CART

(0) items

Western Heritage, The: Volume C, Since 1789,9780131828704
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Western Heritage, The: Volume C, Since 1789

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131828704

ISBN10:
0131828703
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $84.67
More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $0.01
See Prices

Rent Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Used Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Related Products


  • MyHistoryLab with Pearson eText -- Standalone Access Card -- for Western Heritage, 1-semester
    MyHistoryLab with Pearson eText -- Standalone Access Card -- for Western Heritage, 1-semester
  • The Western Heritage Volume 2
    The Western Heritage Volume 2
  • The Western Heritage Volume 2 Plus NEW MyHistoryLab with eText -- Access Card Package
    The Western Heritage Volume 2 Plus NEW MyHistoryLab with eText -- Access Card Package
  • The Western Heritage Volume C
    The Western Heritage Volume C
  • The Western Heritage Volume C (since 1789)
    The Western Heritage Volume C (since 1789)
  • The Western Heritage volume C Plus NEW MyHistoryLab with eText -- Access Card Package
    The Western Heritage volume C Plus NEW MyHistoryLab with eText -- Access Card Package
  • Western Heritage, The: Volume 2
    Western Heritage, The: Volume 2
  • Western Heritage, The: Volume C
    Western Heritage, The: Volume C
  • Western Heritage, The: Volume C, Since 1789
    Western Heritage, The: Volume C, Since 1789
  • Western Heritage, The: Volume Two, Since 1648
    Western Heritage, The: Volume Two, Since 1648




Summary

This authoritative book presents an engaging and accessible narrative account of the central developments in Western history since 1789. Seamlessly integrating coverage of social, cultural and political history, this book is presented in a flexible chronological organization, helping readers grasp the most significant developments that occurred during a single historical period, laying a useful foundation for the chapters to follow. This volume attempts to reflect the unprecedented impact of globalization on this century by featuring extensive coverage of popular culture, the relationship between Islam and the West, and the contribution of women in the history of Western Civilization.Volume C contains Chs. 19-31 of the Combined Volume: The French Revolution; The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism; The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform; Economic Advance and Social Unrest; The Age of Nation-States; The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I; The Birth of Modern European Thought; Imperialism, Alliances, and War; Political Experiments of the 1920s; Europe and the Great Depression of the 1930s; World War II; Faces of the Twentieth-Century: European Social Experiences; and The Cold War Era and the Emergence of the New Europe. For use by history career professionals.

Table of Contents

Preface xxv
Part 1 The Foundations of Western Civilization in the Ancient World
1(287)
The Birth of Civilization
4(32)
Early Humans and Their Culture
6(3)
The Paleolithic Age
6(1)
The Neolithic Age
7(2)
The Bronze Age and the Birth of Civilization
9(1)
Early Civilizations to about 1000 B.C.E.
9(6)
Mesopotamian Civilization
9(6)
Encountering the Past Divination in Ancient Mesopotamia
15(10)
Egyptian Civilization
16(9)
Ancient Near Eastern Empires
25(3)
The Hittites
25(1)
The Assyrians
26(1)
The Second Assyrian Empire
26(1)
The Neo-Babylonians
27(1)
Palestine
28(1)
The Canaanites and the Phoenicians
28(1)
The Israelites
28(1)
The Jewish Religion
28(1)
General Outlook of Mideastern Cultures
29(3)
Humans and Nature
29(1)
Humans and the Gods, Law, and Justice
30(2)
Toward the Greeks and Western Thought
32(1)
In Perspective
33(1)
Review Questions
33(1)
Suggested Readings
34(1)
Documents CD-ROM
34(1)
Art & the West A Monument to a King's Triumph: The Victory Stele of Naram-Sin
35(1)
The Rise of Greek Civilization
36(34)
The Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to about 1150 B.C.E.
38(4)
The Minoans
38(1)
The Mycenaeans
39(3)
The Greek ``Middle Ages'' to about 750 B.C.E.
42(3)
Greek Migrations
42(1)
The Age of Homer
42(3)
The Polis
45(1)
The Development of the Polis
45(1)
The Hoplite Phalanx
45(1)
The Importance of the Polis
46(1)
Expansion of the Greek World
46(2)
Magna Graecia
46(1)
The Greek Colony
46(1)
The Tyrants (about 700-500 B.C.E.)
47(1)
The Major States
48(7)
Sparta
48(3)
Athens
51(4)
Life in Archaic Greece
55(4)
Society
55(3)
Religion
58(1)
Encountering the Past Greek Athletics
59(2)
Poetry
60(1)
The Persian Wars
61(5)
The Persian Empire
61(1)
The Ionian Rebellion
62(1)
The War in Greece
63(3)
In Perspective
66(1)
Review Questions
67(1)
Suggested Readings
67(1)
Documents CD-ROM
68(1)
Art & the West A Funeral Scene in Eighth-Century B.C.E. Greece: The Dipylon Vase
69(1)
Classical and Hellenistic Greece
70(40)
Aftermath of Victory
72(1)
The Delian League
72(1)
The Rise of Cimon
73(1)
The First Peloponnesian War: Athens against Sparta
73(1)
The Thasian Rebellion
73(1)
The Breach with Sparta
73(1)
The Division of Greece
73(1)
Classical Greece
74(2)
The Athenian Empire
74(1)
Athenian Democracy
75(1)
Encountering the Past The Panathenaic Festival
76(6)
The Women of Athens: Legal Status and Everyday Life
77(4)
Slavery
81(1)
The Great Peloponnesian War
82(2)
Causes
83(1)
Strategic Stalemate
83(1)
The Fall of Athens
83(1)
Competition for Leadership in the Fourth Century B.C.E.
84(1)
The Hegemony of Sparta
84(1)
The Hegemony of Thebes: The Second Athenian Empire
85(1)
The Culture of Classical Greece
85(12)
The Fifth Century B.C.E.
85(6)
The Fourth Century B.C.E.
