival of Learning
259(3)
The Medieval World-View
262(2)
The Universe: Higher and Lower Worlds
263(1)
The Individual: Sinful but Redeemable
264(1)
Philosophy-Theology
264(6)
Saint Anselm and Abelard
265(2)
The Recovery of Aristotle
267(1)
Saint Thomas Aquinas: Synthesis of Christian Belief and Reason
268(2)
Strict Aristotelianism: The Challenge to Orthodoxy
270(1)
Science
270(2)
The Recovery of Roman Law
272(1)
Literature
273(2)
Architecture
275(4)
The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Dissolution
279(19)
An Age of Adversity
280(5)
Economic Problems, Black Death, and Social Tension
280(4)
The Hundred Years' War
284(1)
The Decline of the Papacy
285(4)
Conflict with France
285(2)
Critics of Papal Power
287(1)
The Great Schism and the Conciliar Movement
287(2)
Fourteenth-Century Heresies
289(1)
Breakup of the Thomistic Synthesis
289(1)
The Middle Ages and the Modern World: Continuity and Discontinuity
290(8)
Part Three Early Modern Europe: From Renaissance to Enlightenment 1350--1789
298(162)
The Renaissance: Transition to the Modern Age
300(23)
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
302(6)
Political Evolution of the City-States
303(3)
Renaissance Society
306(2)
The Renaissance Outlook: Humanism and Secular Politics
308(3)
Humanism
308(2)
A Revolution in Political Thought
310(1)
Renaissance Art
311(5)
Early Renaissance Art
312(2)
Late Renaissance Art
314(2)
The Spread of the Renaissance
316(4)
Erasmian Humanism
317(1)
French Humanism
318(1)
Spanish Humanism
318(1)
English Humanism
319(1)
The Renaissance and the Modern Age
320(1)
Art Essay: The Renaissance
320(3)
The Reformation: The Shattering of Christendom
323(26)
The Medieval Church in Crisis
325(3)
Wycliffe and Hus
325(1)
Mysticism and Humanism
326(1)
The End of the World
327(1)
The Lutheran Revolt
328(7)
Luther: Humanist, Prophet, and Conservative
328(1)
Luther's Break with Catholicism
328(3)
But Who Is Saved?
331(1)
The Creation and Spread of Lutheranism
331(1)
Religious Reform or Social Revolution?
332(3)
The Spread of the Reformation
335(8)
Calvin and Calvinism
336(2)
France
338(2)
England
340(1)
Southern and Eastern Europe
341(1)
The Radical Reformation
342(1)
The Catholic Response
343(2)
The Reformation and the Modern Age
345(4)
European Expansion: Economic and Social Transformations
349(28)
European Expansion
351(8)
Forces Behind Expansion
352(1)
The Portuguese Empire
353(2)
The Spanish Empire
355(2)
Black Slavery and the Slave Trade
357(2)
The Price Revolution
359(2)
The Expansion of Agriculture
361(2)
The Old Pattern of Farming
361(1)
Enclosure
361(1)
Convertible Husbandry
362(1)
Agricultural Change in Eastern Europe
363(1)
The Expansion of Trade and Industry
363(5)
The Domestic System
363(1)
Innovations in Business
364(1)
Patterns of Commercial Development
365(3)
The Growth of Capitalism
368(2)
What Is Capitalism?
