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Women in American Society : An Introduction to Women's Studies,9780767416399
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Women in American Society : An Introduction to Women's Studies

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780767416399

ISBN10:
0767416392
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/14/2002
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $138.04

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  • Women in American Society : An Introduction to Women's Studies
    Women in American Society : An Introduction to Women's Studies




Summary

This interdisciplinary social science introduction to women's studies textbook (not a reader) provides a comprehensive investigation of the effects of gender on women's lives the United States. The text integrates the latest scholarship and research from a wide variety of disciplines including sociology, psychology, political science, education, history, economics, law, mass communications, and the health sciences.

Author Biography

VIRGINIA SAPIRO is the Sophonisba P. Breckinridge Professor of Political Science and Women's Studies at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, where she has taught for more than 25 years. She has received numerous awards for her research in political psychology, gender politics, feminist theory, and women's studies, and has served on the editorial boards of many journals. She has written or edited three books in addition to this one, as well as more than 35 scholarly articles. She teaches a wide range of courses in women's studies, including Women, Social Institutions, and Social Change; Women and Leadership; Feminist Theory; and Women and Politics.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Scope and Approach xx
The United States in Comparative and International Perspective xx
Women's Studies from a Social Science Perspective xxi
Methodology and the Process of Research and Interpretation xxi
Historical Understanding xxii
An Interdisciplinary Approach xxii
Diversity among Women xxiii
What Lies Ahead? xxiii
Organization: General Approach xxiii
Organization: The Flow xxiv
Revisions xxvi
Study Aids xxvii
Acknowledgments xxvii
PART ONE Developing Frameworks for the Study of Gender and Society
Reflect Before You Read
2(1)
Introducing Women's Studies
3(27)
Representing Women
3(3)
Knowledge and the Representation of Women
6(1)
Women's Studies as a Field of Study
7(3)
Understanding Gender and Gender Differences
10(1)
When and Why Are Gender Differences Interesting?
11(1)
What Is the Connection between Difference and Inequality
11(4)
When Is a Difference Really a Difference?
15(3)
Social Science Methods of Studying Women and Gender
18(1)
Social Science as Systematic Observation
18(1)
Methods Women's Studies Researchers Use
19(8)
Ethnography
19(2)
Experiments
21(1)
Survey Research
22(1)
Depth Interviewing
23(1)
Event or Institutional Case Studies
24(1)
Archival Research
25(1)
Content Analysis
25(1)
Meta-Analysis
25(1)
Summary
26(1)
Conclusion
27(1)
Notes
27(1)
For Further Reading
28(1)
Study Questions
29(1)
Societal-Level Approaches to Understanding Women's Lives
30(47)
U.S. Women in Global Perspective
31(1)
Literacy and Education
31(4)
Marriage and Reproduction
35(6)
Work and Economic Life
41(3)
Women and the State
44(2)
Women and Political Power
44(2)
Policies Affecting Women
46(3)
Cross-National Comparative Perspectives: Conclusions
49(1)
Explaining Women's Situation at the Societal Level: Six Theoretical Approaches
50(1)
The Eternal Feminine: Traditional Theological Perspectives
51(1)
Natural Woman and Man: From Traditional Science to Complex Systems
52(6)
The Genetic Basis of Sex
53(1)
The Role of Hormones
54(1)
The Structure of the Brain
55(1)
From Sex to Gender
56(1)
Social Structures of Gender: Sex/Gender Systems
57(1)
The Inevitable Progress of Enlightenment and Modernization
58(4)
Foundations of Liberalism
58(2)
