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The Western Heritage: Teaching and Learning Classroom Edition; Brief Edition,9780131624733
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The Western Heritage: Teaching and Learning Classroom Edition; Brief Edition

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131624733

ISBN10:
0131624733
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/8/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Part 1 The Foundations of Western Civilization in the Ancient World
1(123)
The Birth of Civilization
4(22)
Early Humans and Their Culture
6(2)
The Paleolithic Age
6(1)
The Neolithic Age
6(1)
The Bronze Age and the Birth of Civilization
7(1)
Early Civilizations to About 1000 B.C.E.
8(11)
Mesopotamian Civilization
8(6)
Egyptian Civilization
14(5)
Ancient Near Eastern Empires
19(2)
The Hittites
20(1)
The Assyrians
20(1)
The Neo-Babylonians
21(1)
Palestine
21(2)
The Canaanites and the Phoenicians
21(1)
The Israelites
21(1)
The Jewish Religion
22(1)
General Outlook of Mideastern Cultures
23(1)
Humans and Nature
23(1)
Humans and the Gods, Law, and Justice
23(1)
Toward the Greeks and Western Thought
24(1)
Summary
24(1)
Review Questions
25(1)
Key Terms
25(1)
The Rise of Greek Civilization
26(20)
The Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to About 1150 B.C.E.
28(2)
The Minoans
28(1)
The Mycenaeans
28(2)
The Greek ``Middle Ages'' to About 750 B.C.E.
30(2)
Greek Migrations
30(1)
The Age of Homer
31(1)
The Polis
32(2)
The Development of the Polis
33(1)
The Hoplite Phalanx
34(1)
Expansion of the Greek World
34(3)
The Greek Colony
34(1)
The Tyrants (ca. 700-500 B.C.E.)
35(2)
The Major States
37(3)
Sparta
37(1)
Athens
38(2)
Life in Archaic Greece
40(1)
Society
40(1)
Religion
40(1)
Poetry
41(1)
The Persian Wars
41(3)
The Persian Empire
42(1)
The Ionian Rebellion
42(1)
The War in Greece
42(2)
Summary
44(1)
Review Questions
45(1)
Key Terms
45(1)
Classical and Hellenistic Greece
46(28)
Aftermath of Victory
48(1)
The Delian League
48(1)
The Rise of Cimon
48(1)
The First Peloponnesian War: Athens against Sparta
48(2)
The Thasian Rebellion
48(1)
The Breach with Sparta
49(1)
The Division of Greece
49(1)
Classical Greece
50(4)
The Athenian Empire
50(1)
Athenian Democracy
50(2)
Athenian Women: Legal Status and Everyday Life
52(1)
Slavery
53(1)
The Great Peloponnesian War
54(1)
Causes
54(1)
Strategic Stalemate
54(1)
The Fall of Athens
55(1)
Competition for Leadership in the Fourth Century B.C.E.
55(2)
The Hegemony of Sparta
55(1)
The Hegemony of Thebes: The Second Athenian Empire
56(1)
The Culture of Classical Greece
57(5)
The Fifth Century B.C.E.
57(2)
The Fourth Century B.C.E.
59(1)
Philosophy and the Crisis of the Polis
60(2)
The Hellenistic World
62(5)
The Macedonian Conquest
62(2)
Alexander the Great
64(3)
The Successors
67(1)
Hellenistic Culture
67(3)
Philosophy
68(1)
Literature
69(1)
Architecture and Sculpture
69(1)
Mathematics and Science
69(1)
Summary
70(1)
Review Questions
71(1)
Key Terms
71(3)
Visualizing the Past: Goddesses and the Female Form in Ancient Art
72(2)
Rome: From Republic to Empire
74(24)
Prehistoric Italy
76(1)
The Etruscans
76(1)
Dominion
76(1)
Cultural Influences
76(1)
Royal Rome
77(1)
Government
77(1)
The Family
77(1)
Women
78(1)
Clientage
78(1)
Patricians and Plebeians
78(1)
The Republic
78(7)
Constitution
78(3)
The Conquest of Italy
81(1)
Rome and Carthage
82(2)
The Republic's Conquest of the Hellenistic World
84(1)
Civilization in the Early Roman Republic
85(4)
Religion
86(1)
Education
86(1)
Slavery
87(2)
Roman Imperialism: The Late Republic
89(4)
The Aftermath of Conquest
89(1)
The Gracchi
89(3)
Marius and Sulla
92(1)
The Fall of the Republic
93(2)
Pompey, Crassus, Caesar and Cicero
93(1)
Formation of the First Triumvirate
94(1)
Julius Caesar and His Government of Rome
94(1)
The Second Triumvirate and the Emergence of Octavian
95(1)
Summary
95(2)
Review Questions
97(1)
Key Terms
97(1)
The Roman Empire
98(26)
The Augustan Principate
100(2)
Administration
100(1)
The Army and Defense
101(1)
Religion and Morality
101(1)
Civilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan Ages
102(2)
The Late Republic
102(1)
The Age of Augustus
103(1)
Imperial Rome 14--180 C.E.
