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Western Heritage, The, Volume 1

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Edition:
11th
ISBN13:

9780205423866

ISBN10:
0205423868
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/8/2012
Publisher(s):
Pearson
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Summary

An authoritative account of Western civilizations. The Western Heritageprovides the broadest possible introduction to Western civilization in a strong, clear narrative. It fosters lively debate about the West, defines how the West has interacted with other cultures, and shows how Western civilization can be used to understand global challenges today. The text integrates social, cultural, and political history, and it provides a flexible presentation to accommodate different teaching and learning approaches. The 11thedition is tied closely to MyHistoryLab, with icons connecting the main narrative to an array of MyHistoryLab resources, including documents, video segments, and interactive maps. The authors welcome Alison Frank, professor of history at Harvard University, to their team for this edition. A better teaching and learning experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experiencefor you and your students. Here's how: Personalize Learning -The new MyHistoryLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Improve Critical Thinking -Chapter opening and end-of-chapter study resources help students understand the themes and spark class discussion. Engage Students- Box features included throughout the text encourage the use of visual and textual sources while promoting debate about the West. Support Instructors- Instructor's eText, MyHistoryLab, Instructor's Resource Manual, Test Item File, MyTest, PowerPoint presentations, and Class Preparation are available. For the combined volume of this text, search ISBN-10: 0205393926 For volume 2 of this text, search ISBN-10: 0205434517 Note:MyHistoryLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyHistoryLab, please visit:www.myhistorylab.comor you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MyHistorylab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205896227 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205896226.

Author Biography

DONALD KAGAN is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958 to 1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); and a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995) and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the Na-tional Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humani-ties to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.

 

STEVEN OZMENT is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard Univer-sity. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250—1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister’s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty For-tress: A New History of the German People (2004), and “Why We Study Western Civ,” The Pub-lic Interest, 158 (2005).

 

FRANK M. TURNER is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Direc-tor of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National En-dowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993), and John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion (2002). He has also contributed numerous arti-cles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern His-tory, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between 1996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.

 

ALISON FRANK is professor of history at Harvard University. She is interested in transnational approaches to the history of Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Habsburg Empire and its successor states in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Her first book, Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia (2005), was awarded the Barbara Jelavich Book Prize, the Austrian Cultural Forum Book Prize, and was co-winner of the Polish Studies Association's Orbis Prize in Polish Studies. Her current book project, Invisible Empire: A New Global History of Austria, focuses on the Adriatic port city of Trieste and the Habsburg Monarchy's participation in global commerce in the long nineteenth century. Other interests include the Eastern Alps, the Mediterranean slave trade, and environmental history. She is associate director of the Center for History and Economics.

Table of Contents

Found in this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Documents   

Maps   

Preface   

About the Authors

What Is the Western Heritage?

 

PART 1: The Foundations of Western Civilization in the Ancient World to 400 C.E.

Chapter 1: The Birth of Civilization 

Chapter 2: The Rise of Greek Civilization   

Chapter 3: Classical and Hellenistic Greece

Chapter 4: Rome: From Republic to Empire          

Chapter 5: The Roman Empire        

 

PART 2: The Middle Ages, 476 C.E.—1300 C.E.

Chapter 6: Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Creating a New European Society and Culture (476—1000)         

Chapter 7: The High Middle Ages: The Rise of European Empires and States (1000—1300)      

Chapter 8: Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000—1300)      

 

PART 3: Europe in Transition, 1300—1750

Chapter 9: The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300—1453)

Chapter 10: Renaissance and Discovery    

Chapter 11: The Age of Reformation         

Chapter 12: The Age of Religious Wars     

Chapter 13: European State -Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries      

Chapter 14: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Chapter 15: Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century    

Chapter 16: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion    

 

PART 4: Enlightenment and Revolution, 1700—1850

Chapter 17: The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought    

Chapter 18: The French Revolution 

Chapter 19: The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism       

Chapter 20: The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815—1832)

Chapter 21: Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830—1850)            

 

PART 5: Toward the Modern World, 1850—1939

Chapter 22: The Age of Nation-States      

Chapter 23: The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I 

Chapter 24: The Birth of Modern European Thought        

Chapter 25: The Age of Western Imperialism       

Chapter 26: Alliances, War, and a Troubled Peace

Chapter 27: The Interwar Years: The Challenge of Dictators and Depression    

 

PART 6: Global Conflict, Cold War, and New Directions, 1939—2008

Chapter 28: World War II

Chapter 29: The Cold War Era, Decolonization, and the Emergence of a New Europe

Chapter 30: Social, Cultural, and Economic Challenges in the West through the Present        

 

Glossary       

Index


2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Documents   

Maps   

Preface   

About the Authors

What Is the Western Heritage?