91(1)
Philosophy and the Crisis of the Polis
92(5)
The Hellenistic World
97(6)
The Macedonian Conquest
97(2)
Alexander the Great
99(3)
The Successors
102(1)
Hellenistic Culture
103(3)
Philosophy
103(1)
Literature
104(1)
Architecture and Sculpture
105(1)
Mathematics and Science
105(1)
In Perspective
106(1)
Review Questions
107(1)
Suggested Readings
108(1)
Documents CD-ROM
108(1)
Art & the West Victory and Nobility in Bronze: The Charioteer of Delphi
109(1)
Rome: From Republic to Empire
110(36)
Prehistoric Italy
112(1)
The Etruscans
112(1)
Government
112(1)
Religion
112(1)
Women
113(1)
Dominion
113(1)
Royal Rome
113(2)
Government
113(1)
The Family
114(1)
Women in Early Rome
115(1)
Clientage
115(1)
Patricians and Plebeians
115(1)
The Republic
115(8)
Constitution
115(3)
The Conquest of Italy
118(1)
Rome and Carthage
119(3)
The Republic's Conquest of the Hellenistic World
122(1)
Civilization in the Early Roman Republic
123(2)
Religion
123(1)
Education
123(2)
Encountering the Past Roman Comedy
125(4)
Slavery
127(2)
Roman Imperialism: The Late Republic
129(7)
The Aftermath of Conquest
130(1)
The Gracchi
130(3)
Marius and Sulla
133(3)
The Fall of the Republic
136(6)
Pompey, Crassus, Caesar and Cicero
136(1)
Formation of the First Triumvirate
137(1)
Julius Caesar and His Government of Rome
137(3)
The Second Triumvirate and the Emergence of Octavian
140(2)
In Perspective
142(1)
Review Questions
143(1)
Suggested Readings
143(1)
Documents CD-ROM
144(1)
Art & the West Family and Honor: A Roman Patrician with the Busts of His Ancestors
145(1)
The Roman Empire
146(48)
The Augustan Principate
148(2)
Administration
148(1)
The Army and Defense
149(1)
Religion and Morality
149(1)
Civilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan Ages
150(4)
The Late Republic
150(1)
The Age of Augustus
151(3)
Imperial Rome 14-180 C.E.
154(11)
The Emperors
154(2)
The Administration of the Empire
156(4)
Women of the Upper Classes
160(1)
Life in Imperial Rome: The Apartment House
161(1)
The Culture of the Early Empire
162(3)
Encountering the Past Chariot Racing
165(1)
The Rise of Christianity
166(4)
Jesus of Nazareth
166(2)
Paul of Tarsus
168(1)
Organization
168(1)
The Persecution of Christians
169(1)
The Emergence of Catholicism
169(1)
Rome as a Center of the Early Church
170(1)
The Crisis of the Third Century
170(2)
Barbarian Invasions
170(1)
Economic Difficulties
171(1)
The Social Order
171(1)
Civil Disorder
172(1)
The Late Empire
172(8)
The Fourth Century and Imperial Reorganization
172(3)
The Triumph of Christianity
175(5)
Arts and Letters in the Late Empire
180(2)
The Preservation of Classical Culture
180(1)
Christian Writers
180(2)
The Problem of the Decline and Fall of the Empire in the West
182(1)
In Perspective
182(1)
Review Questions
183(1)
Suggested Readings
183(1)
Documents CD-ROM
184(1)
Art & the West Portrait of a Young Woman from Pompeii
185(1)
The West & the World: Ancient Warfare
186(8)
Part 2 The Middle Ages, 476--1300
The Early Middle Ages: Creating a New European Society and Culture (476--1000)
194(34)
On the Eve of the Frankish Ascendancy
196(1)
Germanic Migrations
196(1)
Fall of the Roman Empire
197(1)
The Byzantine Empire
197(5)
The Reign of Justinian
198(4)
Eastern Influences
202(1)
Islam and the Islamic World
202(3)
Muhammad's Religion
203(1)
Islamic Diversity
204(1)
Islamic Empires
205(1)
The Western Debt to Islamic Culture
205(1)
Western Society and the Developing Christian Church
205(5)
Monastic Culture
207(1)
The Doctrine of Papal Primacy
208(1)
The Division of Christendom
209(1)
The Kingdom of the Franks
210(7)
Merovingians and the Carolingians: From Clovis to Charlemagne
210(2)
The Reign of Charlemagne (768--814)
212(5)
Encountering the Past Medieval Cooking
217(4)
Breakup of the Carolingian Kingdom
218(3)
Feudal Society
221(3)
Origins
221(1)
Vassalage and the Fief
222(1)
Fragmentation and Divided Loyalty
223(1)
In Perspective
224(1)
Review Questions
224(1)
Suggested Readings
225(1)
Documents CD-ROM
225(1)
Art & the West Hagia Sophia: A Temple Surpassing that of Solomon
226(2)
The High Middle Ages: The Rise of European Empires and States (1000--1300)
228(28)
Otto I and the Revival of the Empire
230(1)
Unifying Germany
230(1)
Embracing the Church
230(1)
The Reviving Catholic Church
231(11)
The Cluny Reform Movement
231(1)
The Investiture Struggle: Gregory VII and Henry IV
232(2)
The First Crusades
234(4)
The Pontificate of Innocent III (r. 1198--1216)
238(4)
England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines (1214)
242(4)
William the Conqueror
242(1)
Henry II
243(1)
Eleanor of Aquitaine and Court Culture
243(1)
Popular Rebellion and Magna Carta
244(1)
Philip II Augustus
245(1)
Encountering the Past Pilgrimage
246(1)
France in the Thirteenth Century: The Reign of Louis IX
247(1)
Generosity Abroad
247(1)
Order and Excellence at Home
247(1)
The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152--1272)
248(4)
Frederick I Barbarossa
248(3)
Henry VI and the Sicilian Connection
251(1)
Otto IV and the Welf Interregnum
