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Women's Lives : A Topical Approach,9780205439201
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Women's Lives : A Topical Approach

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205439201

ISBN10:
0205439209
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

With its emphasis on up-to-date research and theories and coverage of current themes in the psychology of womenincluding women and leadership, social support and mental health, and recent trENDs in datingWomenrs"s Lives: A Topical Approach is an engaging and comprehensive text. The text promotes an understanding of the wide range of factors that influence the lives of women by drawing on examples from cultures around the world. Incorporating womenrs"s first-hand experiences, Womenrs"s Lives: A Topical Approach encourages readers to personally connect with the material, allowing for a complete understanding of the major principles of this important field. Cutting-edge coverage for the 21st Century: bull;The lives of women in middle and later life bull;Reproduction and childbearing bull;Education and achievement bull;Employment bull;Violence against girls and women Visit www.ablongman.com for more information.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Introduction to the Psychology of Women: History and Research
1(26)
Definitions: Sex and Gender
2(1)
Women and Men: Similar or Different?
3(1)
Similarities Approach
3(1)
Differences Approach
3(1)
Feminism
4(2)
History of Women in Psychology
6(2)
Women and the American Psychological Association
7(1)
Women's Contributions
8(1)
History of the Psychology of Women
8(2)
The Early Years
9(1)
The Recent Years
9(1)
Studying the Psychology of Women
10(12)
Bias in Psychological Research
10(9)
Feminist Research Methods
19(1)
Drawing Conclusions from Multiple Studies
19(3)
Themes in the Text
22(5)
Theme 1: Diversity of Women's Experiences
22(1)
Theme 2: Gender Differences in Power
23(1)
Theme 3: Social Construction of Gender
24(3)
Cultural Representation of Gender
27(37)
Stereotypes of Females and Males
29(9)
The Content of Gender Stereotypes
29(2)
The Perceiver's Ethnicity and Gender Stereotypes
31(1)
The Target's Characteristics and Gender Stereotypes
32(3)
Stereotypes of Girls and Boys
35(1)
Bases for Gender Stereotypes
35(2)
Stereotypes Based on Identity Labels
37(1)
Sexism
38(5)
Ambivalent Sexism
39(1)
Changes in Sexist Attitudes over Time
40(1)
Modern Sexism
41(1)
Experiences with Sexism
41(2)
Representation of Gender in the Media
43(10)
Pattern 1: Underrepresentation of Females
43(1)
Pattern 2: Underrepresentation of Specific Groups of Females
44(6)
Pattern 3: Portrayal of Gender-Based Social Roles
50(1)
Pattern 4: Depiction of Female Communion and Male Agency
51(1)
Pattern 5: Emphasis on Female Attractiveness and Sexuality
51(2)
Significance of Gender-Role Media Images
53(1)
Representation of Gender in the English Language
53(11)
Language Practices Based on the Assumption that Male is Normative
56(2)
Negative Terms for Females
58(2)
Significance of the Differential Treatment of Females and Males in Language
60(4)
Gender Self-Concept: Developmental Processes and Individual Differences
64(34)
Gender Self-Concept
65(1)
Prenatal Development
66(6)
Stages of Prenatal Sex Differentiation
66(2)
Intersexuality
68(4)
Theories of Gender Typing
72(9)
Psychoanalytic Theory
72(3)
Social Learning Theory
75(2)
Cognitive Developmental Theory
