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The World of Children

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205447435

ISBN10:
0205447430
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $129.33
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Summary

The World of Children Joan Littlefield Cook and Greg Cook From the very first chapter, this chronologically organized child development text engages students in the development process by exposing them to real people facing real world child development challenges. The World of Children encourages students to think critically about issues and situations from multiple perspectives, helping them connect the science and practice of child development in a way that can positively change their lives. "I, personally, have never seen a text that does such a good job in critical thinking. There are very few times students have to just give the information back without having to apply it. This is one of the things I like best about this text." Cathy Pollock, Asheville Buncombe Technical Community College "The implementation of critical thinking is quite excellent in this text. Most of it seems to be induced by the pedagogical tools used by the authors, particularly the Thinking Back notes, As You Study, and the Perspective and Social Policy features." Mark P. Rittman, Cuyahoga Community College "I like the positive approach used when discussing ethnic and cultural differences." Steven A. Dennis, Brigham Young University, Idaho "This text is beautifully written and engaging. It is not pedantic and it maintains student interest. In particular, "Your Perspective Notes" and the vignettes are inspiring." Lila Snow, Los Angeles Pierce College

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
About the Authors xxxiii
part one Beginnings
3(116)
Exploring Child Development
5(38)
Defining the Field
6(4)
What Develops?
7(1)
What Drives Development? Nature and Nurture
8(2)
Theories of Child Development
10(14)
What Is a Theory, and Why Are Theories Useful?
10(1)
Psychoanalytic Theories
11(3)
Behavioral and Social Learning Theories
14(3)
Cognitive Theories
17(2)
Biological Theories
19(1)
Systems Theories
20(4)
Using the Scientific Method: Research in Child Development
24(10)
Descriptive Research Methods
25(1)
Correlational Research Methods: Measuring Associations
26(3)
Experimental Research Methods: Determining Cause and Effect
29(1)
Methods for Assessing Development
30(2)
Ethics in Research with Children
32(2)
Applications of Child Development Research and Careers Related to Children
34(9)
Practical Applications of Child Development Research
34(1)
A Personal Perspective: Meet First-Time Parents
35(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: Every Day in America
36(1)
Careers Related to Children
37(1)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Child Social Worker
38(1)
Thinking Back to Jennifer . . .
39(1)
Chapter Review
40(1)
Key Terms
41(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
41(2)
Heredity and the Environment
43(40)
Genes and Human Reproduction
44(11)
Genes and the Magical Four-Letter Code
44(3)
Human Reproduction and Cell Division
47(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: Protecting the Genetic Privacy of Citizens
48(2)
A Personal Perspective: Meet a Mother Who Used Artificial Insemination
50(5)
How Traits and Genetic Abnormalities Are Inherited
55(10)
Dominant--Recessive Traits
56(4)
Chromosome Abnormalities
60(1)
Prenatal Screening and Genetic Testing
61(3)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Genetic Counselor
64(1)
How Genes and Environments Interact
65(6)
Range of Reaction
66(1)
Canalization
66(2)
Niche-Picking: I Gotta Be Me . . .
68(1)
Probabilistic Epigenesis: Activating Your Genes
69(2)
Behavior Genetics: Measuring the Heritability of Traits
71(12)
Behavior Genetics, Heritability, and Shared and Nonshared Environments
71(1)
How Is Heritability Estimated?
72(1)
Heritability of Complex Characteristics
73(5)
Thinking Back to Daniel and Teri . . .
78(1)
Chapter Review
79(1)
Key Terms
80(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
81(2)
Prenatal Development and Birth
83(36)
Prenatal Development
84(6)
Conception
84(1)
Stages of Prenatal Development
85(5)
Teratogens: Health Risks for the Baby
90(11)
Alcohol
92(1)
Cocaine
93(1)
A Personal Perspective: Meet a Family Who Adopted a Child with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
94(1)
Cigarette Smoking
95(1)
Maternal Health
95(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: The Case of Malissa Ann Crawley
96(1)
Maternal Age
97(1)
Critical Periods
98(1)
The Role of Fathers
99(2)
The Process of Birth
101(5)
Stages of Birth
101(2)
Birthing Complications: Something Isn't Right
103(1)
The Newborn Baby
103(1)
Becoming a Family: Psychological Adjustments to Having a Newborn
104(2)
Options in Giving Birth: Choices and Alternatives
106(13)
Approaches to Labor and Delivery
106(2)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Certified Nurse--Midwife
108(2)
Drugs During Labor and Delivery
110(1)
The Partner's Role: Helping During Birth
111(2)
Thinking Back to Kendra and James
113(1)
Chapter Review
114(1)
Key Terms
115(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
116(1)
part one Summary
117(2)
part two Infants and Toddlers: The First Years (Birth through 2 years)
119(104)
Physical Development in Infants and Toddlers
121(32)
Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality
122(5)
What Is Prematurity?