251(1)
Frederick II
251(1)
In Perspective
252(1)
Review Questions
253(1)
Suggested Readings
253(1)
Documents CD-ROM
253(1)
Art & the West Salisbury Cathedral: A Church Filled with Light
254(2)
Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000--1300)
256(32)
The Traditional Order of Life
258(2)
Nobles
258(2)
Encountering the Past Warrior Games
260(5)
Clergy
261(2)
Peasants
263(2)
Towns and Townspeople
265(6)
The Chartering of Towns
266(1)
The Rise of Merchants
267(1)
Challenging the Old Lords
267(1)
New Models of Government
268(1)
Towns and Kings
269(1)
Jews in Christian Society
270(1)
Schools and Universities
271(6)
University of Bologna
271(1)
Cathedral Schools
272(1)
University of Paris
272(1)
The Curriculum
273(2)
Philosophy and Theology
275(2)
Women in Medieval Society
277(1)
The Lives of Children
278(2)
In Perspective
280(1)
Review Questions
280(1)
Suggested Readings
281(1)
Documents CD-ROM
281(1)
Art & the West Illuminated Manuscripts: The Luttrell Psalter
282(2)
The West & the World: The Invention of Printing in China and Europe
284(4)
Part 3 Europe in Transition, 1300--1750
288(298)
The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300--1527)
290(26)
The Hundred Years' War and the Rise of National Sentiment
292(4)
Causes of the War
292(1)
Progress of the War
293(3)
The Black Death
296(3)
Preconditions and Causes
296(2)
Popular Remedies
298(1)
Social and Economic Consequences
298(1)
Encountering the Past Medieval Medicine
299(3)
New Conflicts and Opportunities
301(1)
Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval Church
302(7)
The Thirteenth-Century Papacy
302(1)
Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair
303(1)
The Avignon Papacy (1309--1377)
304(2)
John Wycliffe and John Huss
306(2)
The Great Schism (1378--1417) and the Conciliar Movement to 1449
308(1)
Medieval Russia
309(3)
Politics and Society
309(1)
Mongol Rule (1243--1480)
310(1)
Liberation
311(1)
In Perspective
312(1)
Review Questions
312(1)
Suggested Readings
312(1)
Documents CD-ROM
313(1)
Art & the West Images of Death in the Late Middle Ages
314(2)
Renaissance and Discovery
316(36)
The Renaissance in Italy (1375--1527)
318(4)
The Italian City-State
319(2)
Humanism
321(1)
Encountering the Past The Garden
322(8)
Renaissance Art
327(1)
Slavery in the Renaissance
328(2)
Italy's Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494--1527)
330(3)
The Treaty of Lodi
330(1)
Charles VIII's March through Italy
331(1)
Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family
331(1)
Pope Julius II
332(1)
Niccolo Machiavelli
333(1)
Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe
333(4)
France
335(1)
Spain
335(1)
England
336(1)
The Holy Roman Empire
336(1)
The Northern Renaissance
337(3)
The Printing Press
337(1)
Erasmus
338(1)
Humanism and Reform
339(1)
Voyages of Discovery and the New Empire in the West
340(9)
Gold and Spices
340(1)
The Spanish Empire in the New World
341(1)
A Conquered World
342(3)
The Church in Spanish America
345(1)
The Economy of Exploitation
345(2)
The Impact on Europe
347(2)
In Perspective
349(1)
Review Questions
349(1)
Suggested Readings
350(1)
Documents CD-ROM
350(1)
Art & the West An Unprecedented Self-Portrait
351(1)
The Age of Reformation
352(36)
Society and Religion
354(2)
Social and Political Conflict
354(1)
Popular Religious Movements and Criticism of the Church
354(2)
Martin Luther and German Reformation to 1525
356(5)
Justification by Faith Alone
357(1)
The Attack on Indulgences
357(1)
Election of Charles V
358(1)
Luther's Excommunication and the Diet of Worms
359(1)
Imperial Distractions: France and the Turks
360(1)
How the Reformation Spread
360(1)
The Peasant's Revolt
360(1)
The Reformation Elsewhere
361(5)
Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation
361(3)
Anabaptists and Radical Protestants
364(1)
John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation
365(1)
Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation
366(2)
The Diet of Augsburg
366(1)
The Expansion of the Reformation
367(1)
Reaction against Protestants: The Interim
367(1)
The Peace of Augsburg
367(1)
The English Reformation to 1553
368(2)
The Preconditions of Reform
368(1)
The King's Affair
368(1)
The ``Reformation Parliament''
368(1)
Wives of Henry VIII
369(1)
The King's Religious Conservatism
369(1)
The Protestant Reformation under Edward VI
370(1)
Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation
370(4)
Sources of Catholic Reform
370(1)
Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits
371(1)
The Council of Trent (1545--1563)
372(2)
The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe
374(4)
The Revolution in Religious Practices and Institutions
375(1)
The Reformation and Education
376(1)
The Reformation and the Changing Role of Women
377(1)
Family Life in Early Modern Europe
378(2)
Later Marriages
378(1)
Arranged Marriages
379(1)
Family Size
379(1)
Birth Control
379(1)
Encountering the Past Table Manners
380(1)
Wet Nursing
381(1)
Loving Families!