Liberalism and Women
60(2)
Natural History and Evolution
62(3)
Foundations of Evolutionary Theory
62(1)
Early Feminist Critiques
63(1)
Current Views of Evolution and Sexual Differentiation
64(1)
More Natural History: Economic and Historical-Materialist Theories
65(4)
Marxist Foundations
65(1)
Marxism and Women
66(1)
Contemporary Economic and Materialist Theories
67(2)
Power Struggles: Dominance and Self-Determination
69(4)
Freud and the War between the Sexes
69(1)
Societal Stress and Cultural Strain
70(2)
Anti-Feminist Sex-War Theory
72(1)
Evaluating Power-Struggle Theories
73(1)
Toward Understanding Development and Change in Sex/Gender Systems
73(1)
Notes
74(1)
For Further Reading
74(1)
Study Questions
75(2)
Individual-Level Approaches to Understanding Women's Lives
77(35)
What Difference Does a Person's Gender Make?
78(1)
Masculinity, Femininity, and Character
79(3)
Cognitive Traits, Personality, Values, and Interaction Styles
82(5)
Cognitive Traits and Skills
82(2)
Personality
84(1)
Attitudes and Values
85(1)
Social Interaction and Communication Styles
86(1)
Summary of Psychological Differences
87(1)
Stereotypes: The Importance of Person Perception
87(1)
Explaining Women's Situation at the Individual Level: Five Approaches
88(1)
The Biological Basis of Female and Male
89(1)
Psychoanalytical Theory: The Creation of Femininity and Masculinity
90(6)
Sex Similarity
90(1)
The Development of Difference
91(2)
Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective
93(3)
Cognitive-Developmental Theories
96(4)
Becoming Girls and Boy
97(1)
Gender and Moral Development
98(2)
Evaluating Cognitive-Developmental Theory
100(1)
Learning Theories
100(4)
The Development of Difference
100(2)
Gender Learning after Childhood
102(1)
The Complexity of Learning
103(1)
A Summary of Learning Theories
103(1)
Synthesizing Cognition and Learning: Gender-Schema Theory
104(2)
Institutional Theories and Discrimination
106(3)
Individual Development and Social Change
109(1)
Notes
110(1)
For Further Reading
110(1)
Study Questions
110(2)
Commonality and Difference among Women
112(29)
Why Not Just Gender?
113(1)
Recognizing Difference
113(2)
The Differential Impact of Sex/Gender Systems
115(1)
The View from the Dominant System
116(4)
The View from Different Groups of Women
120(1)
Untangling Oppressions
121(1)
The Parallel Model
122(1)
The Distinct-Components Model
122(2)
The Complex Model
124(1)
Hierarchies of Oppression
124(1)
Exemplifying Complexity: Gender, Race, Sexuality, and Violence
125(3)
Sketches in Differences
128(1)
Age
128(2)
Class
130(1)
Race and Ethnicity
131(2)
Geography and Culture
133(1)
Conclusion: Learning from Difference
134(1)
Notes
135(1)
For Further Reading
136(1)
Study Questions
137(2)
PART TWO Gender-Defining Institutions
Reflect Before You Read
139(2)
Education: Learning to Be Male and Female
141(31)
Historical Perspectives on Women's Education
141(1)
Early Efforts
141(2)
Expanding Access
143(1)
Increasing Leadership Roles
144(4)
Achieving Higher Education
148(1)
Women's Education Today
149(1)
How Much Education?
150(4)
What Did You Learn in School Today?
154(6)
Segregation and Schooling
160(3)
Women as Educators
163(4)
Education and the Future
167(1)
The Question of Choice
167(1)
Education for What?
168(1)
Education for and about Women
168(2)
Notes
170(1)
For Further Heading
170(1)
Study Questions
171(1)
Normal Gender: Health, Fitness, and Beauty
172(44)
Traditional Gender-Based Norms in Defining Women's Health
174(1)
Anatomy and Health
174(5)
Uterus
174(1)
Ovaries
175(1)
Clitoris
175(1)
Breasts
176(2)
Summary: More Than the Sum of the Parts
178(1)
Reproductive Health
179(5)
Menstruation
179(2)
Pregnancy and Childbirth
181(3)
Gender Norms and the Organization of Health Care Research and Practice
184(1)
The American Health Care System
184(1)
Sexism in Health Care
185(2)
Clinical Trials
187(1)
Health and the New Sex-Based Biology
188(1)
Health in Women's Everyday Life
189(1)
Healthy Families?
190(1)
Work and Health
191(4)