104(6)
The Emperors
104(1)
The Administration of the Empire
105(3)
Women of the Upper Classes
108(1)
Life in Imperial Rome: The Apartment Houses
108(1)
The Culture of the Early Empire
109(1)
The Rise of Christianity
110(3)
Jesus of Nazareth
110(1)
Paul of Tarsus
111(1)
Organization
111(1)
The Persecution of Christians
112(1)
The Emergence of Catholicism
112(1)
Rome as a Center of the Early Church
112(1)
The Crisis of the Third Century
113(1)
Barbarian Invasions
113(1)
Economic Difficulties
113(1)
The Social Order
114(1)
Civil Disorder
114(1)
The Late Empire
114(6)
The Fourth Century and Imperial Reorganization
114(4)
The Triumph of Christianity
118(2)
Arts and Letters in the Late Empire
120(1)
The Preservation of Classical Culture
120(1)
Christian Writers
120(1)
The Problem of the Decline and Fall of the Empire in the West
121(1)
Summary
121(2)
Review Questions
123(1)
Key Terms
123(1)
Part 2 The Middle Ages, 476--1300
124(68)
The Early Middle Ages: The Birth of Europe (476--1000)
126(24)
On the Eve of the Frankish Ascendancy
128(2)
Germanic Migrations
128(1)
Fall of the Roman Empire
128(2)
The Byzantine Empire
130(2)
The Reign of Justinian
130(1)
Eastern Influences
131(1)
Islam and the Islamic World
132(3)
Muhammad's Religion
132(1)
Islamic Diversity
133(1)
Islamic Empires
133(1)
The Western Debt to Islamic Culture
134(1)
Western Society and the Developing Christian Church
135(2)
Monastic Culture
135(1)
The Doctrine of Papal Primacy
136(1)
The Division of Christendom
137(1)
The Kingdom of the Franks
137(7)
Merovingians and the Carolingians: From Clovis to Charlemagne
137(2)
The Reign of Charlemagne (768-814)
139(4)
Breakup of the Carolingian Kingdom
143(1)
Feudal Society
144(3)
Origins
144(1)
Vassalage and the Fief
145(1)
Fragmentation and Divided Loyalty
146(1)
Summary
147(1)
Review Questions
148(1)
Key Terms
149(1)
The High Middle Ages: The Rise of European Empires and States (1000--1300)
150(20)
Otto I and the Revival of the Empire
152(1)
Unifying Germany
152(1)
Embracing the Church
152(1)
The Reviving Catholic Church
153(6)
The Cluny Reform Movement
153(1)
The Investiture Struggle: Gregory VII and Henry IV
154(1)
The First Crusades
155(2)
The Pontificate of Innocent III (r. 1198--1216)
157(2)
England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines (1214)
159(4)
William the Conqueror
160(1)
Henry II
160(1)
Eleanor of Aquitaine and Court Culture
160(1)
Popular Rebellion and Magna Carta
161(2)
Philip II Augustus
163(1)
France in the Thirteenth Century: The Reign of Louis IX
163(1)
Generosity Abroad
163(1)
Order and Excellence at Home
164(1)
The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152-1272)
164(4)
Frederick I Barbarossa
164(1)
Henry VI and the Sicilian Connection
165(1)
Otto IV and the Welf Interregnum
166(1)
Frederick II
166(2)
Summary
168(1)
Review Questions
169(1)
Key Terms
169(1)
Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000--1300)
170(22)
The Traditional Order of Life
172(6)
Nobles
172(2)
Clergy
174(2)
Peasants
176(2)
Towns and Townspeople
178(4)
The Chartering of Towns
179(1)
The Rise of Merchants
179(1)
Challenging the Old Lords
179(1)
New Models of Government
180(1)
Towns and Kings
181(1)
Jews in Christian Society
181(1)
Schools and Universities
182(3)
University of Bologna
182(1)
Cathedral Schools
183(1)
University of Paris
183(1)
The Curriculum
184(1)
Women in Medieval Society
185(2)
The Lives of Children
187(1)
Summary
188(1)
Review Questions
189(1)
Key Terms
189(3)
Visualizing the Past: The Divine in the Middle Ages
190(2)
Part 3 Europe in Transition, 1300--1750
192(204)
The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300--1527)
194(18)
The Hundred Years' War and the Rise of National Sentiment
196(4)
Causes of the War
196(1)
Progress of the War
197(3)
The Black Death
200(1)
Preconditions and Causes
200(1)
Social and Economic Consequences
200(1)
Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval Church
201(8)
The Thirteenth-Century Papacy
202(2)
Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair
204(1)
The Avignon Papacy (1309-1377)
205(2)
The Great Schism (1378-1417) and the Conciliar Movement to 1449
207(2)
Medieval Russia
209(1)
Politics and Society
209(1)
Mongol Rule (1243-1480)
209(1)
Liberation
209(1)
Summary
210(1)
Review Questions
211(1)
Key Terms
211(1)
Renaissance and Discovery
212(24)
The Renaissance in Italy (1375--1527)
214(7)
The Italian City-State
214(1)
Humanism
215(3)
Renaissance Art
218(3)
Slavery in the Renaissance
221(1)
Italy's Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494--1527)
221(2)
The Treaty of Lodi
221(1)
Charles VIII's March through Italy
221(1)
Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family
222(1)
Pope Julius II
222(1)
Niccolo Machiavelli
222(1)
Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe
223(4)
France
224(1)
Spain
224(1)
England
225(1)
The Holy Roman Empire
226(1)
The Northern Renaissance
227(3)
The Printing Press
227(1)
Erasmus
227(1)
Humanism and Reform
228(2)