368(1)
The Fostering of Mercantile Capitalism
368(2)
The Elite and the People
370(4)
Traditional Popular Culture
370(1)
The Reform of Popular Culture
371(1)
Witchcraft and the Witch Craze
372(2)
Economic and Social Transformations
374(3)
The Rise of Sovereignty: Transition to the Modern State
377(31)
Monarchs and Elites as State Builders
380(1)
The Rise and Fall of Hapsburg Spain
381(5)
Ferdinand and Isabella: Unity and Purity of ``Blood'' and Religion
381(2)
The Reign of Charles V: Hapsburg, King of Spain, and Holy Roman Emperor
383(1)
Philip II
383(2)
The End of the Spanish Hapsburgs
385(1)
The Growth of French Power
386(6)
Religion and the French State
387(1)
Louis XIV: The Consolidation of French Monarchical Power
388(4)
The Growth of Limited Monarchy and Constitutionalism in England
392(7)
The English Parliament and Constitution
393(1)
The Tudor Achievement
393(3)
The English Revolutions, 1640--1660 and 1688--1689
396(3)
The Netherlands: A Bourgeois Republic
399(1)
The Holy Roman Empire: The Failure to Unify Germany
400(2)
The Emergence of Austria and Prussia
402(2)
Austria
402(1)
Prussia
403(1)
Russia
404(1)
The State and Modern Political Development
405(3)
The Scientific Revolution: The Mechanical Universe
408(18)
Medieval Cosmology
410(1)
A New View of Nature
411(5)
Renaissance Neo-Platonism
411(1)
Magic and the Search for Nature
412(1)
The Copernican Revolution
412(2)
The Laws of Planetary Motion: Tycho and Kepler
414(1)
Galileo: Experimental Physics
415(1)
The Newtonian Synthesis: Experiment, Mathematics, and Theory
416(1)
Art Essay: Art of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
416(2)
Biology, Medicine, and Chemistry
418(2)
Bacon and Descartes: Prophets of the New Science
420(2)
Bacon
420(1)
Descartes
421(1)
Social Implications of the Scientific Revolution
422(1)
The Meaning of the Scientific Revolution
423(3)
The Age of Enlightenment: Reason and Reform
426(34)
The Formation of a Public and Secular Culture
429(3)
Salons
430(1)
Freemasons
430(2)
Scientific Academies
432(1)
Alternatives to Orthodoxy
432(3)
Christianity Under Attack
432(1)
Skeptics, Freethinkers, and Deists
432(2)
Voltaire the Philosophe
434(1)
Political Thought
435(3)
Locke
436(1)
Montesquieu
437(1)
Rousseau
437(1)
Social Thought
438(5)
Epistemology and Education
438(2)
Humanitarianism
440(3)
Economic Thought
443(2)
The High Enlightenment
445(3)
European Political and Diplomatic Developments
448(5)
Warfare
448(1)
Enlightened Despotism
449(3)
Effects of Enlightened Despotism
452(1)
The Enlightenment in Eastern Europe
453(1)
The American Revolution
454(2)
The Enlightenment and the Modern World
456(4)
Part Four An Age of Revolution: Liberal, National, Industrial 1789--1848
460(122)
The French Revolution: Affirmation of Liberty and Equality
462(26)
The Old Regime
463(8)
The First Estate
464(1)
The Second Estate
465(1)
The Third Estate
465(3)
Inefficient Administration and Financial Disorder
468(1)
The Roles of the Enlightenment and the American Revolution
469(1)
A Bourgeois Revolution?