381(1)
Literary Imagination in Transition
381(3)
Miguel de Cervantes Saaverdra: Rejection of Idealism
381(2)
William Shakespeare: Dramatist of the Age
383(1)
In Perspective
384(1)
Review Questions
384(1)
Suggested Readings
385(1)
Documents CD-ROM
385(2)
Art & the West Lucas Cranach's Portrait of Martin Luther and Katherine von Bora
387(1)
The Age of Religious Wars
388(28)
Renewed Religious Struggle
390(1)
The French Wars of Religion (1562--1598)
391(4)
Anti-Protestant Measures and the Struggle for Political Power
391(1)
Appeal of Calvinism
391(1)
Catherine de Medicis and the Guises
392(1)
The Rise to Power of Henry of Navarre
393(1)
The Edict of Nantes
394(1)
Imperial Spain and the Reign of Philip II (r. 1556--1598)
395(6)
Pillars of Spanish Power
395(2)
The Revolt in the Netherlands
397(4)
England and Spain (1553--1603)
401(3)
Mary I
401(1)
Elizabeth I
401(3)
The Thirty Years' War (1618--1648)
404(2)
Preconditions for War
405(1)
Encountering the Past Going to the Theater
406(7)
Four Periods of War
409(4)
The Treaty of Westphalia
413(1)
In Perspective
413(1)
Review Questions
413(1)
Suggested Readings
414(1)
Documents CD-ROM
414(1)
Art & the West A Woman Paints Her Life and Times
415(1)
Paths to Constitutionalism and Absolutism: England and France in the Seventeenth Century
416(32)
Two Models of European Political Development
418(2)
Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England
420(2)
James I
420(2)
Encountering the Past Early Controversy over Tobacco and Smoking
422(8)
Charles I
423(2)
Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic
425(2)
Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy
427(2)
James II and Renewed Fears of a Catholic England
429(1)
The ``Glorious Revolution''
429(1)
Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France
430(13)
Henry IV and Sully
431(1)
Louis XIII and Richelieu
431(1)
Young Louis XIV and Mazarin
432(1)
The Years of Louis XIV's Personal Rule
432(1)
King by Divine Right
433(1)
Versailles
433(1)
Suppression of the Jansenists
434(1)
Government Geared for Warfare
435(1)
Louis's Early Wars
436(1)
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
437(1)
Louis's Later Wars
437(5)
Louis XIV's Legacy
442(1)
In Perspective
443(1)
Review Questions
444(1)
Suggested Readings
444(1)
Documents CD-ROM
445(1)
Art & the West Rigaud's Louis XIV: The State Portrait
446(2)
New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
448(32)
The Scientific Revolution
450(4)
Nicholaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-centered Universe
450(2)
Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Observations
452(1)
Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws
453(1)
Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation
454(1)
Philosophy Responds to Changing Science
454(8)
Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method
455(1)
Rene Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction
456(3)
Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolutism
459(2)
John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration
461(1)
The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge
462(2)
Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution
464(3)
The New Science and Religious Faith
467(3)
The Case of Galileo
467(1)
Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith
467(2)
The English Approach to Science and Religion
469(1)
Continuing Superstition
470(5)
Witch Hunts and Panic
471(1)
Village Origins
472(1)
Influence of the Clergy
473(1)
Why Women?
473(1)
End of the Witch Hunts
473(2)
Encountering the Past Midwives
475(1)
In Perspective
476(1)
Review Questions
476(1)
Suggested Readings
476(1)
Documents CD-ROM
477(1)
Art & the West Vermeer's The Geographer and The Astronomer: Painting and The New Knowledge
478(2)
Successful and Unsuccessful Paths to Power (1686--1740)
480(32)
The Maritime Powers
482(8)
The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline
482(2)
France after Louis XIV
484(2)
Great Britain: The Age of Walpole
486(4)
Central and Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire
490(11)
Sweden: The Ambitions of Charles XII
491(1)
The Ottoman Empire
492(3)
Poland: Absence of Strong Central Authority
495(1)
The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction
496(1)
Prussia and the Hohenzollerns
497(4)
Russia Enters the European Political Arena
501(2)
Birth of the Romanov Dynasty
501(1)
Peter the Great
501(1)
Taming the Streltsy and Boyars
502(1)
Developing a Navy
502(1)
Russian Expansion in the Baltic: The Great Northern War
502(1)
Encountering the Past Public Executions
503(4)
Founding St. Petersburg
504(1)
Reorganizing Domestic Administration
505(1)
The Case of Peter's Son Aleksei
505(1)
Reforming of Peter the Great's Final Years
505(2)
In Perspective
507(1)
Review Questions
508(1)
Suggested Readings
508(1)
Documents CD-ROM
509(1)
Art & the West Rachel Ruysch, Flower Still Life: Flowers, Commerce, and Morality
510(2)
Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century
512(38)
Major Features of Life in the Old Regime
514(1)
Maintenance of Tradition
514(1)
Hierarchy and Privilege
514(1)
The Aristocracy
514(3)
Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege
515(1)
Aristocratic Resurgence
516(1)
The Land and Its Tillers
517(2)
Peasants and Serfs
517(2)
Aristocratic Domination of the Countryside: The English Game Laws
519(1)
Family Structures and Family Economy
519(7)
Households
521(1)
The Family Economy
522(1)
Women and the Family Economy
523(1)
Children and the World of the Family Economy
524(2)
The Revolution in Agriculture
526(3)
Expansion of the Population
528(1)
The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century
529(10)
A Revolution in Consumption
530(1)
Industrial Leadership of Great Britain
530(2)
New Methods of Textile Production
532(1)
The Steam Engine
533(1)
Iron Production
533(2)
The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women
535(4)
The Growth of Cities
539(2)
Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization
539(1)
Urban Classes
540(1)
Encountering the Past Water, Washing, and Bathing
541(3)
The Urban Riot
543(1)
The Jewish Population: The Age of the Ghetto
544(2)
In Perspective
546(1)
Review Questions
547(1)
Suggested Readings
547(1)
Documents CD-ROM
547(1)
Art & the West Two Scenes of Domestic Life in the Old Regime
548(2)
The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion
550(36)
Periods of European Overseas Empires
552(1)
Mercantile Empires
553(1)
Mercantilist Goals
553(1)
French-British Rivalry
