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This chronologically organized introduction to the Western Humanities (art, music, history, literature, and drama) establishes the historical context of each era before the arts are discussed. More than 600 illustrations appear throughout the text, and "Personal Perspectives" boxes bring to life the issues and events of the day. The Western Humanities is available in a complete single text or in two volumes. Volume I covers prehistory through the Renaissance; Volume II covers the Renaissance to the Present.
Table of Contents
A Humanities Primer: How to Understand the Arts
Introduction: Why Study Cultural History?
1. PREHISTORY AND NEAR EASTERN CIVILIZATIONS
Prehistory and Early Cultures / The Civilizations of the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley: Mesopotamia / Personal Perspective: “A Sumerian Father Lectures His Son” / The Civilization of the Nile River Valley: Egypt / Personal Perspective: “Egypt: The Instruction of Amenemope” / Heirs to the Mesopotamian and Egyptian Empires / The Legacy of Early Near Eastern Civilizations / Windows on the World: 5000–500 B.C.
2. AEGEAN CIVILIZATIONS: THE MINOANS, THE MYCENAEANS, AND THE GREEKS OF THE ARCHAIC AGE
Prelude: Minoan Civilization, 3000–1300 B.C. / Beginnings: Mycenaen Civilization, 1900–1100 B.C. / Interlude: The Dark Ages, 1100–800 B.C. / The Archaic Age, 800–479 B.C. / The Emergence of Greek Genius: The Mastery of Form / Personal Perspectives: Solon, “Political Verses: The Ten Ages of Man”; Sappho, “He Seems to Be a God” / The Legacy of Archaic Greek Civilization
3. CLASSICAL GREEK CIVILIZATION: THE HELLENIC AGE
General Characteristics of Hellenic Civilization / Domestic and Foreign Affairs: War, Peace, and the Triumph of Macedonia / The Perfection of the Tradition: The Glory of Hellenic Greece / Personal Perspective: Xenophon, “Secrets of a Successful Marriage” / The Legacy of Hellenic Civilization / Windows on the World: 500–300 B.C.
4. CLASSICAL GREEK CIVILIZATION: THE HELLENISTIC AGE
The Stages of Hellenistic History / The Cities of Hellenistic Civilization / Personal Perspective: Theocritos, “A Street Scene in Alexandria” / The Elaboration of the Greek Tradition: The Spread of Classicism to the Hellenistic World / The Legacy of the Hellenistic World
5. ROMAN CIVILIZATION: THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CENTURIES
The Colossus of the Mediterranean World / The Style of Pre-Christian Rome: From Greek Imitation to Roman Grandeur / Personal Perspective: Marcus, Son of Cicero, “Letter to Tiro, Secretary to Cicero Senior” / The Legacy of Pre-Christian Rome / Windows on the World: 300 B.C.–A.D. 500
6. JUDAISM AND THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY
Judaism / Personal Perspective: Flavius Josephus, “The Destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem” / Christianity / Personal Perspective: Vibia Perpetua, “Account of Her Last Days Before Martyrdom” / The Legacy of Biblical Judaism and Early Christianity
7. LATE ROMAN CIVILIZATION
The Last Days of the Roman Empire / Personal Perspective: Paulina, “Epitaph for Agorius Praetextatus” / The Transition from Classical Humanism to Christian Civilization / Personal Perspective: St. Jerome, “Secular Education; The Fall of Rome” / Why Did Rome Fall? / The Legacy of Late Roman Civilization
8. THE SUCCESSORS OF ROME: BYZANTIUM, ISLAM, AND THE EARLY MEDIEVAL WEST
The Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantine Civilization, 476–1453 / The Islamic World, 600–1517 / The Early Medieval West / Personal Perspectives: Anna Comenena, “The Arrival of the First Crusade in Constantinople”; Usamah, “The Curious Medicine of the Franks”; Liudprand of Cremona, “A Mission to the Byzantine Court” / The Legacy of Byzantium, Islam, and the Early Medieval West / Windows on the World: 500–1000
9. THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES: THE CHRISTIAN CENTURIES
Feudalism / Medieval Christianity and the Church / Personal Perspective: Hildegarde of Bingen, “Scivias” / The Age of Synthesis: Equilibrium between the Spiritual and the Secular / The Legacy of the Christian Centuries / Windows on the World: 1000–1300
10. THE LATE MIDDLE AGES: 1300–1500
Hard Times Come to Europe / The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages / Personal Perspective: Henry Knighton, “Chronicle” / The Legacy of the Late Middle Ages / Windows on the World: 1330–1500
11. THE EARLY RENAISSANCE: RETURN TO CLASSICAL ROOTS, 1400–1494
The Renaissance: Schools of Interpretation / Early Renaissance History and Institutions / The Spirit and Style of the Early Renaissance / Personal Perspective: Laura Cereta, “Defense of the Liberal Instruction of Women” / The Legacy of the Early Renaissance / Suggestions for Listening
12. THE HIGH RENAISSANCE AND EARLY MANNERISM: 1494–1564
The Rise of the Modern Sovereign State / Economic Expansion and Social Developments / From High Renaissance to Early Mannerism / Personal Perspective: Giorgio Vasari, “Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects” / The Legacy of the High Renaissance and Early Mannerism / Suggestions for Listening
13. NORTHERN HUMANISM, NORTHERN RENAISSANCE, RELIGIOUS REFORMATIONS, AND LATE MANNERISM: 1500–1603
Northern Humanism / The Northern Renaissance / The Breakup of Christendom: Causes of the Religious Reformations / Personal Perspective: Albrecht Dürer, “On Luther” / Late Mannerism / The Legacy of Northern Humanism, Northern Renaissance, Religious Reformations, and Late Mannerism / Suggestions for Listening / Windows on the World: 1500–1600
In each chapter:
Key Cultural Terms
Suggestions for Further Reading
Writing for the Humanities: Research Papers and Essay Examinations