Voyages of Discovery and the New Empire in the West
230(4)
Gold and Spices
230(1)
The Spanish Empire in the New World
230(1)
A Conquered World
230(1)
The Church in Spanish America
230(3)
The Economy of Exploitation
233(1)
The Impact on Europe
233(1)
Summary
234(1)
Review Questions
235(1)
Key Terms
235(1)
The Age of Reformation
236(30)
Society and Religion
238(2)
Popular Religious Movements and Criticism of the Church
238(2)
Martin Luther and German Reformation to 1525
240(4)
Justification by Faith Alone
240(1)
The Attack on Indulgences
241(1)
Election of Charles V
242(1)
Luther's Excommunication and the Diet of Worms
242(1)
Imperial Distractions: France and the Turks
243(1)
How the Reformation Spread
243(1)
The Peasant's Revolt
244(1)
The Reformation Elsewhere
244(4)
Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation
244(1)
Anabaptists and Radical Protestants
245(2)
John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation
247(1)
Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation
248(1)
The Expansion of the Reformation
248(1)
Reaction and Resolution: The Peace of Augsburg
249(1)
The English Reformation to 1553
249(3)
The Preconditions of Reform
249(1)
The King's Affair
250(1)
The ``Reformation Parliament''
250(1)
Wives of Henry VIII
251(1)
The King's Religious Conservatism
251(1)
The Protestant Reformation under Edward VI
252(1)
Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation
252(2)
Sources of Catholic Reform
252(1)
Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits
253(1)
The Council of Trent (1545-1563)
253(1)
The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe
254(4)
The Revolution in Religious Practices and Institutions
256(1)
The Reformation and Education
256(2)
The Reformation and the Changing Role of Women
258(1)
Family Life in Early Modern Europe
258(3)
Later Marriages
258(1)
Arranged Marriages
259(1)
Family Size
260(1)
Birth Control
260(1)
Wet Nursing
260(1)
Loving Families?
261(1)
Literary Imagination in Transition
261(2)
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra: Rejection of Idealism
261(1)
William Shakespeare: Dramatist of the Age
262(1)
Summary
263(1)
Review Questions
264(1)
Key Terms
265(1)
The Age of Religious Wars
266(22)
Renewed Religious Struggle
268(1)
The French Wars of Religion (1562--1598)
269(3)
Anti-Protestant Measures and the Struggle for Political Power
269(1)
Appeal of Calvinism
270(1)
Catherine de Medicis and the Guises
270(1)
The Rise to Power of Henry of Navarre
271(1)
The Edict of Nantes
272(1)
Imperial Spain and the Reign of Philip II (R. 1556--1598)
272(4)
Pillars of Spanish Power
272(2)
The Revolt in the Netherlands
274(2)
England and Spain (1553--1603)
276(4)
Mary I
276(1)
Elizabeth I
276(4)
The Thirty Years' War (1618--1648)
280(1)
Preconditions for War
280(1)
Four Periods of War
281(3)
Summary
284(2)
Review Questions
286(1)
Key Terms
287(1)
Paths to Constitutionalism and Absolutism: England and France in the Seventeenth Century
288(22)
Two Models of European Political Development
290(1)
Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England
290(8)
James I
290(3)
Charles I
293(2)
Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic
295(1)
Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy
296(1)
James II and Renewed Fears of a Catholic England
297(1)
The ``Glorious Revolution''
298(1)
Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France
298(10)
Henry IV and Sully
298(1)
Louis XIII and Richelieu
298(2)
Young Louis XIV and Mazarin
300(1)
The Years of Louis XIV's Personal Rule
300(1)
King by Divine Right
301(1)
Versailles
301(1)
Suppression of the Jansenists
302(1)
Government Geared for Warfare
303(1)
Louis's Early Wars
303(1)
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
304(1)
Louis's Later Wars
304(3)
Louis XIV's Legacy
307(1)
Summary
308(1)
Review Questions
309(1)
Key Terms
309(1)
New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
310(20)
The Scientific Revolution
312(3)
Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-centered Universe
312(1)
Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Observations
313(1)
Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws
313(1)
Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation
314(1)
Philosophy Responds to Changing Science
315(3)
Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method
315(1)
Rene Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction
315(1)
Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolutism
316(1)
John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration
317(1)
The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge
318(2)
Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution
320(1)
The New Science and Religious Faith
320(2)
The Case of Galileo
320(1)
Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith
321(1)
The English Approach to Science and Religion
321(1)
Continuing Superstition
322(3)
Witch-Hunts and Panic
322(1)
Village Origins
322(1)
Influence of the Clergy
322(1)
Why Women?