554(1)
The Spanish Colonial System
554(1)
Encountering the Past Sugars Enters the Western Diet
555(5)
Colonial Government
556(1)
Trade Regulation
556(1)
Colonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs
556(4)
Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy
560(7)
The African Presence in the Americas
560(2)
Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy
562(1)
The Experience of Slavery
562(5)
Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars
567(5)
The War of Jenkins's Ear
567(1)
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740--1748)
568(1)
The ``Diplomatic Revolution'' of 1756
569(1)
The Seven Years' War (1756--1763)
569(3)
The American Revolution and Europe
572(6)
Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue
572(1)
The Crisis and Independence
573(1)
American Political Ideas
574(1)
Events in Great Britain
574(3)
Broader Impact of the American Revolution
577(1)
In Perspective
578(1)
Review Questions
578(1)
Suggested Readings
579(1)
Documents CD-ROM
579(1)
Art & the West A Dramatic Moment in the Transatlantic World: Copley's Watson and the Shark
580(2)
The West & The World: The Columbian Exchange: Disease, Animals, and Agriculture
582(4)
Part 4 Enlightenment and Revolution
586(192)
The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought
588(36)
The Philosophes
590(2)
Voltaire -- First Among the Philosophes
591(1)
Formative Influences on the Enlightenment
592(2)
Ideas of Newton and Locke
592(1)
The Example of British Toleration and Stability
592(1)
The Emergence of a Print Culture
593(1)
Encountering the Past Coffeehouses and Enlightenment
594(1)
The Encyclopedia
595(2)
The Enlightenment and Religion
597(6)
Deism
597(1)
Toleration
598(1)
Radical Enlightenment Criticism of Christianity
598(1)
Jewish Thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment
598(3)
Islam in Enlightenment Thought
601(2)
The Enlightenment and Society
603(1)
Beccaria and Reform of Criminal Law
603(1)
The Physiocrats and Economic Freedom
603(1)
Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress
603(1)
Political Thought of the Philosophes
604(3)
Montesquieu and Spirit of the Laws
604(1)
Rousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern Society
605(2)
Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment
607(3)
Enlightened Absolutism
610(10)
Frederick the Great of Prussia
612(1)
Joseph II of Austria
612(3)
Catherine the Great of Russia
615(2)
The Partition of Poland
617(1)
The End of the Eighteenth Century in Central and Eastern Europe
618(2)
In Perspective
620(1)
Review Questions
620(1)
Suggested Readings
620(1)
Documents CD-ROM
621(1)
Art & the West Joseph Wright, An Experiment on a Bird in the Air-Pump: Science in the Drawing Room
622(2)
The French Revolution
624(42)
The Crisis of the French Monarchy
626(1)
The Monarchy Seeks New Taxes
626(1)
Calonne's Reform Plan and the Assembly of Notables
627(1)
Deadlock and the Calling of the Estates General
627(1)
The Revolution of 1789
627(10)
The Estates General Becomes the National Assembly
630(2)
Fall of the Bastille
632(2)
The ``Great Fear'' and the Night of August 4
634(2)
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
636(1)
The Parisian Women's March on Versailles
636(1)
The Reconstruction of France
637(3)
Political Reorganization
637(1)
Economic Policy
638(2)
Encountering the Past The Metric System
640(4)
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
642(1)
Couterrevolutionary Activity
642(2)
The End of the Monarchy: A Second Revolution
644(4)
The Convention and the Role of the Sans-culottes
645(3)
Europe at War with the Revolution
648(1)
Edmund Burke Attacks the Revolution
648(1)
Suppression of Reform in Britain
649(1)
War with Europe
649(1)
The Reign of Terror
649(8)
The Republic Defended
651(1)
The ``Republic of Virtue'' and Robespierre's Justification of Terror
651(2)
Repression of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women
653(2)
De-Christianization
655(1)
Revolutionary Tribunals
655(1)
The End of Terror
655(2)
The Thermidorian Reaction
657(2)
Establishment of the Directory
659(1)
Removal of the Sans-culottes from Political Life
659(2)
In Perspective
661(1)
Review Questions
661(1)
Suggested Readings
662(1)
Documents CD-ROM
663
Art & the West Jacques-Louis David Champions Republican Values: Lictors Bringing to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons
644(22)
The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism
666(38)
The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
668(1)
Early Military Victories
668(1)
The Constitution of the Year VIII
668(1)
The Consulate in France (1799--1804)
669(2)
Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opposition
669(2)
Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church
671(1)
The Napoleonic Code
671(1)
Establishing a Dynasty
671(1)
Napoleon's Empire (1804--1814)
671(3)
Conquering an Empire
672(2)
Encountering the Past Sailors and Canned Food
674(2)
The Continental System
676(1)
European Response to the Empire
676(5)
German Nationalism and Prussian Reform
676(3)
The Wars of Liberation
679(1)
The Invasion of Russia
679(2)
European Coalition
681(1)
The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement
681(4)
Territorial Adjustments
683(1)
The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance
684(1)
The Romantic Movement
685(2)
Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason
687(1)
Rousseau and Education
687(1)
Kant and Reason
687(1)
Romantic Literature
688(4)
The English Romantic Writers
689(3)
The German Romantic Writers
692(1)
Religion in the Romantic Period
692(2)
Methodism
692(2)
New Directions in Continental Religion
694(1)
Romantic Views of Nationalism and History
694(5)
Herder and Culture
694(1)
Hegel and History
695(1)
Islam, The Middle East, and Romanticism
696(3)
In Perspective
699(1)
Review Questions
699(1)
Suggested Readings
700(1)
Documents CD-ROM
701(1)
Art & the West Francisco Goya Memorializes a Night of Executions: The Third of May, 1808
702(2)
The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815--1832)
704(38)
The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism
706(4)
The Emergence of Nationalism
706(1)
Early Nineteenth-Century Political Liberalism
707(3)
Conservative Governments: The Domestic Political Order
710(4)
Conservative Outlooks
710(1)
Liberalism and Nationalism Resisted in Austria and the Germanies
711(1)
Postwar Repression in Great Britain
712(2)
Encountering the Past Dueling in Germany
714(2)
Bourbon Restoration in France
715(1)