Employment, the Double Burden, and Health
191(2)
Protection against Dangerous Occupations
193(1)
Health Implications of Workplace Discrimination and Harassment
194(1)
Beauty, Fitness, and Health
195(9)
The Ideal Size and Shape: Hourglass, California Girl, or Heroin Chic?
195(2)
Weight
197(4)
Exercise
201(1)
Skin Color
202(1)
Summary: What's Wrong with Beauty?
203(1)
Women's Roles in Shaping Health Care
204(1)
Healers, Doctors, and Other Health Care Professionals
205(3)
Health Care Activists
208(2)
Mothers and Daughters as Health Care Providers
210(1)
The Influence of Women as Health Care Consumers
211(1)
Broadening the Concept of Health
212(1)
Notes
213(1)
For Further Reading
214(1)
Study Questions
215(1)
Women and Religion
216(28)
Some Notes on Religion in American Society
217(1)
Religious Teachings about Women and Gender
218(1)
God Talk: Is It Male?
219(1)
Separate and Unequal Spheres
220(5)
Morality, Sexuality, and Gender
225(3)
Feminist Alternatives and the Women's Spirituality Movement
228(2)
Women's Religious Activities and Influences
230(1)
Everyday Life as Religious Activity
231(2)
Women's Religious Service Outside the Home
233(2)
Women as Religious Authorities and Leaders
235(4)
Religion and Society
239(2)
Notes
241(1)
For Further Reading
242(1)
Study Questions
243(1)
Gender and the Institutional Media of Communication
244(41)
The Mass Media: Women in the News
245(1)
Print Media
245(6)
Early History
245(3)
The 20th Century
248(3)
Electronic Media
251(5)
Radio
251(1)
Television
252(3)
The Internet
255(1)
The Mass Media: Images and Impact
256(1)
The Production of Gender in the Mass Media
256(11)
Television
256(4)
Magazines
260(3)
Newspapers
263(3)
Representations of Women in the Media: Change
266(1)
The Impact of the Mass Media
267(1)
The Commercial Media
268(1)
History of Gender and Advertising
268(1)
The Commercial Media Today Images and Impact
268(4)
The Cultural and Artistic Media
272(1)
Women and the Production of Art
272(5)
Gender and Sexuality as Subjects of Art
277(4)
Media of Change?
281(1)
Notes
282(1)
For Further Reading
283(1)
Study Questions
284(1)
Law and Policy, Government, and the State
285(39)
Gender Norms in Government, Law, and Public Policy
285(1)
Protection of Rights
286(5)
Founding Ideas
287(1)
Early Judicial Interpretations
288(1)
Legislative Changes in Women's Rights, 1840--1960
289(1)
The Late Twentieth Century
290(1)
Fulfillment of Obligations
291(7)
Taxation
291(1)
Jury Duty
291(1)
Military Service
292(6)
Summary: Citizens' Rights and Obligations
298(1)
Women's Policy Issues
298(3)
Women, Crime, and Justice
301(1)
Gender and Criminal Victimization
302(2)
Women as Criminals
304(6)
Prostitution
307(1)
Homicide and Murder
308(1)
Women in the Criminal Justice System
309(1)
Women's Political Participation and Influence
310(1)
Gender in Electoral Politics
310(5)
Mass Electoral Participation
310(1)
Women as Candidates for Office
311(2)
Gender, Public Opinion and Partisanship
313(2)
Nonelectoral Citizen Politics
315(1)
International Politics and Policy
316(2)
Women, Politics, and Democracy
318(1)
Notes
318(2)
For Further Reading
320(1)
Study Questions
320(3)
PART THREE Choice and Control in Personal Life, the Family, and Work
Reflect Before You Read
323(1)
Gender, Communication, and Self Expression
324(30)
Some General Observations on Language and Communication
324(1)
Referring to Women, Men, and People
325(1)
Gender-Specific Terms
326(6)
Gender-Neutral Terms
332(1)
Autonomy and Control in Communication
333(1)
Male and Female Language
333(3)
The Right-of Way: Gender and Status
336(9)
Right-of Way in Space
337(4)
Right-of Way in Conversation
341(1)
The Right-of Way: Gender and Power
342(3)
Strategies of Power and Influence
345(4)
Future Options
349(3)
Notes
352(1)
For Further Reading
352(1)
Study Questions
353(1)
Personal and Sexual Relationships in Adulthood
354(31)
Gender and Personal Relationships
355(1)
Of Hunting Bands and Mothers
355(1)
Friendship and Personal Networks
356(2)