77(2)
Gender Schema Theory
79(2)
Gender-Related Traits
81(6)
Changes in Gender-Related Traits over Time
84(1)
Gender-Related Traits and Psychological Adjustment
84(1)
Evaluation of the Concept of Androgyny
85(2)
Gender Attitudes
87(11)
Individual Differences in Gender-Related Attitudes
87(5)
Perceived Value of Female versus Male Gender-Related Attributes
92(6)
Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
98(35)
Children's Knowledge and Beliefs about Gender
99(4)
Distinguishing between Females and Males
100(1)
Gender Identity and Self-Perceptions
101(1)
Gender Stereotypes
101(2)
Gender-Related Activities and Interests
103(6)
Physical Performance and Sports
103(3)
Toys and Play
106(1)
Gender Segregation
106(3)
Influences on Gender Development
109(7)
Parents
109(5)
Siblings
114(1)
School
114(1)
Peers
115(1)
Media
115(1)
Puberty
116(6)
Events of Puberty
117(1)
Menarche
117(3)
Gender Differences in Puberty
120(1)
Early and Late Maturation in Girls
120(2)
Psychosocial Development in Adolescence
122(11)
Identity
122(1)
Self-Esteem
123(2)
Gender Intensification
125(1)
Body Image
126(7)
Gender Comparisons: Social Behavior, Personality, Communication, and Cognition
133(27)
Gender-Related Social Behaviors and Personality Traits
134(6)
Aggression
134(1)
Prosocial Behavior
135(2)
Influenceability
137(1)
Emotionality
138(1)
Moral Reasoning
139(1)
Communication Style
140(5)
Verbal Communication
140(4)
Nonverbal Communication
144(1)
Gender Comparison of Cognitive Abilities
145(15)
Verbal Ability
146(1)
Visual-Spatial Ability
146(4)
Mathematics Ability
150(10)
Sexuality
160(29)
Sexuality
161(10)
Sexual Anatomy and Sexual Response
161(2)
Sexual Attitudes
163(1)
Sexual Behaviors
164(2)
Sexual Problems
166(5)
Lesbians and Bisexual Women
171(6)
Bisexual Women
172(1)
Attitudes Towards Lesbians
172(4)
Explanations of Sexual Orientation
176(1)
Sexual Activity During Adolescence
177(3)
Frequency of Sexual Activity
178(1)
Factors Associated with Sexual Activity
179(1)
The Double Standard
180(1)
Sexual Desire
180(1)
Sexual Activity in Midlife
180(2)
Physical Changes
181(1)
Patterns of Sexual Activity
181(1)
Sexual Activity in Later Life
182(7)
Benefits of Sexual Activity in Later Life
183(1)
Sexual Behavior of the Elderly
184(1)
Factors Affecting Sexual Behavior
184(2)
Enhancing Sexuality in Later Life
186(3)
Reproductive System and Childbearing
189(37)
Menstruation
190(7)
The Menstrual Cycle
191(1)
Menstrual Pain
191(1)
Attitudes toward Menstruation
192(1)
Menstrual Joy
193(2)
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
195(2)
Contraception
197(2)
Contraception in Adolescence
197(1)
Methods of Contraception
198(1)
Abortion
199(5)
Incidence
200(1)
Methods
201(1)
Consequences of Abortion
201(3)
Pregnancy
204(6)
Pregnancy
204(2)
Miscarriage
206(1)
Teenage Pregnancy
207(3)
Childbirth
210(8)
Stages of Childbirth
210(1)
Methods of Childbirth
211(1)
Childbearing after 40
212(1)
Childbearing in the Later Years
213(2)
Postpartum Distress
215(1)
Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology
216(2)
Reproductive Functioning in Midlife and Beyond
218(8)
Menopause
219(3)
Hormone Replacement Therapy
222(4)
Relationships
226(45)
Friendships
227(4)
Friendship in Adolescence
227(1)
Friendship in Adulthood
228(1)
Friendship in Later Life
229(2)
Romantic Relationships
231(7)
Importance of Physical Attractiveness
231(2)
Perception of Sexual Interest
233(2)
Dating
235(1)
Gender-Related Behaviors and Roles in Dating Relationships