470(1)
The Moderate Stage, 1789--91
471(5)
The Clash Between the Nobility and the Third Estate
471(1)
Formation of the National Assembly
471(2)
Storming of the Bastille
473(1)
The Great Fear
473(1)
October Days
474(1)
Reforms of the National Assembly
474(2)
The Radical Stage, 1792--94
476(7)
The Sans-Culottes
476(1)
Foreign Invasion
476(2)
The Jacobins
478(1)
Jacobin Achievements
478(1)
The Nation in Arms
479(1)
The Republic of Virtue and the Reign of Terror
479(2)
The Fall of Robespierre
481(2)
The Meaning of the French Revolution
483(5)
Napoleon: Subverter and Preserver of the Revolution
488(19)
Rise to Power
489(3)
Coup d'Etat
491(1)
Napoleon's Character
491(1)
Napolean and France
492(5)
Government: Centralization and Repression
493(1)
Religion: Reconciliation with the Church
493(1)
Law: The Code Napoleon
494(1)
Education: The Imperial University
495(1)
Economy: Strengthening the State
496(1)
Napoleon and Europe
497(3)
Napoleon's Art of War
497(1)
The Grand Empire: Diffusion of Revolutionary Institutions
498(2)
The Fall of Napoleon
500(4)
Failure to Subdue England
500(1)
The Spanish Ulcer
501(1)
The German War of Liberation
501(1)
Disaster in Russia
502(1)
Final Defeat
503(1)
The Legend and the Achievement
504(3)
The Industrial Revolution: The Transformation of Society
507(22)
Origins of the Industrial Age
509(8)
Europe's Population Explosion
509(1)
Agricultural Revolution
510(1)
Britain First
511(2)
Changes in Technology
513(2)
Changes in Finance
515(2)
Society Transformed
517(7)
Urbanization
518(2)
Changes in Social Structure
520(2)
Working-Class Life
522(2)
Relief and Reform
524(2)
Industrialism in Perspective
526(3)
Thought and Culture in the Early Nineteenth Century
529(30)
Romanticism: A New Cultural Orientation
530(5)
Exalting Imagination, Intuition, and Feelings
531(2)
Nature, God, History
533(2)
The Impact of the Romantic Movement
535(1)
German Idealism
535(6)
The Challenge Posed by Hume's Empiricism
535(2)
Immanuel Kant
537(1)
G. W. F. Hegel
538(3)
Conservatism: The Value of Tradition
541(2)
Hostility to the French Revolution
541(2)
The Quest for Social Stability
543(1)
Liberalism: The Value of the Individual
543(6)
The Sources of Liberalism
544(1)
Individual Liberty
544(1)
Liberal Economic Theory
545(1)
Liberalism and Democracy
546(3)
Radicalism and Democracy: The Expansion of Liberalism
549(1)
Thomas Paine
549(1)
Jeremy Bentham
550(1)
Early Socialism: New Possibilities for Society
550(3)
Saint-Simon: Technocratic Socialism
551(1)
Fourier: Psychological Socialism
552(1)
Owen: Industrial Socialism
553(1)
Nationalism: The Sacredness of the Nation
553(6)
The Emergence of Modern Nationalism
553(2)
Nationalism and Liberalism
555(4)
Revolution and Counterrevolution, 1815--1848
559(23)
The Congress of Vienna, 1814--1815
560(4)
Metternich the Archconservative
560(3)
Crisis over Saxony and Poland
563(1)
The Settlement
564(1)
Revolutions, 1820--1829
564(2)
Revolutions, 1830--1832
566(1)
The Rise of Reform in Britain
567(2)
Revolutions of 1848: France
569(3)
The February Revolution
570(1)
The June Days: Revolution of the Oppressed
571(1)
Revolutions of 1848: Germany, Austria, and Italy
572(5)
The German States: Liberalism Defeated
573(2)
Austria: Hapsburg Dominance
575(2)
Italy: Continued Fragmentation
577(1)
Revolutions of 1848: An Assessment
577(5)
Part Five An Age of Contradiction: Progress and Breakdown 1848--1914
582(144)
Thought and Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century: Realism and Social Criticism
584(27)
Realism and Naturalism
585(5)
Positivism
590(1)
Darwinism
591(5)
Natural Selection
592(1)
Darwinism and Christianity
593(1)
Social Darwinism
593(2)
Religion in a Secular Age
595(1)
Marxism
596(6)
A Science of History
597(1)
Class Conflict
598(1)
Destruction of Capitalism
599(1)
Marxism's Appeal and Influence
600(1)
Critics of Marx
601(1)
Anarchism
602(2)
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
602(1)
Mikhail Bakunin
602(2)
Liberalism in Transition
604(2)
John Stuart Mill
604(1)
Thomas Hill Green
605(1)
Herbert Spencer: Rejection of State Intervention
605(1)
Feminism: Extending the Principle of Equality
606(5)
The Surge of Nationalism: From Liberal to Extreme Nationalism
611(26)
The Unification of Italy
612(4)
Forces for and Against Unity
612(2)
Failed Revolutions
614(1)
Cavour and Victory over Austria
615(1)
Garibaldi and Victory in the South
616(1)
Italian Unification Completed
617
The Unification of Germany
616(6)
Prussia, Agent of Unification
617(2)
Bismarck and the Road to Unity
619(3)
Nationality Problems in the Hapsburg Empire
622(3)
Magyarization
623(1)
German Versus Czech
623(2)
South Slavs
625(1)
The Rise of Racial Nationalism
625(12)
Volkish Thought
627(3)
Anti-Semitism: The Power and Danger of Mythical Thinking
630(7)
The Industrial West: Responses to Modernization
637(30)
The Advance of Industry
639(1)
Art Essay: Art of the Late Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
640(8)
Technological Takeoff
641(4)
Accelerated Urbanization
645(1)
Labor's Responses
646(2)
Great Britain: An Industrial Model
648(4)
Labor Unrest
649(1)
The Irish Question
649(2)
The Woman Question
651(1)
Britain on the Eve of War
652(1)
France: Democratic or Authoritarian?