323(1)
End of the Witch-Hunts
324(1)
Summary
325(2)
Review Questions
327(1)
Key Terms
327(3)
Visualizing the Past: Science, Art, and the Printing Press in Early Modern Europe
328(2)
Successful and Unsuccessful Paths to Power (1686--1740)
330(22)
The Maritime Powers
332(4)
The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline
332(1)
France after Louis XIV
333(1)
Great Britain: The Age of Walpole
334(2)
Central and Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire
336(8)
Sweden: The Ambitions of Charles XII
338(1)
The Ottoman Empire
338(2)
Poland: Absence of Strong Central Authority
340(1)
The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction
341(1)
Prussia and the Hohenzollerns
342(2)
Russia Enters the European Political Arena
344(5)
Birth of the Romanov Dynasty
345(1)
Peter the Great
345(1)
Taming the Streltsy and Boyars
345(1)
Developing a Navy
345(2)
Russian Expansion in the Baltic: The Great Northern War
347(1)
Founding St. Petersburg
347(1)
Reorganizing Domestic Administration
347(1)
The Case of Peter's Son Aleksei
347(1)
Reforming of Peter the Great's Final Years
348(1)
Summary
349(1)
Review Questions
350(1)
Key Terms
351(1)
Society and Economy under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century
352(24)
Major Features of Life in the Old Regime
354(1)
Maintenance of Tradition
354(1)
Hierarchy and Privilege
354(1)
The Aristocracy
354(2)
Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege
355(1)
Aristocratic Resurgence
356(1)
The Land and Its Tillers
356(1)
Peasants and Serfs
356(1)
Family Structures and Family Economy
357(4)
Households
357(2)
The Family Economy
359(1)
Women and the Family Economy
359(1)
Children and the Family Economy
360(1)
The Revolution in Agriculture
361(2)
Population Expansion
363(1)
The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century
363(5)
A Revolution in Consumption
363(1)
Industrial Leadership of Great Britain
364(1)
New Methods of Textile Production
365(1)
The Steam Engine
366(1)
Iron Production
367(1)
The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women
367(1)
The Growth of Cities
368(4)
Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization
368(1)
Urban Classes
368(3)
The Urban Riot
371(1)
The Jewish Population: The Age of the Ghetto
372(1)
Summary
373(1)
Review Questions
374(1)
Key Terms
375(1)
The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion
376(20)
Periods of European Overseas Empires
378(1)
Mercantile Empires
378(2)
Mercantilist Goals
379(1)
French-British Rivalry
379(1)
The Spanish Colonial System
380(1)
Colonial Government
380(1)
Trade Regulation
380(1)
Colonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs
380(1)
Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy
381(5)
The African Presence in the Americas
381(3)
Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy
384(1)
The Experience of Slavery
384(2)
Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars
386(3)
The War of Jenkins's Ear
386(1)
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
387(1)
The ``Diplomatic Revolution'' of 1756
388(1)
The Seven Years' War (1756--1763)
388(1)
The American Revolution and Europe
389(4)
Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue
389(1)
The Crisis and Independence
390(1)
American Political Ideas
391(1)
Events in Great Britain
391(2)
Broader Impact of the American Revolution
393(1)
Summary
393(2)
Review Questions
395(1)
Key Terms
395(1)
Part 4 Enlightenment and Revolution
396(122)
The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought
398(24)
The Philosophies
400(1)
Voltaire---First Among the Philosophes
400(1)
Formative Influences on the Enlightenment
401(1)
Ideas of Newton and Locke
401(1)
The Example of British Toleration and Stability
401(1)
The Emergence of a Print Culture
401(1)
The Encyclopedia
402(2)
The Enlightenment and Religion
404(3)
Deism
404(1)
Toleration
405(1)
Radical Enlightenment Criticism of Christianity
405(1)
Jewish Thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment
405(1)
Islam in Enlightenment Thought
406(1)
The Enlightenment and Society
407(1)
Beccaria and Reform of Criminal Law
407(1)
The Physiocrats and Economic Freedom
407(1)
Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress
407(1)
Political Thought of the Philosophies
408(3)
Montesquieu and Spirit of the Laws
