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Wildlife Ecology and Management,9780130662507
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Wildlife Ecology and Management

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130662507

ISBN10:
013066250X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/10/2002
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
List Price: $178.00

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Summary

This exceptionally comprehensive, single-source introduction to the art, science, theories, practices, and issues of wildlife management is ideal for the novice in the subject.Features full-chapters on predators, urban wildlife, policy, water, soil, diseases, conservation biology. New, up-to-date issues covered include the removal of dams, global warming, emerging diseases among elk and deer, adaptive harvest management, animal rights groups, women hunters, population data, migratory animals and more.For anyone interested in an exceptionally comprehensive introduction to wildlife management and conservation.

Table of Contents

Foreword xv
Preface xvii
What is Wildlife Management?
1(6)
A Brief History
3(2)
What Does a Wildlife Manager Do?
5(2)
Summary
5(2)
Neglect and Exploitation
7(13)
In the Beginning
7(3)
Bison: A Story of Near Extinction
10(1)
The Passenger Pigeon: An American Tragedy
11(1)
Others, Too, Are Gone
12(2)
Wood Ducks, Wild Turkeys, and Other Near Extinctions
14(1)
Problems of Excess: Reindeer, Deer, and Blackbirds
15(2)
Predator Control: Bounties, Baits, and Blunders
17(1)
Exotic Wildlife
18(2)
Summary
18(2)
Some Successes in Managing Wildlife
20(12)
Restoration of Bison
22(1)
Lead Poisoning: Almost Gone
22(3)
Return of Wood Ducks
25(1)
Wild Turkeys: Turning Failure into Success
26(1)
Restoration of Mammals in North America
26(1)
Marine Mammals
27(2)
Some Successes With Birds
29(1)
Elusive Measures of Successful Management
30(2)
Summary
31(1)
Ecosystems and Natural Communities
32(16)
Matter and Energy
34(3)
Range of Tolerance
37(2)
Niche
39(2)
Natural Communities-Changes in Time and Space
41(2)
Succession and Wildlife Management
43(1)
Diversity and Stability
44(4)
Summary
46(2)
Population Ecology
48(22)
Some Definitions
48(1)
The Logistic Equation
49(3)
Field Studies
52(2)
Births and Deaths
54(3)
Sex Ratios and Mating Systems
54(1)
Age-Specific Birth Rates
55(2)
Additive and Compensatory Mortality
57(1)
Life Tables and Survivorship Curves
58(3)
Sources of Population Data
61(3)
Organization of a Population-Management Problem
64(1)
Metapopulations
65(1)
Population Models
66(2)
The Human Population
68(2)
Summary
69(1)
Animal Behavior and Wildlife Management
70(22)
Habitat Selection
70(1)
Courtship Behavior
71(2)
Reproductive Physiology and Behavior
73(1)
Territorial Behavior
74(2)
Sexual Segregation
76(1)
Circadian Rhythms
76(1)
Dispersal
76(1)
Responses of Wildlife to Humans
77(2)
Imprinting and Parental Care
79(2)
Migration
81(7)
Birds
81(2)
Reptiles
83(1)
Mammals
84(3)
Invertebrates
87(1)
Managing Migratory Animals
88(1)
Too Many Geese
89(3)
Summary
90(2)
Food and Cover
92(26)
Food
92(4)
Digestive Systems of Birds and Mammals
92(3)
Energy
95(1)
Carbohydrates
95(1)
Fats
95(1)
Proteins
95(1)
Vitamins
96(1)
Macronutrients
96(1)
Micronutrients
96(1)
Ecology and Evolution of Feeding Behavior and Defense
96(7)
Quality of Food
98(3)
Quantity of Food
101(1)
Responses to Food Shortages
102(1)
Physical Condition and Nutrition
103(1)
Food Management
103(4)
Cover
107(6)
Cover As Shelter
108(2)
Cover As Concealment
110(3)
Edges and Edge Effect
113(5)
Summary
116(2)
Wildlife Diseases
118(31)
Why Study Wildlife Diseases?
118(4)
Perspectives
122(5)
Diseases and Habitat
127(5)
Diseases and Populations
132(6)
Diseases and Biological Controls
138(2)
``New'' Diseases
140(3)
Lyme Disease
143(2)
Wildlife Diseases and Humans
145(4)
Summary
148(1)
Predators and Predation
149(29)
Predator Behavior and Prey Survival
149(3)
Predation in Natural Communities
152(16)
Theoretical Predator-Prey Systems
153(1)
Laboratory Studies of Predator-Prey Systems
154(2)
Field Observations of Predator-Prey Systems
156(7)
Field Experiments with Predator-Prey Systems
163(3)
Wolf Control in Alaska
166(2)
Deer-Predator Relationships: A Hard Look at the Literature
168(1)
Predation on Domestic Animals
168(10)
Extent of the Problem
170(1)
Control Methods
170(2)
Effectiveness of Control Methods on Coyote Numbers
172(2)
Effects of Coyote Control on Other Animals
174(1)
Public Policy and Predator Control
174(3)
Summary
177(1)
Hunting and Trapping
178(22)
To Hunt or Not to Hunt
179(1)
Should Hunting Continue in North America?
179(4)
The Effects of Hunting on Populations of Animals
183(1)
Harvest and Hunting
184(8)
Mallard
186(2)
American Woodcock
188(2)
Wild Turkey
190(1)
Deer
191(1)
Managing for the Hunter
192(1)
Women as Hunters
193(1)
Hunting by Native Americans
194(1)
The Millennium Accord on North America's Hunting Heritage
195(1)
Trapping and Furbearers
195(5)
Trapping in Ontario
196(2)
Traps
198(1)
Trapping and Hunting Education
198(1)
Summary
199(1)
Wildlife and Water
200(42)
Some Properties of Water
200(2)
Some Ecological Influences of Water
202(2)
Water, Distribution, and Isolation