652(3)
Napoleon ``le Petit''
652(1)
After the Fall
653(1)
Threats to the Republic
654(1)
France on the Eve of War
655(1)
Germany: Forging an Empire
655(3)
Bismarck's ``Struggle for Culture''
656(2)
Germany on the Eve of War
658(1)
Italy: Unfulfilled Expectations
658(1)
Russia: Tsarist Empire
659(3)
The United States: Democratic Giant
662(1)
A Golden Age?
663(4)
Western Imperialism: Global Dominance
667(28)
Emergence of the New Imperialism
668(7)
Conflicting Interpretations
670(3)
A Global Economy
673(1)
Control and Resistance
674(1)
European Domination of Asia
675(10)
India
675(4)
China
679(2)
Japan
681(1)
The Ottoman Empire
682(2)
Southeast and Central Asia
684(1)
The Scramble for Africa
685(5)
The Berlin Conference
687(1)
Britain in Africa
687(2)
Costs of Colonialism
689(1)
Latin America
690(2)
The Legacy of Imperialism
692(3)
Modern Consciousness: New Views of Nature, Human Nature, and the Arts
695(31)
Irrationalism
696(6)
Nietzsche
697(3)
Dostoevski
700(1)
Bergson
701(1)
Sorel
702(1)
Freud: A New View of Human Nature
702(4)
Social Thought: Confronting the Irrational and the Complexities of Modern Society
706(4)
Durkheim
706(1)
Pareto
707(1)
Le Bon
708(1)
Weber
708(2)
The Modernist Movement
710(8)
Breaking with Conventional Modes of Esthetics
710(2)
Modern Art
712(6)
Modern Physics
718(3)
The Enlightenment Tradition in Disarray
721(5)
Part Six World Wars and Totalitarianism: The West in Crisis 1914--1945
726(140)
World War I: The West in Despair
728(37)
Aggravated Nationalist Tensions in Austria-Hungary
731(1)
The German System of Alliances
732(2)
The New German Empire
732(1)
Bismarck's Goals
733(1)
The Triple Entente
734(1)
Fear of Germany
734(1)
German Reactions
735(1)
Drifting Toward War
735(4)
The Bosnian Crisis
735(1)
Balkan Wars
736(1)
Assassination of Francis Ferdinand
737(1)
Germany Abets Austria
738(1)
The Question of Responsibility
739(1)
War as Celebration
739(3)
Stalemate in the West
742(4)
Other Fronts
746(1)
Collapse of the Central Powers
747(2)
American Entry
747(1)
Germany's Last Offensive
748(1)
The Peace Conference
749(5)
Wilson's Hope for a New World
749(1)
Problems of Peacemaking
749(2)
The Settlement
751(1)
Assessment and Problems
752(2)
The Russian Revolution of 1917
754(5)
Problems of the Provisional Government
755(1)
Lenin and the Rise of Bolshevism
755(3)
Lenin's Opportunity
758(1)
The Bolsheviks Survive
759(1)
The War and European Consciousness
759(6)
An Era of Totalitarianism
765(43)
The Nature of Totalitarianism
767(2)
Communist Russia
769(8)
War Communism and the New Economic Policy
770(1)
One-Party Dictatorship
770(2)
The Stalin Revolution
772(5)
The Nature of Fascism
777(2)
The Rise of Fascism in Italy
779(2)
Postwar Unrest
779(1)
Mussolini's Seizure of Power
780(1)
The Fascist State in Italy
781(2)
Consolidation of Power