 

PART 1: The Foundations of Western Civilization in the Ancient World to 400 C.E.

Chapter 1: The Birth of Civilization         

Early Humans and Their Culture      

The Paleolithic Age   

The Neolithic Age     

The Bronze Age and the Birth of Civilization         

Early Civilizations to about 1000 B.C.E.     

Mesopotamian Civilization    

Egyptian Civilization  

Ancient Near Eastern Empires        

The Hittites   

The Assyrians

The Second Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Babylonians

The Persian Empire   

Cyrus the Great       

Darius the Great      

Government and Administration      

Religion        

Art and Culture        

Palestine      

The Canaanites and the Phoenicians        

The Israelites

The Jewish Religion  

General Outlook of Mideastern Cultures     

Humans and Nature  

Humans and the Gods, Law, and Justice    

Toward the Greeks and Western Thought  

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

BABYLONIAN WORLD MAP    

Divination in Ancient Mesopotamia  

The Great Flood       

 

Chapter 2: The Rise of Greek Civilization           

The Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to about 1150 B.C.E.     

The Minoans  

The Mycenaeans     

The Greek “Middle Ages” to about 750 B.C.E.       

Greek Migrations      

The Age of Homer    

The Polis      

Development of the Polis     

The Hoplite Phalanx  

The Importance of the Polis 

Expansion of the Greek World        

Magna Graecia        

The Greek Colony     

The Tyrants (about 700—500 B.C.E.)        

The Major States     

Sparta

Athens

Life in Archaic Greece         

Society        

Religion        

Poetry

The Persian Wars     

The Ionian Rebellion 

The War in Greece   

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

Greek Athletics        

THE TRIREME 

Greek Strategy in the Persian War  

 

Chapter 3: Classical and Hellenistic Greece      

Aftermath of Victory 

The Delian League    

The Rise of Cimon    

The First Peloponnesian War: Athens Against Sparta      

The Breach with Sparta      

The Division of Greece        

Classical Greece      

The Athenian Empire 

Athenian Democracy 

The Women of Athens: Legal Status and Everyday Life   

Slavery        

Religion in Public Life 

The Great Peloponnesian War

Causes         

Strategic Stalemate 

The Fall of Athens    

Competition for Leadership in the Fourth Century B.C.E.  

The Hegemony of Sparta    

The Hegemony of Thebes: The Second Athenian Empire  

The Culture of Classical Greece      

The Fifth Century B.C.E.     

The Fourth Century B.C.E.  

Philosophy and the Crisis of the Polis        

The Hellenistic World

The Macedonian Conquest  

Alexander the Great 

The Successors       

Hellenistic Culture    

Philosophy    

Literature     

Architecture and Sculpture  

Mathematics and Science   

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

Going to Court in Athens     

Athenian Democracy–Pro and Con 

THE ERECHTHEUM: PORCH OF THE MAIDENS        

 

Chapter 4: Rome: From Republic to Empire      

Prehistoric Italy       

The Etruscans         

Government  

Religion        

Women         

Dominion       

Royal Rome   

Government  

The Family    

Women in Early Rome

Clientage      

Patricians and Plebeians      

The Republic 

Constitution  

The Conquest of Italy        

Rome and Carthage  

The Republic’s Conquest of the Hellenistic World  

Civilization in the Early Roman Republic     

Religion        

Education     

Slavery        

Roman Imperialism: The Late Republic       

The Aftermath of Conquest 

The Gracchi  

Marius and Sulla      

The Fall of the Republic      

Pompey, Crassus, Caesar, and Cicero       

The First Triumvirate

Julius Caesar and His Government of Rome 

The Second Triumvirate and the Triumph of Octavian     

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

LICTORS       

Two Roman Festivals: The Saturnalia and Lupercalia       

Did Caesar Want to Be King?

 

Chapter 5: The Roman Empire     

The Augustan Principate     

Administration

The Army and Defense

Religion and Morality

Civilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan Ages  

The Late Republic    

The Age of Augustus

Imperial Rome, 14 to 180 C.E.        