408(1)
Rousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern Society
409(2)
Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment
411(2)
Enlightened Absolutism
413(5)
Frederick the Great of Prussia
413(1)
Joseph II of Austria
414(2)
Catherine the Great of Russia
416(1)
The Partition of Poland
417(1)
The End of the Eighteenth Century in Central and Eastern Europe
418(1)
Summary
418(2)
Review Questions
420(1)
Key Terms
421(1)
The French Revolution
422(24)
The Crisis of the French Monarchy
424(1)
The Monarchy Seeks New Taxes
424(1)
Calonne's Reform Plan and the Assembly of Notables
425(1)
Deadlock and the Calling of the Estates General
425(1)
The Revolution of 1789
425(5)
The Estates General Becomes the National Assembly
426(2)
Fall of the Bastille
428(1)
The ``Great Fear'' and the Night of August 4
428(1)
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
429(1)
The Parisian Women's March on Versailles
429(1)
The Reconstruction of France
430(5)
Political Reorganization
430(1)
Economic Policy
431(3)
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
434(1)
Counterrevolutionary Activity
434(1)
The End of the Monarchy: A Second Revolution
435(2)
Emergence of the Jacobins
435(1)
The Convention and the Role of the Sans-culottes
436(1)
Europe at War with the Revolution
437(1)
Edmund Burke Attacks the Revolution
438(1)
Suppression of Reform in Britain
438(1)
War with Europe
438(1)
The Reign of Terror
438(3)
The Republic Defended
438(1)
The ``Republic of Virtue'' and Robespierre's Justification of Terror
439(1)
Revolutionary Tribunals
440(1)
The End of Terror
441(1)
The Thermidorian Reaction
441(1)
Establishment of the Directory
442(1)
Removal of the Sans-Culottes from Political Life
442(1)
Summary
443(2)
Review Questions
445(1)
Key Terms
445(1)
The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism
446(24)
The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
448(1)
Early Military Victories
448(1)
The Constitution of the Year VIII
449(1)
The Consulate in France (1799--1804)
449(3)
Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opposition
449(1)
Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church
450(1)
The Napoleonic Code
451(1)
Establishing a Dynasty
451(1)
Napoleon's Empire (1804--1814)
452(1)
Conquering an Empire
452(1)
The Continental System
453(1)
European Response to the Empire
453(4)
German Nationalism and Prussian Reform
454(1)
The Wars of Liberation
454(1)
The Invasion of Russia
455(2)
European Coalition
457(1)
The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement
457(3)
Territorial Adjustments
457(1)
The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance
458(2)
The Romantic Movement
460(1)
Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason
460(2)
Rousseau and Education
460(1)
Kant and Reason
461(1)
Romantic Literature
462(2)
The English Romantic Writers
463(1)
The German Romantic Writers
463(1)
Religion in the Romantic Period
464(1)
Methodism
464(1)
New Directions in Continental Religion
465(1)
Romantic Views of Nationalism and History
465(2)
Herder and Culture
465(1)
Herder and History
465(1)
Islam, The Middle East, and Romanticism
466(1)
Summary
467(1)
Review Questions
468(1)
Key Terms
469(1)
The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815--1832)
470(22)
The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism
472(2)
The Emergence of Nationalism
472(1)
Early Nineteenth-Century Political Liberalism
473(1)
Conservative Governments: The Domestic Political Order
474(4)
Conservative Outlooks
474(1)
Liberalism and Nationalism Resisted in Austria and the Germanies
475(1)
Postwar Repression in Great Britain
476(2)
Bourbon Restoration in France
478(1)
The Conservative International Order
478(3)
The Congress System
479(1)
The Spanish Revolution of 1820
479(1)
Revolt Against Ottoman Rule
480(1)
Serbian Independence
480(1)
The Wars of Independence in Latin America
481(3)
The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe
484(6)
Russia: The Decembrist Revolt of 1825
484(2)
Revolution in France (1830)
486(1)
Belgium Becomes Independent (1830)
487(1)
The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832)
488(2)
Summary
490(1)
Review Questions
491(1)
Key Terms
491(1)
Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830--1850)
492(26)
Toward an Industrial Society
