9780471194613

Wildland Recreation Vol. 1 : Ecology and Management

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780471194613

  • ISBN10:

    0471194611

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1998-09-14
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

Wildland Recreation An authoritative guide to managing the ecological impacts of recreational activities on natural resources. The challenges facing today's recreation resource managers are both complex and daunting. Accommodating rapidly growing numbers of recreational visitors without sacrificing the ecological integrity of wildlands is a major challenge. Determining and planning for the limits of acceptable change and expanding services with little or no growth in natural resources or funding are major issues. Wildland Recreation, Second Edition provides solutions to these and other crucial recreational resource problems. Based upon its authors' extensive firsthand experience as well as their exhaustive review of the world literature on the subject, it provides up-to-date, detailed coverage of today's wildland recreation management issues, including: * Ecological impacts of recreational activities on wildland resources * Spatial and temporal patterns of recreational impacts * Environmental durability, visitor use, and other key factors * The limits of acceptable change, long-term monitoring, and impacts on wildlife * Social and economic factors associated with managing impacts * Alternative approaches to wildland recreation resource management * Recent trends in satisfying increased demand for outdoor recreational opportunities * International perspectives on recreational wildland management and ecotourism Like its best-selling predecessor, Wildland Recreation, Second Edition is a valuable working resource for wildland recreation management professionals and a comprehensive course text for students of forest and natural resources recreation, park management, environmental conservation, and related disciplines.

Author Biography

WILLIAM E. HAMMITT, PhD, is a professor of wildland recreation in Clemson University's Department of Forest Resources and Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management. DAVID N. COLE, PhD, is a research biologist with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute at the Rocky Mountain Research Station of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
PART I INTRODUCTION 1(20)
1 Wildland Recreation and Resource Impacts
3(18)
What Is Wildland Recreation?
What Is Recreation Resource Impact?
Ecological Impacts of Wildland Recreation
Recreation Ecology
The Importance of Ecological Impacts
The Manager's Role
Recreational Carrying Capacity
Themes of This Book
References
PART II IMPACTS TO RESOURCE COMPONENTS 21(92)
2 Soil
23(26)
Basic Soil Ecology
What Is Soil?
Soil, Texture and Structure
Pore Space
Bulk Density
The Soil Profile
Impacts on Soils
Organic Matter
Profile Truncation
Soil Compaction
Macroporosity and Infiltration Rate
Soil Moisture
Soil Erosion
Other Soil Impacts
Impacts Associated with Campfires
Summary
References
3 Vegetation
49(19)
Vegetation Impact Parameters
Amount of Vegetation
Vegetation Composition
Tree Condition
Impacts on Vegetation
Ground Cover
Shrubs and Saplings
Mature Trees
Summary
References
4 Wildlife
68(28)
Recreation Influences on Wildlife Responses
Human-Wildlife Interactions
Recreation-Wildlife Impacts
Animal Disturbance and Harassment
Harvest
Habitat Modification
Alteration of Behavior
Species Displacement and Reproduction Level
Species Composition and Structure
Impacts on Wildlife Species
Large Mammals
Medium-Sized Animals
Small Animals
Fish
Summary
References
5 Water
93(20)
Basic Water Ecology
Water Temperature and Flow
Nutrients
Dissolved Oxygen
Pathogens and Other Pollutants
Impacts on Water Quality
Nutrient Influx
Coliform Bacteria and Other Pathogens
Backcountry Camping and Drinking Sources
Solid Waste and Foreign Materials
Suspended Matter and Turbidity
Summary
References
PART III IMPACT PATTERNS AND TRENDS 113(40)
6 Impact Patterns
115(15)
Spatial Patterns of Impact
Impact Zone
Intersite Zone
Buffer Zone
Temporal Patterns of Impact
Recovery Rates of Impacts
Summary
References
7 Trends in Wildland Recreation Use and Impacts
130(23)
Early Outdoor Recreation Use
Current and Projected Outdoor Recreation Trends
Recent Trends in Wildland Use
Recent Trends in Wildland Users
Conclusions Drawn from Trend Synthesis
Recent Trends in Wildland Impacts
Trail Impact Trends
Campsite Impact Trends
Summary
References
PART IV FACTORS AFFECTING IMPACTS 153(52)
8 Environmental Durability
155(22)
Vegetational Resistance
Soil Characteristics
Topographic Characteristics
Ecosystem Characteristics
Wildlife Impacts
Water Impacts
Season of Use
Summary
References
9 Visitor Use
177(28)
Amount of Use
Use Distribution
Type of User Group
Party Size
User Behavior
Minimum Impact Knowledge
Experience Level
User Motivation
Social Group and Structure
Place Bonding
Mode of Travel
Snowmobiles/Skis
Motorboats/Nonmotorized Boats
Off-Road Vehicles/Stock/Foot Travel
Summary
References
PART V MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES 205(142)
10 Strategies and Concepts of Management
207(21)
General Principles
Planning for Management
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum
Limits of Acceptable Change Planning Framework
Management of Problems
Strategic Purpose
Types of Undesirable Visitor Actions
Types of Management Approaches
References
11 Monitoring Recreational Impacts
228(27)
Campsites
Photographs
Condition Class Estimates
Multiple Parameter Systems
Trails
Replicable Measurements
Rapid Survey Samples
Census Techniques
Water Bodies
Remote Sensing
Developing a Monitoring System
References
12 Visitor Management
255(38)
Use Limits
Length of Stay Limits
Dispersal of Use
Concentration of Use
Restrictions on Type of Use
Group Size Limits
Low Impact Education
Message Content
Effective Communication
Seasonal Limitations on Use
Campfire Management Alternatives
Visitor Information Needed to Manage Recreational Impacts
References
13 Site Management
293(35)
Locating Use on Resistant Sites
Permanent Closures
Temporary Site Closures
Influencing Spatial Distribution of Use
Site Hardening and Shielding
Rehabilitation of Closed Sites
References
14 International Impact Research and Management
328(19)
Case Example 1: Cairngorms National Nature Reserve, Scotland
Tourism Types and Impact
Recreation Ecology Studies
Case Example 2: The Great Barrier Reef
Tourism Types and Impact
Recreation Ecology Studies
Case Example 3: Central American Tropics
Tourism Types and Impact
Recreation Ecology Studies
Case Example 4: Wildlife Viewing in Kenya's Protected Areas
Tourism Types and Impact
Recreation Ecology Studies
Implications for Ecotourism Resource Management
Alternative Management Actions
Summary
References
PART VI CONCLUSION 347(10)
15 A Lasting Impact
349(8)
Wildland Recreation and Resource Impacts: Necessities
Understanding the Resource
Environment and Visitor Influences
Some Management Tools
Lasting into the Future
Index 357

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