The Conservative International Order
716(3)
The Congress System
717(1)
The Spanish Revolution of 1820
717(1)
Revolt Against Ottoman Rule in the Balkans
718(1)
The Wars of Independence in Latin America
719(5)
The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe
724(8)
Russia: The Decembrist Revolt of 1825
724(2)
Revolution in France (1830)
726(3)
Belgium Becomes Independent (1830)
729(1)
The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832)
730(2)
In Perspective
732(1)
Review Questions
732(1)
Suggested Readings
733(1)
Documents CD-ROM
733(1)
Art & the West John Constable's Harmonious Landscapes in Unstable Times
734(2)
The West & the World: The Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy
736(6)
Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830--1850)
742(36)
Toward an Industrial Society
744(1)
Britain's Industrial Leadership
744(1)
Population and Migration
744(1)
Railways
745(1)
The Labor Force
745(2)
Proletarianization of Factory Workers and Urban Artisans
746(1)
Encountering the Past The Potato and the Great Hunger in Ireland
747(3)
Working-Class Political Action: The Example of British Chartism
750(1)
Family Structures and the Industrial Revolution
750(2)
The Family in the Early Factory System
751(1)
Women in the Early Industrial Revolution
752(4)
Opportunities and Exploitation in Employment
752(1)
Changing Expectations in Working-Class Marriage
753(3)
Problems of Crime and Order
756(1)
New Police Forces
756(1)
Prison Reform
756(1)
Classical Economics
757(3)
Malthus on Population
758(1)
Ricardo on Wages
758(1)
Government Policies Based on Classical Economics
759(1)
Early Socialism
760(4)
Utopian Socialism
760(1)
Anarchism
761(1)
Marxism
762(2)
1848: Year of Revolutions
764(10)
France: The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon
764(5)
The Habsburg Empire: Nationalism Resisted
769(3)
Italy: Republicanism Defeated
772(1)
Germany: Liberalism Frustrated
772(2)
In Perspective
774(1)
Review Questions
774(1)
Suggested Readings
775(1)
Documents CD-ROM
775(1)
Art & the West J.M.W. Turner, Rain, Steam, and Speed---The Great Western Railway
776(2)
Part 5 Toward the Modern World
778(216)
The Age of Nation-States
780(34)
The Crimean War (1853--1856)
782(1)
Reforms in the Ottoman Empire
782(2)
Italian Unification
784(4)
Romantic Republicans
784(1)
Cavour's Policy
785(1)
The New Italian State
786(2)
German Unification
788(3)
Bismarck
788(2)
The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire (1870--1871)
790(1)
France: From Liberal Empire to the Third Republic
791(5)
The Paris Commune
792(1)
The Third Republic
793(2)
The Dreyfus Affair
795(1)
The Habsburg Empire
796(5)
Formation of the Dual Monarchy
797(1)
Unrest of Nationalities
797(4)
Russia: Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings
801(3)
Reforms of Alexander II
801(1)
Revolutionaries
802(2)
Great Britain: Toward Democracy
804(2)
The Second Reform Act (1867)
805(1)
Encountering the Past The Arrival of Penny Postage
806(3)
Gladstone's Great Ministry (1868--1874)
807(1)
Disraeli in Office (1874-1880)
807(1)
The Irish Question
807(2)
In Perspective
809(1)
Review Questions
810(1)
Suggested Readings
810(1)
Documents CD-ROM
811(1)
Art & the West Elizabeth Thompson, Lady Butler, Roll Call after an Engagement, Crimea (1874)
812(2)
The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I
814(38)
Population Trends and Migration
816(1)
The Second Industrial Revolution
816(2)
New Industries
816(1)
Economic Difficulties
817(1)
The Middle Classes in Ascendancy
818(1)
Social Distinctions within the Middle Classes
818(1)
Encountering the Past Bicycles: Transportation, Freedom, and Sport
819(1)
Late Nineteenth-Century Urban Life
820(4)
The Redesign of Cities
820(2)
Urban Sanitation, Housing Reform, and Middle-Class Values
822(2)
Varieties of Late Nineteenth-Century Women's Experiences
824(10)
Social Disabilities Confronted by All Women
824(2)
New Employment Patterns for Women
826(1)
Working-Class Women
827(1)
Poverty and Prostitution
828(1)
Women of the Middle Class
828(3)
The Rise of Political Feminism
831(3)
Jewish Emancipation
834(1)
Differing Degrees of Citizenship
834(1)
Broadened Opportunities
835(1)
Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I
835(12)
Trade Unionism
836(1)
Democracy and Political Parties
837(1)
Karl Marx and the First International
837(1)
Great Britain: Fabianism and Early Welfare Programs
838(1)
France: ``Opportunism'' Rejected
838(1)
Germany: Social Democrats and Revisionism
839(1)
Russia: Industrial Development and the Birth of Bolshevism
840(7)
In Perspective
847(1)
Review Questions
847(1)
Suggested Readings
847(2)
Documents CD-ROM
849(1)
Art & the West Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere: Painting Modern Life
850(2)
The Birth of Modern European Thought
852(32)
The New Reading Public
854(1)
Advances in Primary Education
854(1)
Reading Material for the Mass Audience
854(1)
Science at Midcentury
855(1)
Comte, Positivism, and the Prestige of Science
855(1)
Encountering the Past The Birth of Science Fiction
856(3)
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
857(1)
Science and Ethics
858(1)
Christianity and the Church under Siege
859(5)
Intellectual Skepticism
859(1)
Conflict between Church and State
860(1)
Areas of Religious Revival
861(1)
The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World
861(1)
Islam and Late-Nineteenth-Century European Thought
862(2)
Toward a Twentieth-Century Frame of Mind
864(11)
Science: The Revolution in Physics
864(1)
Literature: Realism and Naturalism
865(2)
Modernism
867(1)
Friedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt against Reason
868(1)
The Birth of Psychoanalysis
869(2)
Retreat from Rationalism in Politics
871(1)
Racism
871(2)
Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism
873(2)
Women and Modern Thought
875(5)
Antifeminism in Late-Century Thought
875(2)
New Directions in Feminism
877(3)
In Perspective
880(1)
Review Questions
880(1)
Suggested Readings
880(1)
Documents CD-ROM
881(1)
Art & the West Cubism Changes the Shape of Painting
882(2)
Imperialism, Alliances, and War
884(48)
Expansion of European Power and the New Imperialism
886(6)
The New Imperialism
886(1)
Motives for the New Imperialism: The Economic Interpretation
887(1)
Cultural, Religious, and Social Interpretations
888(1)
Strategic and Political Interpretations: The Scramble for Africa
888(3)
The Irrational Element
891(1)
Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems (1873--1890)
892(6)
Bismarck's Leadership (1873--1890)