494(3)
Britain's Industrial Leadership
494(1)
Population and Migration
494(2)
Railways
496(1)
The Labor Force
497(2)
Proletarianization of Factory Workers and Urban Artisans
497(1)
Working-Class Political Action: The Example of British Chartism
497(2)
Family Structures and the Industrial Revolution
499(1)
The Family in the Early Factory System
499(1)
Women in the Early Industrial Revolution
500(2)
Opportunities and Exploitation in Employment
500(1)
Changing Expectations in Working-Class Marriage
500(2)
Problems of Crime and Order
502(1)
New Police Forces
502(1)
Prison Reform
502(1)
Classical Economics
503(2)
Malthus on Population
503(1)
Ricardo on Wages
504(1)
Government Policies Based on Classical Economics
504(1)
Early Socialism
505(3)
Utopian Socialism
505(1)
Anarchism
506(1)
Marxism
506(2)
1848: Year of Revolutions
508(6)
France: The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon
508(3)
The Habsburg Empire: Nationalism Resisted
511(2)
Italy: Republicanism Defeated
513(1)
Germany: Liberalism Frustrated
514(1)
Summary
514(3)
Review Questions
517(1)
Key Terms
517(1)
Part 5 Toward the Modern World
518(144)
The Age of Nation-States
520(24)
The Crimean War (1853--1856)
522(1)
Reforms in the Ottoman Empire
523(1)
Italian Unification
524(3)
Romantic Republicans
524(1)
Cavour's Policy
524(1)
The New Italian State
525(2)
German Unification
527(3)
Bismarck
527(2)
The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire (1870--1871)
529(1)
France: From Liberal Empire to the Third Republic
530(2)
The Paris Commune
531(1)
The Third Republic
531(1)
The Dreyfus Affair
532(1)
The Habsburg Empire
532(3)
Formation of the Dual Monarchy
533(1)
Unrest of Nationalities
534(1)
Russia: Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings
535(3)
Reforms of Alexander II
535(2)
Revolutionaries
537(1)
Great Britain: Toward Democracy
538(3)
The Second Reform Act (1867)
538(1)
Gladstone's Great Ministry (1868-1874)
538(1)
Disraeli in Office (1874-1880)
539(1)
The Irish Question
539(2)
Summary
541(2)
Review Questions
543(1)
Key Terms
543(1)
The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I
544(26)
Population Trends and Migration
546(1)
The Second Industrial Revolution
546(2)
New Industries
546(1)
Economic Difficulties
547(1)
The Middle Classes in Ascendancy
548(1)
Social Distinctions within the Middle Classes
548(1)
Late Nineteenth-Century Urban Life
549(3)
The Redesign of Cities
550(1)
Urban Sanitation
551(1)
Housing Reform and Middle-Class Values
552(1)
Varieties of Late Nineteenth-Century Women's Experiences
552(6)
Social Disabilities Confronted by All Women
552(2)
New Employment Patterns for Women
554(1)
Working-Class Women
555(1)
Poverty and Prostitution
555(1)
Women of the Middle Class
555(1)
The Rise of Political Feminism
556(2)
Jewish Emancipation
558(1)
Differing Degrees of Citizenship
559(1)
Broadened Opportunities
559(1)
Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I
559(6)
Trade Unionism
559(1)
Democracy and Political Parties
560(1)
Karl Marx and the First International
560(1)
Great Britain: Fabianism and Early Welfare Programs
561(1)
France: ``Opportunism'' Rejected
561(1)
Germany: Social Democrats and Revisionism
562(1)
Russia: Industrial Development and the Birth of Bolshevism
563(2)
Summary
565(1)
Review Questions
565(1)
Key Terms
565(5)
Visualizing the Past: Industrialization
568(2)
The Birth of Modern European Thought
570(22)
The New Reading Public
572(1)
Advances in Primary Education
572(1)
Reading Material for the Mass Audience
572(1)
Science at Midcentury
573(3)
Comte, Positivism, and the Prestige of Science
574(1)
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
574(1)
Science and Ethics
575(1)
Christianity and the Church Under Siege
576(3)
Intellectual Skepticism
576(1)
Conflict between Church and State
577(1)
Areas of Religious Revival
578(1)
The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World
578(1)
Islam and Late-Nineteenth-Century European Thought
579(1)
Toward a Twentieth-Century Frame of Mind
579(8)
Science: The Revolution in Physics
580(1)
Literature: Realism and Naturalism
581(1)
Modernism
582(1)
Friedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt against Reason
583(1)
The Birth of Psychoanalysis
583(1)
Retreat from Rationalism in Politics
584(1)
Racism
585(1)
Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism
586(1)
Women and Modern Thought
587(2)
Antifeminism in Late-Century Thought
587(1)
New Directions in Feminism
588(1)
Summary
589(1)
Review Questions
590(1)
Key Terms
591(1)
Imperialism, Alliances, and War
592(28)
Expansion of European Power and the New Imperialism
594(5)
The New Imperialism
594(1)
Motives for the New Imperialism: The Economic Interpretation
594(1)
Cultural, Religious, and Social Interpretations
594(1)
Strategic and Political Interpretations: The Scramble for Africa
595(2)
The Irrational Element
597(2)
Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems (1873--1890)
599(3)
Bismarck's Leadership (1873--1890)
599(1)
Forging of the Triple Entente (1890--1907)
600(2)
World War I
602(8)
The Road to War (1908-1914)
602(2)
Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June-August 1914)
604(2)
Strategies and Stalemate (1914-1917)
606(4)
The Russian Revolution
610(1)
The Provisional Government
610(1)
Lenin and the Bolsheviks
611(1)
The Communist Dictatorship
611(1)
The End of World War I
611(2)
Germany's Last Offensive
612(1)
German Republican Government Accepts Defeat
612(1)
Ottoman Empire: The Creation of the Modern Near East
613(1)
The Settlement at Paris
613(4)
The Peace
616(1)
Evaluation of the Peace
616(1)
Summary
617(2)
Review Questions
619(1)
Key Terms
619(1)
Political Experiments of the 1920s
620(22)
Political and Economic Factors After the Paris Settlement
622(2)
New Governments
622(1)
Demands for Revision of the Paris Settlement
622(1)
Postwar Economic Problems
622(1)
New Roles for Government and Labor
623(1)
The Soviet Experiment Begins
624(3)
War Communism
624(1)
The New Economic Policy
624(1)
Stalin Versus Trotsky
625(1)
The Third International
626(1)
Women and the Family in the Early Soviet Union
626(1)
The Fascist Experiment in Italy
627(3)
The Rise of Mussolini
628(1)
The Fascists in Power
629(1)
Motherhood for the Nation in Fascist Italy
630(1)
Joyless Victors
630(3)
France: The Search for Security
630(1)
Great Britain: Economic Confusion
630(3)
Trials of the Successor States in Eastern Europe
633(2)
Economic and Ethnic Pressures
633(1)
Poland: Democracy to Military Rule
633(1)
Czechoslovakia: Successful Democratic Experiment
633(1)
Hungary: Turmoil and Authoritarianism
634(1)
Austria: Political Turmoil and Nazi Conquest
634(1)
Southeastern Europe: Royal Dictatorships
634(1)
The Weimar Republic in Germany
635(4)
Constitutional Flaws
635(1)
Lack of Broad Popular Support
635(1)
Invasion of the Ruhr and Inflation
635(1)
Hitler's Early Career
636(2)
The Stresemann Years
638(1)
Locarno
638(1)
Summary
639(2)
Review Questions
641(1)
Key Terms
641(1)
Europe and the Great Depression of the 1930s
642(20)
Toward the Great Depression
644(2)
The Financial Tailspin
644(1)
Problems in Agriculture Commodities
645(1)
Depression and Government Policy
645(1)
Confronting the Great Depression in the Democracies
646(2)
Great Britain: The National Government
646(1)
France: The Popular Front
647(1)
Germany: The Nazi Seizure of Power
648(6)
Depression and Political Deadlock
649(1)
Hitler Comes to Power
649(2)
Hitler's Consolidation of Power
651(1)
Reichstag Fire
651(1)
Internal Nazi Party Purges
651(1)
The Police State and Anti-Semitism
651(2)
Racial Ideology and the Lives of Women
653(1)
Nazi Economic Policy
653(1)
Italy: Fascist Economics
654(1)
Syndicates
654(1)
Corporations
654(1)
The Soviet Union: Central Economic Planning and Party Purges
654(4)
The Decision for Rapid Industrialization
654(1)
The Collectivization of Agriculture
655(1)
Flight to the Soviet Cities
655(1)
Urban Consumer Shortages
656(1)
Foreign Reactions and Repercussions
656(1)
The Purges
656(2)
Summary
658(1)
Review Questions
659(1)
Key Terms
659(3)
Visualizing the Past: Imperialism and Race in Modern Art
660(2)
Part 6 Global Conflict, Cold War, and New Directions
662
World War II
664(26)
Again the Road to War (1933--1939)
666(4)
Hitler's Goals
666(1)
Italy Attacks Ethiopia
667(1)
Remilitarization of the Rhineland
667(1)
The Spanish Civil War
667(1)
Austria and Czechoslovakia
668(1)
Munich
669(1)
The Nazi-Soviet Pact
670(1)
World War II (1939--1945)
670(10)
The German Conquest of Europe
670(1)
The Battle of Britain
671(1)
The German Attack on Russia
672(1)
Hitler's Plans for Europe
673(1)
Japan and the United States Enter the War