Sexuality and Sexual Relationships
358(1)
Defining Sexual Relationships
358(2)
Sexual Identity
360(2)
Sexual Orientation
362(8)
Gender and Sexual Orientation
362(2)
Defining Sexual Orientation and Its Sources
364(4)
Homophobia and Heterosexual Privilege
368(2)
Sexuality, Love, and Power
370(4)
Marriage: Family, Property, and State
374(1)
The Marriage Contract
374(1)
Names and Places
375(1)
Rights and Obligations
376(1)
Property
377(1)
We State's View of Marriage
378(1)
Marriage, Gender, and Day-to-Day Life
379(1)
Divorce
380(1)
The Law on ``Living in Sin''
381(1)
Politics of Personal Life
382(1)
Notes
383(1)
For Further Reading
383(1)
Study Questions
384(1)
Consenting Adults? Gender-based Violence and Coercion
385(27)
What Are Gender-Based Violence and Coercion?
388(1)
Intimate Partner Violence
389(1)
The Prevalence and Causes of Intimate Partner Violence
389(3)
Intervention and Response: The Health Care and Justice Systems
392(2)
A Sexual Right-of Way
394(2)
Sexual Harassment
396(1)
Public Harassment
397(1)
Sexual Harassment and the Law
398(2)
Causes and Dynamics of Harassment
400(1)
Rape and Sexual Assault
401(1)
Patterns of Sexual Assault
402(4)
Sexual Assault and the Justice System
406(2)
Conclusions: Gender-based Violence against Women
408(1)
Notes
409(1)
For Further Reading
409(1)
Study Questions
410(2)
Reproduction, Parenthood, and Child Care
412(41)
To Be or Not to Be a Parent
414(1)
Reproduction and Choice
415(4)
Contraception
419(4)
Abortion: Legal History
423(5)
Early History Increasing Restriction
424(1)
The Granting of Right Roe v. Wade
424(4)
Abortion Politics and the Current Situation
428(4)
Parenthood
432(1)
Becoming Mothers and Fathers
432(3)
Mothering and Fathering
435(3)
Single and Separated Parents
438(3)
When a Marriage Breaks Up
438(2)
Single Parenthood
440(1)
A Case Study of African American Families
441(4)
Parents without Children
445(1)
Beyond the Family: Who Cares for Children?
446(4)
Notes
450(1)
For Further Reading
450(1)
Study Questions
451(2)
Work, Employment, and the Economics of Gender
453(49)
Making a Living versus Making a Home: Defining Differences
455(1)
The Rise and Fall of Homemaking
455(3)
The Political Economy of Homemaking
458(6)
Problems of Definition: Housework as Work
459(1)
Economic Functions of Homemaking
460(4)
Making a Living versus Making a Home: Choices
464(1)
Women's Employment: Historical and Aggregate Views
465(4)
Women's Work through Their Life Course
469(7)
Childhood and Adolescence
469(1)
Early and Middle Adulthood
470(6)
Later Adulthood
476(1)
Making a Living versus Making a Home: Conclusion
476(1)
Gender Divisions of Labor in Employment
477(1)
What Is the Difference between Women's and Men's Work? Horizontal Segregation
477(6)
What Is the Difference between Women's and Men's Work? Vertical Segregation
483(2)
Employment Discrimination: Patterns and Remedies
485(6)
Income, Worth, and Poverty
491(1)
Women's Pay
491(3)
Other Means of Support: Social Welfare
494(2)
Organization of Women in the Workforce
496(1)
Conclusion: Women's Work
497(1)
Notes
498(1)
For Further Reading
499(1)
Study Questions
499(2)
PART FOUR Feminism and the Global Context
Reflect Before You Read
501(1)
Feminism and the Future
502
The Development of Feminism and Women's Movements in the United States
504(1)
Social-Movement Theory
504(3)
Before the Civil War
507(4)
Fifty Years and More: From Civil War to Suffrage
511(7)
The Quiet Time: From Suffrage to Presidential Commissions
518(3)
The Rebirth of Feminism: Emma Said It in 1910/ Now We're Going to Say It Again
521(4)
Feminism and the Women's Movement Today
525(1)
Current Issues
525(2)
Toward a Multicultural and Global Feminism
527(5)
Multicultural Feminism
527(3)
Global Feminism
530(2)
Opponents to Feminism
532(3)
Feminism and the Future
535(1)
Notes
536(1)
For Further Reading
536(2)
Study Questions
538
References 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Name Index 1(1)
Subject Index 1


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