The Emperors

The Administration of the Empire    

Women of the Upper Classes

Life in Imperial Rome: The Apartment House        

The Culture of the Early Empire      

The Rise of Christianity       

Jesus of Nazareth    

Paul of Tarsus

Organization  

The Persecution of Christians        

The Emergence of Catholicism       

Rome as a Center of the Early Church       

The Crisis of the Third Century      

Barbarian Invasions  

Economic Difficulties 

The Social Order      

Civil Disorder 

The Late Empire      

The Fourth Century and Imperial Reorganization   

The Triumph of Christianity  

Arts and Letters in the Late Empire

The Preservation of Classical Culture        

Christian Writers      

The Problem of the Decline and Fall of the Empire in the West    

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

SPOILS FROM JERUSALEM ON THE ARCH OF TITUS IN ROME      

Chariot Racing         

Christianity in the Roman Empire–Why Did the Romans Persecute the Christians?        Ancient Warfare     

 

PART 2: The Middle Ages, 476 C.E.—1300 C.E.

Chapter 6: Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Creating a New European Society and Culture (476—1000)  

The Byzantine Empire

The Reign of Justinian        

The Spread of Byzantine Christianity

Persians and Muslims

Islam and the Islamic World 

Muhammad’s Religion

Islamic Diversity      

Islamic Empires        

Byzantium’s Contribution to Islamic Civilization     

The European Debt to Islam

On the Eve of the Frankish Ascendancy    

Germanic Migrations 

New Western Masters        

Western Society and the Developing Christian Church

Monastic Culture

The Doctrine of Papal Primacy       

The Religious Division of Christendom        

The Kingdom of the Franks: From Clovis to Charlemagne

Governing the Franks

The Reign of Charlemagne (768—814)        

Breakup of the Carolingian Kingdom 

Feudal Society

Origins

Vassalage and the Fief       

Daily Life and Religion

Fragmentation and Divided Loyalty 

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

The Battle of the Sexes in Christianity and Islam  

 A MULTICULTURAL BOOK COVER    

Medieval Cooking     

 

Chapter 7: The High Middle Ages: The Rise of European Empires and States (1000—1300)        

Otto I and the Revival of the Empire         

Unifying Germany     

Embracing the Church        

The Reviving Catholic Church        

The Cluny Reform Movement

The Investiture Struggle: Gregory VII and Henry IV        

The Crusades

The Pontificate of Innocent III (r. 1198—1216)     

England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines (1214)

William the Conqueror         

Henry II        

Eleanor of Aquitaine and Court Culture      

Baronial Revolt and Magna Carta    

Philip II Augustus     

France in the Thirteenth Century: The Reign of Louis IX  

Generosity Abroad    

Order and Excellence at Home       

The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152—1272)     

Frederick I Barbarossa        

Henry VI and the Sicilian Connection        

Otto IV and the Welf Interregnum  

Frederick II   

Romanesque and Gothic Architecture        

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

EUROPEANS EMBRACE A BLACK SAINT       

Christian Jihad, Muslim Jihad Pilgrimages    

 

Chapter 8: Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000—1300)      

The Traditional Order of Life

Nobles

Clergy

Peasants      

Towns and Townspeople     

The Chartering of Towns     

The Rise of Merchants        

Challenging the Old Lords    

New Models of Government 

Towns and Kings      

Jews in Christian Society    

Schools and Universities     

University of Bologna

Cathedral Schools    

University of Paris    

The Curriculum        

Philosophy and Theology     

Women in Medieval Society 

Image and Status    

Life Choices  

Working Women       

The Lives of Children

Children as “Little Adults”    

Childhood as a Special Stage         

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

THE JOYS AND PAINS OF THE MEDIEVAL JOUST   

Children’s Games, Warrior Games    

Faith and Love in the High Middle Ages     

The Invention of Printing in China and Europe      

 

PART 3: Europe in Transition, 1300—1750

Chapter 9: The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300—1453)

The Black Death      

Preconditions and Causes of the Plague    

Popular Remedies     

Social and Economic Consequences

New Conflicts and Opportunities     

The Hundred Years’ War and the Rise of National Sentiment      

The Causes of the War       

Progress of the War

Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval Church

The Thirteenth-Century Papacy     

Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair     

The Avignon Papacy (1309—1377)  

John Wycliffe and John Huss

The Great Schism (1378—1417) and the Conciliar Movement in the Church to 1449

Medieval Russia       

Politics and Society  

Mongol Rule (1243—1480)    

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

A BURIAL SCENE FROM THE BLACK DEATH 

Dealing with Death   

Who Runs the World: Priests or Princes?   