236(1)
Recent Trends in Dating
237(1)
Committed Relationships
238(6)
Marriage
238(3)
Cohabitation
241(1)
Lesbian Relationships
242(2)
Unattached Lifestyles
244(7)
Divorce
244(3)
Single Women
247(1)
Widowhood
248(2)
Loss of a Same-Sex Partner
250(1)
Motherhood
251(9)
Stereotypes of Mothers
251(2)
Single Mothers
253(2)
Lesbian Mothers
255(1)
Mothers with Disabilities
256(1)
The Postparental Period
256(4)
Relationships in the Later Years
260(11)
Siblings
260(1)
Adult Children
260(2)
Grandchildren
262(4)
Parents
266(5)
Education and Achievement
271(26)
Women's Educational Values, Attainment, and Campus Experience
272(8)
Educational Values
273(1)
Educational Attainment
273(2)
Campus Climate
275(5)
Women's Work-Related Goals
280(7)
Career Aspirations
281(2)
Career Counseling
283(1)
Work-Family Expectations
284(2)
Work-Family Outcomes
286(1)
Salary Expectations
287(1)
Influences on Women's Achievement Level and Career Decisions
287(7)
Orientation to Achievement
288(2)
Personality Characteristics
290(1)
Sexual Orientation
290(1)
Social and Cultural Factors
291(1)
Job-Related Characteristics
292(2)
Entering the Workplace
294(3)
Employment
297(43)
Women's Decision to Work, Employment Rates, and Occupational Choices
299(3)
Decision to Work
299(1)
Employment Rates
300(1)
Occupational Choices
300(2)
Gender Differences in Leadership and Job Advancement
302(6)
Leadership Positions
303(1)
Barriers That Hinder Women's Advancement
303(4)
Women as Leaders
307(1)
Gender Differences in Salaries
308(6)
Comparative Salaries
309(1)
Reasons for Differences in Salaries
310(4)
Women's Job Satisfaction
314(3)
Gender Differences in Satisfaction
314(3)
Factor Influencing Lesbians' Job Satisfaction
317(1)
The Older Woman Worker
317(3)
Employment Rates
318(1)
Why Do Older Women Work?
318(1)
Entering the Workforce in Later Life
318(1)
Age Discrimination in the Workplace
319(1)
Changing the Workplace
320(3)
Organizational Procedures and Policies
320(3)
Strategies for Women
323(1)
Retirement
323(7)
The Retirement Decision
323(2)
Adjustment to Retirement
325(2)
Leisure Activities in Retirement
327(3)
Economic Issues in Later Life
330(10)
Poverty
331(1)
Retirement Income: Planning Ahead
332(8)
Balancing Family and Work
340(31)
Attitudes toward Women's Family and Employment Roles
341(4)
Role of Ethnicity
342(1)
Role of Motherhood
342(1)
Personal Aspirations
342(3)
Division of Household Labor
345(5)
Importance of Work and Family Roles for Women and Men
345(1)
Women's Housework and Child Care
345(1)
Caring for Aging Parents
346(2)
Leisure Time
348(1)
Women's Perceptions of the Division of Family Labor
348(1)
Explanations of the Division of Family Labor
349(1)
Family-Work Coordination
350(14)
Women's Experiences with Parental Leave
350(2)
Women's Experiences Balancing Family and Work
352(4)
Effects of Mothers' Employment on Children
356(3)
Effects of Wives' Employment on the Marital Relationship
359(1)
Solutions to Family-Work Balancing Difficulties
360(4)
Midlife Transitions in Family and Work Roles
364(7)
Satisfaction with Life Roles
365(1)
Regrets about Life Direction
366(1)
Making Changes
366(1)
Midlife Transitions: A Cautionary Note
367(4)
Physical Health
371(43)
Health Services
372(6)
The Physician-Patient Relationship
373(1)
Type and Quality of Care
374(1)
Women of Color and Health Care
375(1)
Lesbian Health and Health Care
376(1)
Health Insurance
377(1)
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