892(4)
Forging of the Triple Entente (1890--1907)
896(2)
World War I
898(11)
The Road to War (1908--1914)
898(2)
Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June--August 1914)
900(3)
Strategies and Stalemate: 1914--1917
903(6)
The Russian Revolution
909(2)
The Provisional Government
909(1)
Lenin and the Bolsheviks
909(1)
The Communist Dictatorship
910(1)
The End of World War I
911(4)
Germany's Last Offensive
912(1)
German Republican Government Accepts Defeat
912(2)
Ottoman Empire: The Creation of the Modern Near East
914(1)
The Settlement at Paris
915(2)
Obstacles Faced by the Peacemakers
916(1)
Encountering the Past War Propaganda and the Movies: Charlie Chaplin
917(5)
The Peace
918(3)
Evaluation of the Peace
921(1)
In Perspective
922(1)
Review Questions
922(1)
Suggested Readings
923(1)
Documents CD-ROM
923(1)
Art & the West John Singer Sargent, Gassed: The Horrors of Modern War
924(2)
The West & the World: Imperialism: Ancient and Modern
926(6)
Political Experiments of the 1920s
932(32)
Political and Economic Factors after the Paris Settlement
934(2)
New Governments
934(1)
Demands for Revision of the Paris Settlement
934(1)
Postwar Economic Problems
934(1)
New Roles for Government and Labor
935(1)
The Soviet Experiment Begins
936(5)
War Communism
936(2)
The New Economic Policy
938(1)
Stalin Versus Trotsky
938(1)
The Third International
939(2)
Women and the Family in the Early Soviet Union
941(1)
The Fascist Experiment in Italy
941(5)
The Rise of Mussolini
943(2)
The Fascists in Power
945(1)
Motherhood for the Nation in Fascist Italy
946(1)
Joyless Victors
946(4)
France: The Search for Security
946(2)
Great Britain: Economic Confusion
948(2)
Encountering the Past The Coming of Radio: The BBC
950(1)
Trials of the Successor States in Eastern Europe
951(3)
Economic and Ethnic Pressures
951(1)
Poland: Democracy to Military Rule
952(1)
Czechoslovakia: A Viable Democratic Experiment
952(1)
Hungary: Turmoil and Authoritarianism
952(1)
Austria: Political Turmoil and Nazi Conquest
953(1)
Southeastern Europe: Royal Dictatorships
953(1)
The Weimar Republic in Germany
954(6)
Constitutional Flaws
954(1)
Lack of Broad Popular Support
954(1)
Invasion of the Ruhr and Inflation
954(1)
Hitler's Early Career
955(3)
The Stresemann Years
958(1)
Locarno
959(1)
In Perspective
960(1)
Review Questions
960(1)
Suggested Readings
960(1)
Documents CD-ROM
961(1)
Art & the West George Grosz Satirizes Germany's Social and Political Elite
962(2)
Europe and the Great Depression of the 1930s
964(30)
Toward the Great Depression
966(3)
The Financial Tailspin
966(1)
Problems in Agriculture Commodities
967(1)
Depression and Government Policy
968(1)
Confronting the Great Depression in the Democracies
969(3)
Great Britain: The National Government
969(1)
France: The Popular Front
970(2)
Germany: The Nazi Seizure of Power
972(2)
Depression and Political Deadlock
972(1)
Hitler Comes to Power
972(1)
Hitler's Consolidation of Power
973(1)
Encountering the Past Cinema of the Political Left and Right
974(8)
The Police State and Anti-Semitism
975(2)
Racial Ideology and the Lives of Women
977(2)
Nazi Economic Policy
979(3)
Italy: Fascist Economics
982(1)
Syndicates
982(1)
Corporations
983(1)
The Soviet Union: Central Economic Planning, Collectivization, and Party Purges
983(8)
The Decision for Rapid Industrialization
983(2)
The Collectivization of Agriculture
985(2)
Flight to the Soviet Cities
987(1)
Urban Consumer Shortages
987(1)
Foreign Reactions and Repercussions
987(1)
The Purges
988(3)
In Perspective
991(1)
Review Questions
991(1)
Suggested Readings
991(1)
Documents CD-ROM
992(1)
Art & the West Rene Magritte, The Human Condition: Exploring Illusion and Reality
993(1)
Part 6 Global Conflict, Cold War, and New Directions
994
World War II
996(40)
Again the Road to War (1933--1939)
998(6)
Hitler's Goals
998(1)
Italy Attacks Ethiopia
999(1)
Remilitarization of the Rhineland
1000(1)
The Spanish Civil War
1000(1)
Austria and Czechoslovakia
1001(1)
Munich
1002(2)
The Nazi-Soviet Pact
1004(1)
World War II (1939--1945)
1004(8)
The German Conquest of Europe
1004(2)
The Battle of Britain
1006(1)
The German Attack on Russia
1007(1)
Hitler's Plans for Europe
1008(2)
Japan and the United States Enter the War
1010(1)
The Tide Turns
1010(2)
Encountering the Past Rosie the Riveter and American Women in the War Effort
1012(6)
The Defeat of Nazi Germany
1015(1)
Fall of the Japanese Empire
1015(2)
The Cost of War
1017(1)
Racism and the Holocaust
1018(5)
The Destruction of the Polish Jewish Community
1018(2)
Polish Anti-Semitism Between the Wars
1020(1)
The Nazi Assault on the Jews of Poland
1020(1)
Explanations of the Holocaust
1021(2)
The Domestic Fronts
1023(6)
Germany: From Apparent Victory to Defeat
1023(2)
France: Defeat, Collaboration, and Resistance
1025(2)
Great Britain: Organization for Victory
1027(1)
The Soviet Union: ``The Great Patriotic War''
1028(1)
Preparations for Peace
1029(3)
The Atlantic Charter
1030(1)
Tehran: Agreement on a Second Front
1030(1)
Yalta
1031(1)
Potsdam
1031(1)
In Perspective
1032(1)
Review Questions
1033(1)
Suggested Readings
1033(1)
Documents CD-ROM
1034(1)
Art & the West Picasso's Guernica
1035(1)
The Cold War Era and the Emergence of the New Europe
1036(48)
The Emergence of the Cold War
1038(9)
Containment in American Foreign Policy
1039(2)
Soviet Assertion of Domination of Eastern Europe
1041(1)
The Postwar Division of Germany
1042(2)
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
1044(1)
The Creation of the State of Israel
1045(1)
The Korean War
1046(1)
The Khrushchev Era in the Soviet Union
1047(1)
The Last Years of Stalin
1047(1)
Khrushchev's Domestic Policies
1048(1)
The Three Crises of 1956
1048(2)
The Suez Intervention
1048(1)
Poland's Efforts Toward Independent Action
1049(1)
Uprising in Hungary
1050(1)
Later Cold War Confrontations
1050(2)
Collapse of the 1960 Paris Summit Conference
1050(1)
The Berlin Wall
1051(1)
The Cuban Missile Crisis
1051(1)
Brezhnev and the Invasion of Czechoslovakia
1052(1)
Decolonization: The European Retreat from Empire
1052(5)
Major Areas of Colonial Withdrawal
1053(1)
India
1054(1)
Further British Retreat from Empire
1055(2)
The Turmoil of French Decolonization
1057(4)
France and Algeria
1057(1)
France and Vietnam
1058(1)
Vietnam Drawn into the Cold War
1059(1)
Direct U.S. Involvement
1060(1)
Western European Political Developments during the Cold War
1061(1)
Christian Democratic Parties
1061(1)
Economic Concerns within Western Europe
1062(1)
Toward Western European Unification