123(1)
Infant Mortality
124(1)
A Personal Perspective: Meet the Parents of a Very Premature Baby
125(1)
Having a Healthy Baby
126(1)
Growth of the Body and Brain
127(9)
Physical Growth
127(1)
Feeding and Nutrition
128(3)
Structure of the Brain and Nervous System
131(2)
Forming the Brain and Nervous System
133(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: Can Mozart Stimulate Neural Connections in Infants?
134(2)
Sensory Capabilities
136(4)
Basic Components of Vision
136(2)
How Well Do Infants Hear?
138(1)
Smell and Taste
139(1)
Motor Development
140(13)
Reflexes: The Infant's First Coordinated Movements
141(1)
Voluntary Movements: The Motor Milestones
142(2)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Physical Therapist
144(2)
Cultural Differences in Early Experience
146(1)
Toilet Training
147(1)
Thinking Back to Beverly
148(1)
Chapter Review
149(1)
Key Terms
150(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
151(2)
Cognitive Development in Infants and Toddlers
153(36)
Perceptual Development
154(7)
Robert Fantz and the Early Work in Testing Visual Preferences
155(2)
Habituation--Dishabituation Research
157(1)
Intermodal Perception: Putting It All Together
158(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: Assessing Infant Intelligence: A Good Idea?
159(2)
Explaining Cognitive Development: Piaget's Constructivist View
161(10)
Piaget as a Child Prodigy
162(1)
Constructivism and Interaction with the Environment
162(4)
Piaget's Stage 1: Sensorimotor Thought (Birth to 2 Years)
166(4)
A Personal Perspective: Where Did It Go?
170(1)
Learning to Communicate
171(18)
What Is Language?
172(1)
Learning Theory: Language as a Learned Skill
172(1)
Nativist Theory: Born to Talk
173(4)
Interaction Theories: Cognitive and Social Interactionist Approaches
177(2)
Early Communication: How Language Starts
179(4)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Speech--Language Pathologist
183(2)
Thinking Back to Diana . . .
185(1)
Chapter Review
185(2)
Key Terms
187(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
187(2)
Socioemotional Development in Infants and Toddlers
189(34)
Attachment
190(13)
The Story of Attachment Research
190(3)
Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
193(3)
Parent, Infant, and Cultural Factors in Attachment
196(3)
Fathers, Day Care, and Attachment
199(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: Parental Leave Policies in the United States and Other Nations
200(1)
Early Attachment and Long-Term Outcomes
201(1)
Other Measures of Attachment
202(1)
Temperament
203(6)
Types of Temperaments
204(2)
Other Approaches to Temperament
206(1)
A Personal Perspective: Meet the Parent of a Difficult Child
207(2)
Emotion
209(3)
Infant Responses to Emotions
209(2)
Toddler Self-Conscious Emotions
211(1)
Social Relations and Play
212(11)
Infant Social Interactions
212(1)
Infant Sensorimotor Play
213(1)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Toy Company Executive
214(1)
Toddler Friends
215(1)
Toddler Conflicts
215(1)
Toddler Symbolic Play
216(1)
Thinking Back to Erin . . .
217(1)
Chapter Review
218(1)
Key Terms
219(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
220(1)
part two Summary
221(2)
part three Early Childhood: The Playful Years (3 through 6 years)
223(102)
Physical Development in Early Childhood
225(30)
Growth of the Body and Brain
226(8)
Physical Growth
226(2)
Nutrition
228(1)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Family Nutrition Counselor
228(2)
Growth and Development of the Brain
230(1)
The Role of Experience in Brain Development
230(2)
Larger Developmental Patterns in the Brain
232(2)
Motor Development and Physical Activity
234(7)
Gross-Motor Development
235(1)
Fine-Motor Development
236(1)
Physical Activity and Exercise
237(2)
Cerebral Palsy
239(1)
A Personal Perspective: Living with Cerebral Palsy
240(1)
Health and Safety Issues
241(14)
Childhood Deaths and Safety Issues
242(1)
Child Maltreatment: Abuse and Neglect
243(3)
Effects of Abuse and Neglect
246(3)
A Social Policy Perspective: Protecting Children from Neglect
249(1)
Thinking Back to Tammi and Her Neighbors
250(1)
Chapter Review
251(1)
Key Terms
252(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
253(2)
Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
255(34)
Piaget's Stage 2: Preoperational Thought
256(6)
Flourishing Mental Representations
256(2)
Emergence of Intuitive Thought: ``It Seems Like . . .''
258(1)
Conservation Problems
259(1)
Piaget's Legacy
260(1)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Constructivist Teacher
261(1)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural View of Cognitive Development
262(5)
Vygotsky's Background: The Sociocultural Context for a New Theory
262(1)
The Role of Speech and Language
263(1)
Mediation: With a Little Help from Your Friends
264(1)
The Zone of Proximal Development
264(1)
Scaffolding and Collaborative Learning
265(2)
Information Processing
267(7)
What Is the Information-Processing Approach?
