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Wordsmith : A Guide to Paragraphs and Short Essays,9780130951038

Wordsmith : A Guide to Paragraphs and Short Essays

by ;
ISBN13:

9780130951038

ISBN10:
013095103X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $55.33
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Summary

Focusing on developmental writing at the paragraph level, this comprehensive guide offers a clear and systematic presentation of writing and grammar, with myriad examples and exercises to support concepts and hone skills. Covering all steps of the writing process in the order in which a writer uses them, it provides strategies for creating topic sentences and writing paragraphs, and presents nine different methods of development with model paragraphs. It devotes an entire section to grammar, and finishes with a selection of short, entertaining readings -- complete with reading comprehension questions and writing assignments - that helps users take advantage of the strong connection between reading and writing. Offers consecutive chapters on prewriting, writing the paragraph, revising, and proofreading, and addresses the concepts of direction, unity, coherence and support as an integral part of writing supporting paragraphs. Explains grammatical concepts in a systematic and easy-to-understand manner, with many review exercises and interesting side boxes. Provides twenty brief, interesting readings that reinforce reading skills and illustrate different writing techniques. Includes lighthearted chapter-opening boxes, a running sample paragraph in progress, and tips for right-brained writers. For anyone wishing to strengthen their writing skills communicate more clearly.

Table of Contents

Preface
To the Instructor xix
To the Student xxv
PART 1 Composition
The Writing Process
3(12)
The Writing Process
4(11)
Prewriting
4(1)
Planning
4(1)
Drafting
4(1)
Revising
5(1)
Proofreading
5(1)
An Important Point
6(1)
The Writing Process: Stephanie's Paragraph
6(6)
Writing for Right-Brained Writers
12(3)
Preparing to Write
15(11)
Prewriting
16(1)
Prewriting Methods
16(8)
Brainstorming
16(1)
Freewriting
17(2)
Invisible Writing: A Computer Technique
19(1)
Clustering
19(2)
Narrowing Your Topic: The Topic-Subtopic Method
21(2)
Outlining
23(1)
Journal Writing
24(2)
Writing Paragraphs
26(26)
Characteristics of an Effective Paragraph
26(26)
Direction: Shaping the Topic Sentence of a Paragraph
27(6)
Unity: Sticking to the Point
33(3)
Coherence: Holding the Paragraph Together
36(7)
Support: Using Specific Detail
43(9)
Revising and Proofreading
52(8)
Revising
52(4)
Checklist for Revision
53(3)
Proofreading
56(4)
The Top-Down Technique
57(1)
The Bottom-Up Technique
57(1)
The Targeting Technique
57(1)
Proofreading the Word-Processed Paragraph
58(2)
Showing and Telling: Description, Narration, and Example
60(24)
Description
60(10)
Sense Impressions
61(2)
Spatial Order
63(2)
Establishing a Dominant Impression
65(1)
Wordsmith's Corner: Sample Descriptive Paragraphs
66(4)
Narration
70(6)
Steps to Writing a Successful Narrative
70(3)
Wordsmith's Corner: Sample Narrative Paragraphs
73(3)
Examples
76(8)
The Short Example
76(1)
The Sentence-Length Example
77(2)
The Extended Example
79(1)
Wordsmith's Corner: Paragraphs Developed by Example
80(4)
Limiting and Ordering: Definition, Classification, and Process
84(18)
Definition
84(6)
Setting Up Your Definition Paragraph
85(1)
Wordsmith's Corner: Sample Definition Paragraphs
86(4)
Classification
90(6)
Establishing a Basis for Classification
90(3)
Wordsmith's Corner: Sample Classification Paragraphs
93(3)
Process
96(6)
Organizing the Process Paper
97(1)
Wordsmith's Corner: Sample Process Paragraphs
97(5)
Examining Logical Connections: Comparison-Contrast, Cause-Effect, and Argument
102(19)
Comparison-Contrast
103(7)
Setting Up the Comparison-Contrast Paragraph
103(4)
Wordsmith's Corner: Sample comparison-Contrast Paragraphs
107(3)
Cause and Effect
110(5)
Identifying Causes and Effects
111(1)
Wordsmith's Corner: Sample Cause-Effect Paragraphs
112(3)
Argument
115(6)
Taking Sides
115(2)
Wordsmith's Corner: Sample Argument Paragraphs
117(4)
Writing a Five-Paragraph Essay
121(24)
Part of a Five-Paragraph Essay
121(3)
The Five-Paragraph Essay
122(1)
Sample Five-Paragraph Essay
123(1)
Meeting the Challenge of Essay Writing
124(1)
Characteristics of an Effective Essay
124(1)
The Five-Paragraph Essay: Construction and Assembly
125(20)
Providing direction: Writing the Thesis Statement
125(3)
Getting Started: Introducing the Essay
128(2)
The Body Paragraphs: Unity
130(1)
The Body Paragraphs: Support
131(3)
The Body Paragraphs: Coherence
134(1)
A Graceful Exit: The Conclusion
135(1)
Wordsmith's Corner: Sample Five-Paragraph Essays
136(5)
Checklist for Revision
141(4)
PART 2 Grammar
Subjects and Verbs
145(20)
Action and Linking Verbs
145(3)
Actions Verbs
146(1)
Linking Verbs
146(2)
Recognizing Subjects and Verbs
148(5)
Finding the Verb
148(2)
Finding the Subject