204(2)
Water and Wildlife Populations
206(4)
Physiological and Behavioral Responses
210(3)
Water, Disasters, and Hard Times
213(4)
Reservoir Effect and Management
217(2)
Beaver, Water, and Wildlife
219(2)
Alligators and Marsh Ecology
221(2)
Oil, Water, and Birds Don't Mix
223(2)
Water and Raw Sewage
225(2)
``Acid Rain:'' A Changing Environment
227(4)
Water Developments and Wildlife
231(5)
1996 Experimental Flood in the Grand Canyon
236(1)
Removal of Dams, An Emerging Trend?
237(5)
Summary
241(1)
Wildlife and Soils
242(23)
Some Features of Soil
242(5)
Some Influences of Soil on Wildlife
247(11)
A Tropical Paradox
253(3)
Desertification
256(2)
Some Influences of Wildlife on Soils
258(3)
Fertilization
261(4)
Summary
264(1)
Wildlife and Farmlands
265(33)
Agriculture: A Brief History
265(1)
What's Happened to Farms and Farmland?
266(4)
Farm Crops as Wildlife Food
270(8)
Erosion, Sedimentation, and Wildlife
278(2)
Agricultural Chemicals and Wildlife
280(8)
Some Kinds of Insecticides
283(4)
Herbicides
287(1)
Fertilizers
287(1)
Farming for Wildlife
288(10)
Shelterbelts
288(4)
Odd Areas and Roadsides
292(2)
Tillage
294(2)
``Wildlife Partners'' Calendars
296(1)
Summary
296(2)
Wildlife and Rangelands
298(30)
Grasses
298(2)
The Animal Unit
300(1)
Management of Range Vegetation
300(8)
Mechanical Methods
303(2)
Herbicides
305(2)
Fire
307(1)
Grazing and Wildlife
308(9)
Overgrazing
310(3)
Grazing and Trout
313(2)
Grazing Systems
315(2)
Range Fires and Wildlife
317(2)
Fencing
319(2)
Burros and Rangelands
321(1)
Game Ranching
322(6)
An African Saga
325(1)
Summary
326(2)
Forest Management and Wildlife
328(21)
Some Basics of Forest Management
330(2)
A System for Considering Needs of Forest Wildlife in Federal and State Forests
332(1)
Clear-cutting and Wildlife
332(3)
Snags
335(1)
Deadwood and Fuel
336(1)
Forest Fires and Wildlife
337(3)
Old-Growth Forests---A Special Case?
340(2)
Private Woodlands
342(2)
Forest Management for Ruffed Grouse---An Example of Featured-Species Management
344(5)
Summary
348(1)
Wildlife in Parks and Refuges
349(21)
Enjoyment of Wildlife by Park Visitors
349(2)
National Parks
351(4)
Overpopulation of Animals in Parks
355(2)
Bears
357(2)
Preservation, Human Populations, and Park Development
359(3)
Transfrontier Parks
362(1)
Refuges
363(7)
State Wildlife Refuges
364(1)
Management Overview
364(1)
Some Functions of Refuges
365(1)
Organic Act
366(1)
Problems
367(1)
Summary
368(2)
Urban Wildlife
370(26)
Urban Wildlife Resources
372(6)
Urban Monoculture
378(1)
Urban Zones
379(1)
Multiple-Use Management in the City
380(3)
Aspects of Urban Management
383(5)
Urban Conservation Treaties
388(1)
Urban Wildlife as Pests
389(7)
Summary
395(1)
Exotic Wildlife
396(30)
The Case for Exotic Game
401(8)
A Pattern of Success?
402(2)
Reasons for Failure
404(1)
Some Concerns about Exotics
404(5)
North America's Outdoor Zoo
409(6)
Transplants Within North America
415(4)
Some North American Exports
419(3)
For Better or Worse?
422(1)
Guidelines and Policies
423(3)
Summary
425(1)
Nongame and Endangered Wildlife
426(26)
Definition
427(1)
Economic Values
427(2)
An Unfinished Agenda
429(1)
State Funding for Nongame Management
430(1)
Status and Concerns of Nongame Management
431(1)
Out of Africa: Vulture Restaurants
432(2)
Endangered Species
434(2)
A Brief History of Nongame and Endangered Species
436(5)
Endangered Species Legislation
437(4)
Triage: The Crush of Decision
441(1)
``Safe Harbor''
442(2)
Management of Endangered Species
444(8)
Summary
451(1)
Economics of Wildlife
452(14)
National Surveys
452(1)
Nonconsumptive Value of Wildlife
453(2)
The Owl Wars
455(1)
Economics of Fisheries
455(1)
Farming Wildlife
456(3)
Economics of Sport Hunting
459(4)
Economics of Mitigation
463(1)
Beyond Dollars and Cents
464(2)
Summary
465(1)
Conservation Biology and Wildlife Management
466(30)
``On the Ground'' with Conservation Biology
468(1)
Levels of Conservation Biology
468(4)
Examples of Conservation Biology Interacting with Wildlife Management
472(4)
Population Genetics
472(1)
The Wolves of Isle Royale
473(1)
Northern Spotted Owl
474(2)
Conservation in Other Lands
476(1)
Island Biogeography
476(4)
Corridors
480(4)
Songbirds and Fragmented Forests
484(2)
Biodiversity: Hot Spots and Managed Lands
486(1)
Minimum Viable Populations
487(4)
Global Warming and Wildlife
491(3)
Human Population
494(2)
Summary
494(2)
Wildlife as A Public Trust
496(40)
Sources
497(1)
Agency Structure and Development
498(5)
National Biological Service
503(1)
New Training, New Profession
504(1)
Policy and Wildlife Law
504(7)
Biological Foundation
504(2)
Enforcement
506(5)
Policy: Social and Economic Factors
511(1)
Policy: Scientific and Technological Factors
512(1)
Legal Jurisdiction
513(1)
National Policies
514(7)
Lacey Act
514(1)
Restoration Acts
515(1)
Land and Water Policies
516(2)
National Environmental Policy Act
518(3)
Policies of Sentiment
521(2)
Public Attitudes
523(3)
Who and What?
524(1)
Americans and Issues
525(1)
Public Awareness
526(1)
Canadian Wildlife Service
526(2)
Resource Management in Mexico: SEMARNAP
528(1)
A Contrast in Europe
529(7)
Summary
535(1)
Conclusion
536(4)
Glossary 540(13)
Literature Cited 553(60)
Index 613