781(1)
Control of the Masses
782(1)
Economic Policies
783(1)
The Church and the Fascist Regime
783(1)
The New German Republic
783(4)
Threats from Left and Right
784(1)
Economic Crisis
785(1)
Fundamental Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic
786(1)
The Rise of Hitler
787(6)
The Early Years
787(1)
The Nazi Party
788(1)
Hitler's World-View
789(2)
Hitler Gains Power
791(2)
Nazi Germany
793(6)
The Leader-State
793(1)
Economic Life
794(1)
Nazism and the Churches
795(1)
Shaping the ``New Man''
796(1)
Anti-Semitic Legislation
797(1)
Mass Support
798(1)
Liberalism and Authoritarianism in Other Lands
799(9)
The Spread of Authoritarianism
799(3)
The Western Democracies
802(6)
Thought and Culture in an Era of World Wars and Totalitarianism
808(27)
Intellectuals and Artists in Troubled Times
809(14)
Postwar Pessimism
809(3)
Literature and Art: Innovation, Disillusionment, and Social Commentary
812(5)
Communism: ``The God That Failed''
817(2)
Reaffirming the Christian World-View
819(2)
Reaffirming the Ideals of Reason and Freedom
821(2)
Existentialism
823(6)
Intellectual Background
823(1)
Basic Principles
824(1)
Nineteenth-Century Forerunners
824(1)
Twentieth-Century Existentialists
825(4)
The Modern Predicament
829(6)
World War II: Western Civilization in the Balance
835(31)
The Aftermath of World War I
836(2)
The Road to War
838(7)
Hitler's Foreign Policy Aims
838(1)
Breakdown of Peace
839(3)
Czechoslovakia: The Apex of Appeasement
842(1)
Poland: The Final Crisis
843(2)
The Nazi Blitzkrieg
845(5)
The Fall of France
845(3)
The Battle of Britain
848(1)
Invasion of Russia
848(2)
The New Order
850(7)
Exploitation and Terror
850(1)
Extermination
851(5)
Resistance
856(1)
Turn of the Tide
857(5)
The Japanese Offensive
857(1)
Defeat of the Axis Powers
857(5)
The Legacy of World War II
862(4)
Part Seven The Contemporary World: The Global Age Since 1945
866(45)
Europe After World War II: Recovery and Realignment, 1945--1989
868(20)
The Cold War
871(4)
Origins
871(1)
Cold War Mobilization
871(1)
Arms Race and Space Race
872(2)
The Vietnam War
874(1)
Building a New Europe
875(4)
The Soviet Bloc
879(5)
Stalin's Last Years
879(1)
After Stalin: Thaw, Detente, Perestroika, and Glasnost
880(4)
Decolonization
884(4)
The Troubled Present
888(23)
The Demise of Communism
889(7)
1989: Year of Liberation
889(4)
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
893(1)
The Death of an Ideal
894(2)
The Post-Cold War World
896(1)
Post-Communist Russia and the Former Soviet Republics
896(1)
Art Essay: Contemporary Art
896(9)
Central and Eastern Europe After 1989
899(3)
Western Europe
902(3)
Our Global Age: Tensions and Concerns
905(6)
Epilogue: Reaffirming the Core Values of the Western Tradition 911
Index 1


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