150(1)
Recognizing Prepositional Phrases
151(2)
Regular and Irregular Verbs
153(12)
Puzzling Pairs
157(8)
Subject-Verb Agreement
165(15)
The Basic Pattern
165(4)
Problems in Subject-Verb Agreement
169(11)
Prepositional Phrase between Subject and Verb
169(1)
Indefinite Pronouns as Subjects
170(1)
Subject Following the Verb
171(2)
Compound Subjects
173(7)
Verb Shifts
180(17)
Shifts in Tense
180(3)
Avoiding Unnecessary Tense Shifts
181(2)
Active and Passive Voice
183(5)
Uses of Active and Passive Voice
186(1)
Writing Sentences in Active and Passive Voice
186(2)
Correcting Shifts in Voice
188(9)
Sentence Variety
197(18)
Power Tools for Writing Sentences
197(18)
Be Concise
197(2)
Vary Sentence Openings
199(4)
Connect Ideas through Coordination
203(3)
Connect Ideas through Subordination
206(9)
Run-On Sentences
215(15)
What Is a Run-On Sentence?
215(1)
Correcting Run-Ons
216(14)
Period and Capital Letter
217(1)
Comma and FANBOYS Conjunction
218(1)
Semicolon
219(1)
Semicolon and Joining Word
220(2)
Dependent Word
222(8)
Sentence Fragments
230(17)
What Is a Sentence Fragment?
230(17)
Dependent Clause Fragments
231(2)
Verbal Phrase Fragments (to, -ing, and -ed)
233(3)
Missing-Subject Fragments
236(2)
Example and Exception Fragments
238(1)
Prepositional-Phrase Fragments
239(8)
Pronoun Case
247(10)
Subject and Object Pronouns
247(10)
Subject Pronouns
248(2)
Object Pronouns
250(1)
The -self Pronouns---Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns
251(6)
Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
257(17)
Pronoun Agreement
258(5)
Problems in Pronoun Agreement
259(4)
Pronoun Reference
263(3)
Pronoun Reference Problem: No Antecedent
263(1)
Pronoun Reference Problems with this
264(2)
Pronoun Point of View
266(8)
Adjectives, Adverbs, and Articles
274(19)
Adjectives
274(4)
Adjective Forms: Positive, Comparative, and Superlative
275(3)
Adverbs
278(4)
Puzzling Pairs---good and well, bad and badly
280(1)
Puzzling Pairs---worse and worst
281(1)
Articles
282(11)
Using a and an
282(1)
For International Students: Three Rules for a, an, and the
283(10)
Capital Letters
293(12)
Capital Letters to Begin Sentences
293(1)
Capitalization of Words Referring to Individuals
294(2)
Names and the Pronoun I
294(1)
Family Relationships
294(1)
Professional Titles
295(1)
Capitalization of Words Referring to Groups
296(1)
Religions, Geographic Locations, Races, and Nationalities
296(1)
Organizations, Businesses, and Agencies
296(1)
Capitalization of Words Referring to Time and Place
297(2)
Dates, Days, Holidays, and Seasons
297(1)
Place Names
298(1)
Capitalization of Words Referring to Things and Activities
299(6)
School Subjects
299(1)
Titles
300(1)
Consumer Products
300(1)
Abbreviations
300(5)
Words Commonly Confused
305(9)
Words Commonly Confused
305(9)
Word Choice
314(12)
Slang
314(2)
Cliches
316(1)
Wordiness
317(9)
Commas
326(13)
Commas to Set Off Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses
326(1)
Commas to Join Items in a Series
327(2)
Commas to Join Independent Clauses
329(1)
Commas Around Interrupters
330(1)
Commas with Direct Quotations
331(1)
Commas in Names and Dates
332(7)
Other Punctuation
339(12)
End Punctuation: Period, Questions Mark, and Exclamation Point
339(2)
The Period
339(1)
The Question Mark
340(1)
The Exclamation Point
340(1)
The Semicolon
341(2)
Semicolon to Join Independent Clauses
341(1)
Semicolon to Join Items in a List
342(1)
Colons and Dashes: Formal and Informal Punctuation
343(1)
The Colon
343(1)
The Dash
344(1)
Parentheses: Tools of Understatement
344(7)
Apostrophes
351(15)
Apostrophes in Contractions
351(2)
Apostrophes to Show Possession
353(13)
Making Nouns Possessive
353(3)
Distinguishing Possessives from Simple Plurals
356(1)
Possessive Forms of Pronouns
357(1)
Proofreading for Apostrophe Errors
358(8)
Quotation Marks
366(123)
Quotation Marks to Signal Quotations
366(4)
Direct Quotations
366(2)
Indirect Quotations
368(2)
Quotations Marks and Underlining to Set Off Titles
370(11)
PART 3 Readings
Action Hero
381(5)
Rulon Openshaw
Complaining
386(4)
Maya Angelou
Against the Wall Associated Press
390(6)
Older and Wiser---or Just Older?
396(5)
William Raspberry
Barbie Madness
401(5)
Cynthia Tucker
Living at Warp Speed
406(5)
Michael Ashcraft
Spanglish Spoken Here
411(6)
Janice Castro
Dan Cook
Cristina Garcia
Recipe for a Sick Society
417(5)
Donna Britt
Don't Blame Me! The New ``Culture of Victimization,''
422(7)
John J. Macionis
How 'bout Us?
429(5)
Leonard Pitts
Mixed Blessings
434(5)
Jim Auchmutey
One for the Books
439(4)
Rheta Grimsley Johnson
American Space Chinese Place
443(5)
Yi-Fu Tuan
Disorders R Us
448(6)
Michael Skube
Civil Rites
454(5)
Caroline Miller
All the Rage
459(5)
Dave Barry
Conversational Ballgames
464(7)
Nancy Masterton Sakamoto
Muhammad Ali: Still the Greatest
471(6)
William Gildea
Music: A Universal Language
477(6)
Candace Dyer
Prison Studies
483(6)
Malcolm X
Acknowledgments 489(2)
Index 491


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