Excerpts

For nearly 20 years,Wildlife Ecology and Managementhas endured as a basic text in its field and, because of its continuing acceptance, we pleased to present the fifth edition. Despite the intervening years, however, our goal remains unchanged. Namely, we wish to introduce undergraduate students to wildlife management by presenting a broad overview across a spectrum of topics--wildlife diseases to public policy, exotic introductions to forest management, and predation to urban wildlife. These students, we hope, will include not only those completing degrees in disciplines associated with the conservation of natural resources--forestry, range and watershed management, outdoor recreation, as well as wildlife management--but also those "nonmajors" from other academic areas. Our presentation accordingly does not assume that students have acquired more than modest exposure to the biological sciences. The Glossary remains a major element in the fifth edition, as does a fundamental treatment of ecology in Chapter 4. WHAT'S NEWWe sought new studies--especially those appearing in the most recent three to four years prior to press time--to revitalize concepts already presented in the book or to present entirely new areas of interest. Among the latter is the removal of dams, not only to restore fish runs, but also to restore, as much as possible, the biota and functions of entire watersheds to their former state. Similarly, this edition includes an overview of global warming in relation to wildlife management and highlights the occurrence of emerging diseases such as chronic wasting disease in deer and elk. We also describe adaptive harvest management--a performance-based strategy for regulating the influence of hunting on wildlife populations--and draw attention to the influence of animal rights groups as well as to the responsibilities of hunters. Continued broadening of the termwildlifealso is reflected in this edition, including expanded coverage of marine mammals and concerns for species such as bog turtles and monarch butterflies.In all, more than 390 new references are cited, of which 71 percent bear dates of 1999 to 2002. Still, older literature often remains the best source to establish a strong and necessary foundation for many subjects, and the implications and results reported in these earlier papers are no less true today than when they first appeared in the literature (e.g., DDT-induced eggshell thinning). Interests also shift through time, and some areas currently attract little, if any, attention. Invasive species have stimulated an avalanche of literature, for example, but wildlife economics and soil-animal ecology have not, and our attempt to update these and some other subjects has not always been fulfilled satisfactorily.New information boxes describe additional institutions dedicated to wildlife research and management, and another new box features an influential conservationist from yesteryear. As in the past, we complement these with profiles of colleagues who work "in the real world" where problems of funding, politics, and bureaucratic limitations pose daily challenges to their work.


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