674(1)
The Tide Turns
675(2)
The Defeat of Nazi Germany
677(1)
Fall of the Japanese Empire
677(3)
The Cost of War
680(1)
Racism and the Holocaust
680(2)
The Destruction of the Polish Jewish Community
680(1)
Polish Anti-Semitism Between the Wars
681(1)
The Nazi Assault on the Jews of Poland
681(1)
Explanations of the Holocaust
681(1)
The Domestic Fronts
682(3)
Germany: From Apparent Victory to Defeat
682(1)
France: Defeat, Collaboration, and Resistance
683(1)
Great Britain: Organization for Victory
684(1)
The Soviet Union: ``The Great Patriotic War''
684(1)
Preparations for Peace
685(3)
The Atlantic Charter
686(1)
Tehran: Agreement on a Second Front
686(1)
Yalta
687(1)
Potsdam
687(1)
Summary
688(1)
Review Questions
689(1)
Key Terms
689(1)
The Cold War Era and the Emergence of the New Europe
690(28)
The Emergence of the Cold War
692(5)
Containment in American Foreign Policy
692(1)
Soviet Assertion of Domination of Eastern Europe
693(1)
The Postwar Division of Germany
694(1)
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
694(1)
The Creation of the State of Israel
694(2)
The Korean War
696(1)
The Khrushchev Era in the Soviet Union
697(1)
The Last Years of Stalin
697(1)
Khrushchev's Domestic Policies
697(1)
The Three Crises of 1956
697(1)
The Suez Intervention
697(1)
Poland's Efforts toward Independent Action
698(1)
Uprising in Hungary
698(1)
Later Cold War Confrontations
698(2)
Collapse of the 1960 Paris Summit Conference
698(1)
The Berlin Wall
699(1)
The Cuban Missile Crisis
699(1)
Brezhnev and the Invasion of Czechoslovakia
699(1)
Decolonization: The European Retreat from Empire
700(1)
Major Areas of Colonial Withdrawal
700(1)
India
700(1)
Further British Retreat from Empire
701(1)
The Turmoil of French Decolonization
701(2)
France and Algeria
701(1)
France and Vietnam
702(1)
Vietnam Drawn into the Cold War
703(1)
Direct U.S. Involvement
703(1)
Western European Political Developments during the Cold War
703(2)
Christian Democratic Parties
704(1)
Economic Concerns within Western Europe
704(1)
Toward Western European Unification
705(1)
Postwar Cooperation
705(1)
The European Economic Community
705(1)
The European Union
705(1)
The Brezhnev Era in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
706(1)
The United States and Detente
706(1)
Invasion of Afghanistan
706(1)
Communism and Solidarity in Poland
707(1)
Relations with the Reagan Administration
707(1)
The Collapse of European Communism
707(7)
Gorbachev Redirects the Soviet Union
707(2)
1989: Year of Revolution in Eastern Europe
709(1)
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
710(1)
The Yeltsin Decade
711(1)
The Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War
712(2)
Implications of the Collapse of Communism
714(1)
Europe at the Opening of the Global Century
714(1)
Summary
715(2)
Review Questions
717(1)
Key Terms
717(1)
The West at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century
718
The Twentieth-Century Movement of People
720(1)
Displacement Through War
720(1)
External Migration
720(1)
The New Muslim Population
720(1)
European Population Trends
721(1)
The Welfare State
721(1)
New Patterns in the Work and Expectations of Women
722(3)
Feminism
722(1)
More Married Women in the Work Force
723(1)
New Work Patterns
724(1)
Women in the New Eastern Europe
724(1)
Transformations in Knowledge and Culture
725(4)
Communism and Western Europe
725(1)
Existentialism
725(1)
Expansion of the University Population and Student Rebellion
726(1)
The Americanization of Europe
727(1)
A Consumer Society
727(1)
Environmentalism
727(2)
The Christian Heritage
729(1)
Neo-Orthodoxy
729(1)
Liberal Theology
729(1)
Roman Catholic Reform
730(1)
Late Twentieth-Century Technology: The Arrival of the Computer
730(2)
The Demand for Calculating Machines
731(1)
Early Computer Technology
731(1)
The Development of Desktop Computers
731(1)
The Rise of Radical Political Islamism
732(2)
Arab Nationalism
732(1)
The Iranian Revolution
733(1)
Invasion of Afghanistan
733(1)
Dispersion of Afghan Muslim Fighters
734(1)
A Transformed West
734(1)
Summary
735(1)
Review Questions
736(1)
Key Terms
736
Glossary 1(1)
Suggested Readings 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Index 1(1)
Western Civilization Documents CD-Rom 1


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