1062(1)
Postwar Cooperation
1062(1)
The European Economic Community
1062(1)
The European Union
1062(1)
The Brezhnev Era in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
1063(3)
The United States and Detente
1063(1)
Invasion of Afghanistan
1064(1)
Communism and Solidarity in Poland
1064(2)
Relations with the Reagan Administration
1066(1)
The Collapse of European Communism
1066(2)
Gorbachev Redirects the Soviet Union
1066(2)
Encountering the Past Rock Music and Political Protest
1068(11)
1989: Year of Revolution in Eastern Europe
1069(2)
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
1071(3)
The Yeltsin Decade
1074(1)
The Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War
1075(3)
Implications of the Collapse of Communism
1078(1)
Europe at the Opening of the Global Century
1079(1)
Review Questions
1079(1)
Suggested Readings
1080(1)
Documents CD-ROM
1081(1)
Art & the West Cultural Divisions and the Cold War
1082(2)
The West at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century
1084
The Twentieth-Century Movement of People
1086(3)
External and Internal Migration
1086(1)
The New Muslim Population
1087(2)
European Population Trends
1089(1)
The Welfare State
1089(1)
New Patterns in the Work and Expectations of Women
1090(3)
Feminism
1090(2)
More Married Women in the Work Force
1092(1)
New Work Patterns
1092(1)
Women in the New Eastern Europe
1093(1)
Transformations in Knowledge and Culture
1093(6)
Communism and Western Europe
1094(1)
Existentialism
1095(2)
Expansion of the University Population and Student Rebellion
1097(1)
The Americanization of Europe
1097(1)
A Consumer Society
1098(1)
Environmentalism
1098(1)
Encountering the Past Toys from Europe Conquer the United States
1099(2)
The Christian Heritage
1101(3)
Neo-Orthodoxy
1102(1)
Liberal Theology
1102(1)
Roman Catholic Reform
1102(2)
Late Twentieth-Century Technology: The Arrival of the Computer
1104(2)
The Demand for Calculating Machines
1105(1)
Early Computer Technology
1105(1)
The Development of Desktop Computers
1105(1)
The Rise of Radical Political Islamism
1106(5)
Arab Nationalism
1107(1)
The Iranian Revolution
1107(1)
Invasion of Afghanistan
1108(1)
Dispersion of Afghan Muslim Fighters
1108(2)
A Transformed West
1110(1)
In Perspective
1111(1)
Review Questions
1111(1)
Suggested Readings
1112(1)
Documents CD-ROM
1113(1)
Art & the West The Minimalist Movement: Rachel Whiteread's House and Nameless Library
1114(2)
The West & the World: Energy and the Modern World
1116
Glossary 1(1)
Index 1

Excerpts

The heritage of Western civilization is a major point of departure for understanding the twenty-first century. The unprecedented globalization of daily life that is a hallmark of our era has occurred in large measure through the spread of Western technological, economic, and political influences. From the sixteenth century onwards, the West has exerted vast influences throughout the globe for both good and ill, and today's global citizens live in the wake of that impact. It is the goal of this book to introduce its readers to the Western heritage, so that they may be better informed and more culturally sensitive citizens of the emerging global age. The attacks upon the mainland of the United States on September 11, 2001 and the events that have succeeded those attacks have concentrated the attention of teachers, students, and informed citizens upon the heritage and future of Western civilization as have no other events since the end of World War II. Whereas previously commentary about global civilization involved analysis of the spread of Western economic, technological, and political influences, such commentary now requires us to explain how the West has defined itself over many centuries and to think about how the West will articulate its core values as it confronts new and daunting challenges. Twenty years ago, the West defined itself mainly in terms of the East-West tensions associated with the Cold War. The West is now in the process of defining itself in terms of global rivalries arising from conflict with political groups that are not identical with nation states and that define themselves in terms of opposition to what they understand the West to be. We have thus entered a new era in which citizens of the West need to understand how their culture, values, economy, and political outlooks have emerged. They cannot leave it to those who would attack the West to define Western civilization or to articulate its values. SinceThe Western Heritagefirst appeared, we have sought to provide our readers with a work that does justice to the richness and variety of Western civilization. We hope that such an understanding of the West will foster lively debate about its character, values, institutions, and global influence. Indeed, we believe such a critical outlook on their own culture has characterized the peoples of the West since its earliest history. Through such debates we define ourselves and the values of our culture. Consequently, we welcome the debate and hope thatThe Western Heritage,eighth edition, can help foster a genuinely informed discussion through its overview of Western civilization, the West's strengths and weaknesses, and the controversies surrounding Western history. Human beings make, experience, and record their history. In this edition as in past editions, our goal has been to present Western civilization fairly, accurately, and in a way that does justice to its great variety of human enterprise. History has many facets, no one of which alone can account for the others. Any attempt to tell the story of the West from a single overarching perspective, no matter how timely, is bound to neglect or suppress some important parts of that story. Like all authors of introductory texts, we have had to make choices, but we have attempted to provide the broadest possible introduction to Western civilization. To that end we hope that the many documents included in this book will allow the widest possible spectrum of people to give personal voice to their experiences over the centuries and will enable our readers to share that experience. We also believe that any book addressing the experience of the West must also look beyond its historical European borders. Students reading this book come from a wide variety of cultures and experiences. They live in a world of highly interconnected economies and instant communication between cultures. In this emerging multicultural society it


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...