267(2)
The Development of Basic Cognitive Processes
269(2)
Metacognition and the Child's Developing Theory of Mind
271(3)
Language Development
274(6)
An Expanding Vocabulary
274(1)
Learning Grammar
275(1)
Learning the Social Rules of Discourse
275(2)
Bilingual Children: Learning Two Languages
277(2)
A Personal Perspective: Meet a Bilingual Family
279(1)
Early Childhood Education and Kindergarten Readiness
280(9)
Early Childhood Education
280(3)
Kindergarten Readiness
283(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: Project Head Start: What Lies Ahead?
284(1)
Thinking Back to Maria
285(1)
Chapter Review
286(1)
Key Terms
287(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
287(2)
Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
289(36)
The Social and Emotional Self
290(8)
The Self
290(1)
Self-Regulation
291(2)
The Self and Emotions
293(1)
Developing Ideas about Gender
293(2)
Moral Development
295(3)
Parenting
298(10)
Dimensions of Parenting
298(1)
Parenting Styles: Best Practices for Raising Children
299(3)
Discipline: Spare the Rod and Spare the Child?
302(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: Should Parents Have to Be Licensed?
303(2)
Positive Discipline
305(2)
A Personal Perspective: Carrots or Sticks? Family Discipline at Different Ages
307(1)
Friends and Play
308(8)
Gender Segregation
309(2)
Play
311(1)
The Social Levels of Play: Parten's Classic Study
311(1)
A Professional Perspective: Meet the Director of a Child Care Center
312(1)
Sociodramatic Play
313(1)
Cultural Differences in Play
314(2)
Nonparental Child Care
316(9)
Nonparental Care and Its Effects
316(1)
Child Care Quality
317(3)
Thinking Back to Cassandra . . .
320(1)
Chapter Review
320(2)
Key Terms
322(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
322(1)
part three Summary
323(2)
part four Middle Childhood: The School Years (7 through 11 years)
325(114)
Physical Development in Middle Childhood
327(36)
Growth of the Body and Brain
328(5)
Physical Growth
328(1)
Overweight Children
329(2)
Growth and Maturation of the Brain
331(2)
Motor Development and Physical Activity
333(6)
Motor Development
333(1)
Physical Activity and Exercise
334(2)
Organized Sports
336(3)
Health and Safety Issues
339(8)
Childhood Injuries and Safety Issues
339(3)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Pediatrician
342(1)
Child Sexual Abuse
343(3)
A Personal Perspective: Surviving Child Sexual Abuse: One Survivor's Story
346(1)
Children with Exceptional Needs
347(16)
What Is Developmental Psychopathology?
348(1)
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
349(1)
Communication and Learning Disorders
350(3)
Autism Spectrum Disorders
353(2)
Educating Children with Exceptional Needs
355(2)
A Social Policy Perspective: Educating Children with Exceptional Needs
357(1)
Thinking Back to Clayton
358(1)
Chapter Review
359(1)
Key Terms
360(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
361(2)
Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
363(38)
Piaget's Stage 3: Concrete Operational Thought (Ages 7 through 11)
364(2)
What Is Concrete Operational Thinking?
364(1)
Class Inclusion, Seriation, and Transitive Inference Skills
365(1)
Information Processing: Memory Development
366(9)
Two Models of Memory: Stores and Networks
366(1)
Working Memory
367(2)
Long-Term Memory
369(3)
Other Characteristics of Memory Development
372(2)
A Social Policy Perspective: Children's Eyewitness Testimony: The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Truth?
374(1)
Information Processing: Knowledge, Strategies, and New Approaches
375(10)
A Professional Perspective: Meet a Child and Family Therapist
376(1)
Knowledge Base
377(2)
Strategy Development
379(1)
Newer Approaches to Understanding Cognitive Development
380(4)
Information Processing: Where Does It Stand?
