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Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap in America's Classrooms



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Teachers College Pr
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While race and culture remain important variables in how young people experience schools, they are often misunderstood by educators and school personnel. Building on the work of three studies that investigated schools successful in closing the achievement gap, Tyrone Howard shows how adopting greater awareness and comprehensive understanding of race and culture can improve educational outcomes. Important reading for anyone who is genuinely committed to promoting educational equity and excellence for all children, this accessible book outlines the changing racial, ethnic, and cultural demographics in U.S. schools and calls for educators to pay serious attention to how race and culture play out in school settings

Author Biography

Tyrone C. Howard is Associate Professor of Education in the Division of Urban Schooling, and Director of Center X in the Graduate School of Education Information Studies at UCLA.

Table of Contents

Series Forewordp. ix
Forewordp. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xxiii
Introductionp. 1
Socioeconomic Status and School Performancep. 2
Outline of the Bookp. 4
Moving Away from the Black-White Dichotomyp. 6
Achievement Gap: Contextualizing the Problemp. 9
Documenting the Achievement Gapp. 12
Documenting the Discrepanciesp. 13
Retention, Suspensions, and Expulsionsp. 20
School Drop-Out and Graduation Ratesp. 22
Access to Gifted and AP Coursesp. 25
SAT Scoresp. 25
Explaining the Gapsp. 26
Future Considerationsp. 32
Changing Demographicsp. 35
A Changing Nationp. 36
Demographic Shifts by Geographic Region and Agep. 38
U.S. Schools and Changing Demographicsp. 39
Are Teachers Being Prepared to Teach in Diverse Settings?p. 41
Multicultural Education for School Reformp. 43
The Role of Social Classp. 46
Culturep. 51
Culture, Race, and Ethnicityp. 52
The Complexity of Culturep. 54
Sociocultural Theoryp. 56
Cultural Modelingp. 58
Cultural Repertoires of Practicep. 60
Normalizing Culture in Everyday Practicep. 64
Culturally Responsive Pedagogyp. 67
Seeking Clarity in Culture and Pedagogyp. 69
Empirical and Conceptual Work on Culturally Responsive Pedagogyp. 71
The Importance of Pedagogyp. 75
Programs with Culturally Responsive Teachingp. 77
The Role of Race in Learningp. 91
Interrogating Racep. 92
Race and Education in the United Statesp. 95
Critical Race Theory: A Framework for Examining Race and Achievementp. 98
Empirical Works Examining Racep. 100
Granting Voice to Those Who Rarely Are Heardp. 103
Internalized Racism: Educators of Color and Acts of Exclusionp. 106
Racial Frames of Referencep. 107
Developing Cultural Competence and Racial Awareness in Classroom Teachersp. 111
Cultural Competencep. 112
Critical Self-Reflection on Race and Culturep. 114
Race, Culture, and the Adaptive Unconsciousnessp. 116
Racial Awarenessp. 121
A Case Study of Critical Reflecting: Teaching Teachers to Reflect on Racep. 122
Final Considerationsp. 128
Examples of School Success for Culturally Diverse Studentsp. 129
Stories of School Successp. 131
Visionary Leadershipp. 134
Effective Instructional Practicesp. 137
Intensive Academic Interventionp. 140
Explicit Acknowledgment of Racep. 143
Parental and Community Engagementp. 145
Final Thoughtsp. 148
Referencesp. 151
Indexp. 174
About the Authorp. 182
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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