9780471492986

Wireless Access Networks : Fixed Wireless Access and WLL Networks Design and Operation

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780471492986

  • ISBN10:

    0471492981

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-11-02
  • Publisher: WILEY
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Summary

Wireless provides a means for effective, efficient and rapid deployment of new access networks in areas previously without telecommunications service or short of capacity. Fixed wireless access networks and Wireless Local Loop (WLL) technology are, therefore, playing an important role in the restructuring of the public telecommunications industry. Written in a highly accessible, well-illustrated and simple-to-read format, this book presents the economics, the practicalities, the technical and operational aspects of planning and maintaining fixed wireless access networks, and explains when and why they are attractive. Topics covered include: ? Design of radio systems and their basic functionality ? Point-to-point (PTP) and point-to-multipoint (PMP) radio ? Calculation of radio system range and reliability ? Fixed wireless applications and their network integration Wireless Access Networks is an invaluable and complete reference for all involved in fixed wireless access and wireless local loop, including business strategists, marketing, technical, planning and operations staff of public network operators, as well as students.

Author Biography

<B>MARTIN CLARK'S</B> 'apprenticeship' included international network planning for British Telecom, managing the global corporate network of Grand Metropolitan, setting up Cable Wireless' pan-European Managed Data Network, managing Deutsche Bank's <I>corporate network</I> and helping to found Mannesmann ARCOR (Germany's second largest public carrier). Recently he has been active in the field of wireless access, assisting a number of start-up carriers across Europe. He is a Chartered European Engineer and member of the IEE. 18 02 Fixed wireless access networks and Wireless Local Loop (WLL) technology are effective and efficient means for rapidly creating new access to telecommunications networks and services which are short of capacity and incapable of handling the bitrates expected by today's high speed multimedia, Internet, video and voice services. <P> <I>Wireless Access Networks</I> is a complete reference for all involved in fixed wireless access and wireless local loop, including business strategists, marketing, technical, planning and operations staff of public network operators, as well as students. <P> Well-illustrated and simple-to-read, topics covered include: <ul> <li> Economics of fixed wireless networks - why and when they are attractive <li> Technical and operational planning, practicality and maintenance <li> Design of radio systems and their basic functionality <li> Point-to-point (PTP) and point-to-multipoint (PMP) radio <li> Calculation of radio system range and reliability <li> Fixed wireless applications and their network integration </ul>