384(1)
Learning to Communicate: Language in Middle Childhood
385(4)
Experts in the Basics
385(1)
Metalinguistic Awareness
386(1)
Changes in How Language Is Used
387(1)
Connectionist Models of Language Development
387(2)
Cognition in Context
389(12)
Development of Mathematical Skills
389(3)
Development of Reading Skills
392(2)
A Personal Perspective: Meet a Literacy Volunteer
394(1)
Development of Writing Skills
394(2)
Thinking Back to Manny and Angelique
396(1)
Chapter Review
397(2)
Key Terms
399(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
399(2)
Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood
401(38)
The Social and Emotional Self
402(9)
Self-Evaluations
402(3)
Emotional Development
405(1)
Gender Differences
406(1)
Moral and Prosocial Reasoning
406(2)
Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Resilient Children
408(3)
Families
411(8)
Children and Divorce
411(6)
Never-Married Households
417(1)
Stepfamilies
417(2)
Play, Friends, and Peer Popularity
419(6)
Logic and Physical Skills in Play
419(1)
Best Friends
420(1)
A Personal Perspective: We Are Best Friends
420(1)
Peer Popularity
420(3)
A Social Cognition Model of Peer Relations
423(1)
Helping Rejected Children
424(1)
Schools and the Media
425(14)
Children's Beliefs and Teachers' Expectations about Schooling
426(1)
Classroom Climate and Grouping Practices in Schools
427(1)
Children and the Media
428(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: Bilingual Education in the Schools
429(1)
Children and Television
429(2)
Video Games, Computers, and the Internet
431(2)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Marketing Executive
433(1)
Thinking Back to Katie
434(1)
Chapter Review
435(1)
Key Terms
436(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
436(1)
part four Summary
437(2)
part five Adolescence: The Transition toward Adulthood (12 years and beyond)
439(120)
Physical Development in Adolescence
441(38)
Growth of the Body and Brain During Adolescence
442(6)
Puberty
442(2)
Early and Late Maturation
444(1)
Brain Development
445(1)
A Personal Perspective: Meet a Young Adolescent
446(2)
Sexual Activity During Adolescence
448(8)
Patterns of Sexual Activity
449(1)
Reasons for Becoming Sexually Active
450(3)
Contraceptive Use in Adolescence
453(1)
Sexual Knowledge and Sex Education
454(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: The Sex Education Debate
455(1)
Special Concerns about Teenage Sexual Activity
456(7)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Adolescents
457(1)
Teenage Pregnancy
458(3)
Forced Sexual Behavior
461(2)
Adolescent Health Issues
463(16)
Nutrition and Exercise
464(1)
Eating Disorders
465(1)
Adolescents Need More Sleep
466(1)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet an Eating Disorders Counselor
467(1)
Substance Use and Abuse
468(3)
Depression
471(1)
Causes of Death
472(3)
Thinking Back to Marcus
475(1)
Chapter Review
476(1)
Key Terms
477(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
477(2)
Cognitive Development in Adolescence
479(38)
Piaget's Stage 4: Formal Operational Thought (12 years and Above)
480(6)
What Is Formal Operational Thought?
480(2)
Adolescent Egocentrism
482(2)
Evaluating Piaget's Theory
484(1)
Piaget's Legacy
485(1)
Recent Sociocultural Views of Cognitive Development
486(3)
Situated Cognition
487(1)
Guided Participation and Communities of Practice
487(1)
Thinking as Socially Shared Cognition: Two Heads Are Better than One
488(1)
Intelligence
489(15)
Theories of Intelligence
490(5)
Assessing Intelligence
495(2)
Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation and Giftedness
497(1)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a School Psychologist
498(3)
Ethnic Differences and Questions about Cultural Bias
501(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: Ethnicity and IQ
502(2)
Learning to Communicate: Language in Adolescence
504(3)
The Adolescent Register
504(1)
Genderlects
505(1)
Social and Cultural Dialects
505(2)
Cognition in Context: Adolescents Making Decisions
507(10)
How Well Do Adolescents Make Decisions?
507(1)
Making Vocational Choices
508(2)
The Forgotten Third: Improving the Transition from School to Work
510(2)
A Personal Perspective: I Graduated--Now What?
512(1)
Thinking Back to Maya
513(1)
Chapter Review
514(1)
Key Terms
515(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
515(2)
Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
517(42)
Who Am I? Adolescents' Understanding of Themselves
518(11)
Identity
518(3)
Sexual Orientation
521(1)
Personal Perspective: Developing an Ethnic Identity
522(3)
Morality
525(4)
Social Relationships: Family
529(7)
Teens Developing Autonomy: Conflict with Parents
530(1)
Family Structures
531(5)
Social Relationships: Peers
536(7)
Friends and Peers in Adolescence
536(1)
Cliques and Crowds
537(1)
Peer Pressure, Delinquent Behavior, and Aggression
538(1)
A Professional Perspective: Career Focus: Meet a Juvenile Probation Officer
539(1)
From Gender Segregation to Dating
540(1)
Leisure Time in Adolescence
540(1)
A Social Policy Perspective: How Should We Deal with Aggressive Students?
541(2)
Contexts of Development
543(16)
Adolescents in School
543(1)
Differences in Academic Performance
544(2)
Cultural Contexts for Development
546(8)
Thinking Back to Luis
554(1)
Chapter Review
555(1)
Key Terms
556(1)
MyDevelopmentLab
556(1)
part five Summary
557(2)
Glossary 559(8)
References 567(38)
Name Index 605(6)
Subject Index 611(10)
Text and Photo Credits 621


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