 

Chapter 10: Renaissance and Discovery           

The Renaissance in Italy (1375—1527)      

The Italian City-States       

Humanism     

High Renaissance Art

Slavery in the Renaissance   3

Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494—1527)        

Charles VIII’s March Through Italy  

Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family   

Pope Julius II 

Niccolò Machiavelli   

Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe    

France

Spain 

England        

The Holy Roman Empire       

The Northern Renaissance   

The Printing Press

Erasmus

Humanism and Reform         

Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East         

The Portuguese Chart the Course   

The Spanish Voyages of Columbus  

The Spanish Empire in the New World       

The Church in Spanish America      

The Economy of Exploitation

Mining

The Impact on Europe        

In Perspective

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

The Renaissance Garden     

LEONARDO PLOTS THE PERFECT MAN       

Is the “Renaissance Man” a Myth?  

 

Chapter 11: The Age of Reformation       

Society and Religion 

Social and Political Conflict  

Popular Religious Movements and Criticism of the Church 

Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525        

The Attack on Indulgences  

Election of Charles V

Luther’s Excommunication and the Diet of Worms 

Imperial Distractions: War with France and the Turks

How the Reformation Spread

The Peasants’ Revolt

The Reformation Elsewhere  

Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation  

Anabaptists and Radical Protestants         

John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation  

Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation

The Diet of Augsburg

The Expansion of the Reformation  

Reaction Against Protestants        

The Peace of Augsburg       

The English Reformation to 1553

The Preconditions of Reform

The King’s Affair      

The “Reformation Parliament”        

Wives of Henry VIII  

The King’s Religious Conservatism   

The Protestant Reformation under Edward VI       

Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation  

Sources of Catholic Reform  

Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits  

The Council of Trent (1545—1563)  

The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe    

The Revolution in Religious Practices and Institutions      

The Reformation and Education      

The Reformation and the Changing Role of Women

Family Life in Early Modern Europe  

Later Marriages       

Arranged Marriages  

Family Size    

Birth Control  

Wet Nursing  

Loving Families?       

Literary Imagination in Transition    

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra: Rejection of Idealism      

William Shakespeare: Dramatist of the Age

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

A SAINT AT PEACE IN THE GRASP OF TEMPTATION        

A Raw Deal for the Common Man, or Just Desserts?        

Table Manners         

 

Chapter 12: The Age of Religious Wars  

Renewed Religious Struggle

The French Wars of Religion (1562—1598)  

Appeal of Calvinism  

Catherine de Médicis and the Guises         

The Rise to Power of Henry of Navarre      

The Edict of Nantes 

Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556—1598) 

Pillars of Spanish Power      

The Revolt in the Netherlands        

England and Spain (1553—1603)     

Mary I (r. 1553—1558)        

Elizabeth I (r. 1558—1603)   

The Thirty Years’ War (1618—1648)

Preconditions for War

Four Periods of War  

The Treaty of Westphalia    

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

BAROQUE AND PLAIN CHURCH: ARCHITECTURAL REFLECTIONS OF BELIEF        

The Great Debate Over Religious Tolerance

Going to the Thea    

 

Chapter 13: European State -Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries       

The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline    

Urban Prosperity      

Economic Decline     

Two Models of European Political Development

Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England     

James I        

Charles I       

The Long Parliament and Civil War  

Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic   

Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy    

The “Glorious Revolution”    

The Age of Walpole

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV     

Years of Personal Rule        

Versailles      

King by Divine Right  

Louis’s Early Wars    

Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies 

Louis’s Later Wars    

France After Louis XIV        

Central and Eastern Europe 

Poland: Absence of Strong Central Authority       

The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction 

Prussia and the Hohenzollerns

Russia Enters the European Political Arena 

The Romanov Dynasty        

Peter the Great       

Russian Expansion in the Baltic: The Great Northern War 

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings 

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

Early Controversy Over Tobacco and Smoking      

VERSAILLES  

The Debate over the Origin and Character of Political Authority  

 

Chapter 14: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

The Scientific Revolution     

Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe 

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Observations     

Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws

Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation  

Philosophy Responds to Changing Science 

Nature as Mechanism

Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method        

René Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction        

Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolute Government       

John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration

The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge     

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution   

The New Science and Religious Faith        

The Case of Galileo  

Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith     

The English Approach to Science and Religion      

Continuing Superstition       

Witch Hunts and Panic       

Village Origins

Influence of the Clergy       

Who Were the Witches?     

End of the Witch Hunts      

Baroque Art   

In Perspective         

Key Terms    

Review Questions     

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments   

THE SCIENCES AND THE ARTS       

Descartes and Swift Debate the Scientific Enterprise      

Midwives

 

Glossary       

Index

 



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