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xi
Part I Fundamentals of Fixed Wireless 1(78)
The Case for Fixed Wirelesss Networks
3(20)
Radio
3(1)
The Use and Advantages of Radio for Fixed Network Access
4(1)
The Time to Consider Installing a Fixed Wireless Access Network
5(1)
The Coverage Offered by Wireless
5(1)
Radio as a Means of Providing High Bit Rate Access Lines
5(1)
Wireless Technology Allows for a `Pay-as-you-build' Network Structure
6(1)
Wireless as a Means of Access Line `Back-up'
6(2)
Radio as an Ideal Mechanism for Access Port Concentration or Multiplexing
8(3)
Fixed Wireless Access is More Reliable than Mobile Telephony!
11(1)
Applications of Fixed Wireless Access for Public Telecommunications Services
12(1)
Economics of Fixed Wireless Access
13(3)
Critical Factors Affecting the Economic Viability of Fixed Wireless Access
16(1)
Alternative Technologies for the `Local Loop'
17(1)
Unbundled Access--A Serious Competitor to Fixed Wireless Access Networks?
18(2)
Objections to the Use of Radio
20(1)
Commercial Benefits of WILL Deployment in Public Networks
21(2)
Radio Communication, The Radio Spectrum and its Management
23(18)
Radio Communication
23(1)
The Radio Communications Spectrum
23(1)
Spectrum Management
24(2)
The Differing Regional Structure of the Radio Spectrum
26(2)
One-Way Radio Communication and Introduction to Radio Channels
28(2)
Two-Way (Duplex) Radio Communication
30(2)
Half-Duplex Communication and Time Division Multiplexing
32(1)
Bandwidth--Determines the Capacity of a Radio Channel
33(1)
The Spectral Mask
34(2)
Spurious Emission
36(1)
Authorised Uses of Radio and the Regulations Governing Use
37(1)
Satellite Transmission Management
38(3)
Point-to-Point (PTP) and Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) Wireless Systems & Antennas
41(16)
Characteristics of Wireless Systems
41(1)
Point-to-Point (PTP) Radio Systems
42(1)
Any-to-Any Radio Systems
43(1)
Point-To-Multipoint (PMP) Radio Systems
44(1)
The Directionality, Gain and Lobe Diagram of an Antenna
45(2)
High Gain Antennas Used in PTP Applications
47(2)
Point-to-Point Antenna Diagram and Gain
49(3)
Base Station Antennas in PMP Systems
52(1)
Other Types of Antennas
53(4)
Radio Modulation
57(12)
Radio Modulation and the Radio `Modem'
57(2)
The Basic Methods of Modulation
59(5)
High Bit Rate Modems and Higher Modulation or Multilevel Transmission
64(1)
Modem `Constellations'
65(2)
Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
67(2)
Multiple Access Schemes for Point-to-Multipoint Operations
69(10)
Multiple Access Schemes used in PMP Radio Systems
69(1)
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
70(2)
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
72(3)
Frequency Hopping--A hybrid Form of FDMA and TDMA
75(1)
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
76(1)
Relative Strengths of the Different `Multiple Access' Methodologies
77(1)
Broadcast systems and PMP
78(1)
Part II System and network Design 79(114)
Basic Radio System Design and Functionality
81(34)
Basic System Components
81(1)
Antenna
82(6)
Waveguide
88(2)
Outdoor Unit (ODU) or Radio Transceiver
90(4)
Antenna Alignment
94(1)
Qualities of a Good Outdoor Unit (Radio Transceiver)
95(9)
Indoor-to-Outdoor Cabling
104(1)
Indoor Unit (IDU) or Radio Modem
105(7)
Radio Repeaters
112(3)
Radio Propagation, System Range, Reliability and Availability
115(24)
The Reliability, `Range' and `Availability' of a Radio System
115(4)
The Concept of `Fade Margin'
119(1)
ITU-R `Transmission Loss Concept' (ITU-R Recommendation P.341)
119(4)
Radio Wave Propagation
123(2)
Free Space Transmission Loss - The Expected Received Signal Level in Good Weather
125(1)
Path Losses Relative to Free-Space (Lm) in `Line-of-Sight' Radio Systems
126(9)
Radio Noise
135(2)
Summary-Radio System Range and Availability and the Need to be able to Predict Radio Signal Strength
137(2)
Radio Path and Radio Network Planning Considerations
139(22)
Radio Planning Terminology and Quality Targets
139(1)
The Need for a `Line-of-Sight'
140(1)
Choosing the Ideal Locations for Radio Stations
141(1)
The Fresnel Zone
142(4)
Line-of-Sight Check (LOS-check)
146(2)
LOS-Checks for Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint Radio Systems
148(1)
Increasing Link Range and Overcoming Obstacles on Point-to-Point Systems
149(2)
Overcoming Coverage Problems and Shadows in Point-to-Multipoint Base Station Areas
151(2)
Optimising the Capacity of Point-to-Multipoint Base Stations
153(1)
The Significance of the Antenna Aperture Angle in Point-To-Multipoint Sector Antennas
154(4)
The Fading Effects of Multipath Propagation
158(1)
System Diversity and Link Hot-Standby Configurations (Protected Links)
159(1)
Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility
160(1)
Radio Planning Tools
160(1)
Radio Network Frequency Planning
161(32)
Regulatory Restrictions on the Operation of Radio Systems
161(5)
Interference between Radio Systems
166(1)
Coordination Contour and CIR Contour Diagrams
167(2)
Frequency Planning and Re-use in PTP Networks
169(2)
Coordination Distance and Area
171(2)
Radio Planning of PTP Links using Repeaters
173(1)
Frequency Re-use in Point-to-Multipoint Radio networks
174(5)
Further Considerations for PMP Frequency Re-use Planners
179(10)
Frequency Planning considerations of ATPC
189(1)
How Much Spectrum does a Radio Network Operator Need?
190(1)
Guard Bands
191(2)
Part III Applications, Network Integration and Management 193(196)
Radio Applications and Network Integration
195(32)
Choosing the Right Radio System Type for a Particular Application, Range and Bandwidth
195(6)
Network Integration
201(1)
Network Transmission Plan
201(14)
Network Interfaces--To the Backbone network and Customer Premises Equipment
215(6)
Network Synchronisation
221(2)
Network Services, Signalling and Protocols
223(1)
Network Propagation Delays
223(1)
Network Management and Monitoring
224(1)
Service Accounting
224(1)
Building Networks Robust against Failure
225(2)
Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
227(20)
The Use and Characteristics of Wireless Local Loop Systems
227(1)
Access network Interfaces
228(1)
ETSI V5-Interfaces
229(2)
Commercially Available Telephone and Basic Rate ISDN (BRI) Wireless Local Loop Systems
231(7)
Mobile Telephone Networks used as a Means of Fixed Wireless Access
238(5)
Iridium, Globalstar and the Evolution Towards the Universal Mobile Telephone Service (UMTS)
243(2)
Shorthaul Microwave Radio for WLL
245(2)
Backbone, Backhaul and High Capacity Access Radio Systems
247(20)
Backbone networks
247(3)
History of the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
250(11)
SONET (Synchronous Optical NETwork)
261(1)
Backhaul in Mobile Telephone Networks
261(3)
Point-to-Multipoint Backhaul
264(2)
Point-to-Point for High Capacity Access
266(1)
Data networks and Radio
267(16)
The Nature and Demands of Data Communication
267(1)
Real Communication is `Asymmetric' and `Bursty'
268(1)
Statistical Multiplexing by Means of a Combination of TDMA and ATM
268(1)
Re-use of Upstream and Downstream Duplex Channels
269(4)
Time Division Duplex (TDD)
273(1)
Radio Systems Suited for Data Network Access
274(7)
Third-generation Mobile Telephony
281(2)
Broadband Wireless Access
283(18)
The Different Philosophies for Spectrum Allocation
283(1)
The Higher Frequency the Radio Band the Greater the Capacity!
284(3)
MMDS (Multichannel Multipoint Distribution System)
287(1)
LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service)
288(2)
LMCS (Local Multipoint Communications System
290(1)
The DAVIC (Digital Audio-Visual Council) Protocol
290(2)
MVDS (Multipoint Video Distribution System)
292(1)
Point-to-Multipoint
292(1)
Broadband Point-to-Multipoint Equipment
293(5)
BRAN (Broadband Radio Access Networks)
298(1)
The Future--Squeezing More Capacity from Limited Spectrum
299(2)
Radio System Installation
301(18)
Site Acquisition, Survey and Preparation
301(2)
Technical Site Survey (PMP Base Station or PTP Relay Station)
303(2)
Necessary Permits
305(1)
Radio Permits and Frequency Applications
305(2)
The Positioning, Design and Installation of Steelwork or a Mast for Antenna Mounting
307(9)
Peripheral Equipment and Site Preparation
316(1)
Bringing into Service and Commissioning Radio Equipment
316(1)
Project Organisation
317(1)
Customer Site Installation
318(1)
Operation and Management of Wireless Access Networks
319(70)
Network Services to be Supported
319(1)
Basic Operations Activities
320(1)
Detailed Requirements of Operations Software Support Tools
321(16)
Appendices
Appendix 1 Radio Bands and Channel Rasters for Fixed Wireless Systems
337(6)
Appendix 2 ETSI Radio Specifications for Fixed Wireless
343(4)
Appendix 3 IEEE Publications and FCC Standards
347(2)
Appendix 4 Waveguide Specifications
349(2)
Appendix 5 Coaxial Cable Waveguides (RG-Nomenclature)
351(2)
Appendix 6 Forward Error Correction Codes
353(6)
Appendix 7 Wireless propagation, Frequency Re-use, Design and Operations
359(14)
Appendix 8 World Climate Zones and their Precipitation Characteristics
373(6)
Appendix 9 Rainfall Attenuation Prediction Model
379(2)
Appendix 10 Safety, Environmental and EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) Standards Relevant to Fixed Wireless
381(2)
Appendix 11 Radio Spectrum Charges for PTP and PMP System Operation
383(2)
Appendix 12 Radio Regulations Agencies
385(4)
Glossary of Terms 389(4)
Bibliography 393(2)
Index 395

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