378(7)
Overview of STIs
379(2)
AIDS
381(4)
Reproductive System Disorders
385(2)
Benign Conditions
385(1)
Cancers
385(2)
Hysterectomy
387(1)
Osteoporosis
387(4)
Risk Factors
388(1)
Prevention and Treatment
389(2)
Heart Disease
391(4)
Gender Differences
391(1)
Risk Factors
391(3)
Diagnosis and Treatment
394(1)
Psychological Impact
395(1)
Breast Cancer
395(6)
Risk Factors
396(1)
Detection
397(2)
Treatment
399(2)
Psychological Impact
401(1)
Physical Health in Later Life
401(6)
Gender Differences in Mortality
402(2)
Social Class and Ethnic Differences
404(1)
Gender Differences in Illness
405(1)
Disability
406(1)
Promoting Good Health
407(7)
Physical Activity and Exercise
408(2)
Nutrition
410(4)
Mental Health
414(29)
Factors Promoting Mental Health
416(2)
Social Support
416(1)
Optimism: ``The Power of Positive Thinking''
417(1)
Mental Health in Childhood and Adolescence
418(1)
Internalizing Disorders in Girls
418(1)
Externalizing Disorders in Girls
418(1)
Eating Disorders
419(5)
Types of Eating Disorders
419(3)
Causes of Eating Disorders
422(1)
Treatment of Eating Disorders
423(1)
Substance Use and Abuse
424(3)
Alcohol
424(2)
Illegal Substances
426(1)
Anxiety Disorders and Depression
427(6)
Anxiety Disorders
427(1)
Depression
427(4)
Suicide
431(2)
Mental Health of Lesbians
433(1)
Stresses
434(1)
Problems and Coping Mechanisms
434(1)
Mental Health of Older Women
434(2)
Gender Differences
435(1)
The Vital Older Woman
435(1)
Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychological Orders
436(7)
Gender Bias in Diagnosis
436(2)
Gender Bias in Psychotherapy
438(1)
Therapy Issues for Women of Color and Poor Women
438(1)
Types of Therapy
438(5)
Violence Against Girls and Women
443(39)
Sexual Harassment at School
444(5)
Elementary and Secondary School
445(1)
The College Campus
446(3)
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
449(5)
Incidence
449(3)
Consequences
452(1)
Explanations
453(1)
Women's Responses
454(1)
Violence Against Girls
454(5)
Child Sexual Abuse
455(3)
Infanticide and Neglect
458(1)
Dating Violence
459(2)
Incidence of Dating Violence
460(1)
Who Engages in Dating Violence?
461(1)
Rape
461(10)
Incidence
462(1)
Acquaintance Rape
462(1)
Factors Associated with Acquaintance Rape
463(3)
Effects of Rape
466(3)
Rape Prevention
469(1)
Theories of Rape
470(1)
Intimate Partner Violence
471(5)
Incidence
472(1)
Role of Disability, Social Class, and Ethnicity
472(2)
Risk Factors
474(1)
Effects of Intimate Partner Violence
474(1)
Leaving the Abusive Relationship
474(1)
Theories of Intimate Partner Violence
475(1)
Interventions
475(1)
Elder Abuse
476(6)
Types of Abuse
476(1)
Who Is Abused and Who Abuses?
477(1)
What Can Be Done?
478(4)
A Feminist Future: Goals, Actions, and Attitudes
482(21)
Feminist Goals
483(3)
Goal One: Gender Equality in Organizational Power
483(1)
Goal Two: Gender Equality in Relationship Power
484(1)
Goal Three: Gender Equality in Power for All Groups of Women
484(1)
Goal Four: Greater Flexibility in the Social Construction of Gender
485(1)
Actions to Achieve These Goals
486(8)
Research and Teaching
486(1)
Socialization of Children
487(2)
Institutional Procedures
489(1)
Individual Actions
490(1)
Collective Action
490(4)
Feminist Beliefs
494(6)
Feminist Identification
495(2)
Emergence of Feminist Beliefs
497(1)
Men and Feminism
497(3)
Postscript
500(3)
References 503(108)
Name Index 611(16)
Subject Index 627


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