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World Civilizations : The Global Experience, Volume 2

by ; ; ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205659593

ISBN10:
0205659594
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/3/2010
Publisher(s):
Pearson
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Summary

The primary goal ofWorld Civilizations:The Global Experience, Volume 2, 6/e,is to present a truly global history-from the development of agriculture and herding to the present. Using a unique periodization, this book divides the main periods of human history according to changes in the nature and extent of global contacts. This global world history text emphasizes the major stages in the interactions among different peoples and societies, while at the same time assessing the development of major societies. Encompassing social and cultural as well as political and economic history, the book examines key civilizations in world history. World Civilizationsbalances this discussion of independent developments in the world's major civilizations with comparative analysis of the results of global contact.

Author Biography

Peter N. Stearns

Peter N. Stearns is provost and professor of history

at George Mason University. He received his Ph.D.

from Harvard University. Before moving to George

Mason University, he taught at Rutgers University,

the University of Chicago, and Carnegie Mellon,

where he won the Robert Doherty Educational

Leadership Award and the Elliott Dunlap Smith Teaching Award. He has

taught world history for more than 15 years. He currently serves as chair

of the Advanced Placement World History Committee and also founded

and is the editor of the Journal of Social History. In addition to textbooks

and readers, he has written studies of gender and consumerism in a world

history context. Other books address modern social and cultural history

and include studies on gender, old age, work, dieting, and emotion. His

most recent book in this area is American Fear: Causes and Consequences

of High Anxiety.

 

 

 

 

Michael Adas

Michael Adas is the Abraham Voorhees Professor of

History and a board of governor’s chair at Rutgers

University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Over the

past couple of decades his teaching has focused on

patterns and processes of global and comparative

history. His courses on race and empire in the early

modern and industrial eras and on world history in the 20th century have

earned him a number of teaching prizes. In addition to texts on world

history, Adas has written mainly on the comparative history of colonialism

and its impact on the peoples and societies of Asia and Africa. His

books include Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and

Ideologies of Western Dominance, which won the Dexter Prize, and the recently

published Dominance by Design: Technological Imperatives and

America’s Civilizing Mission. He is currently writing a global history of the

First World War.

 

 

 

Stuart B. Schwartz

Stuart B. Schwartz was born and educated in Springfield,

Massachusetts, and then attended Middlebury

College and the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico.

He has an M.A. and Ph.D. from Columbia University

in Latin American history. He taught for many

years at the University of Minnesota and joined the

faculty at Yale University in 1996. He has also taught in Brazil, Puerto

Rico, Spain, France, and Portugal. He is a specialist on the history of colonial

Latin America, especially Brazil, and is the author of numerous

books, notably Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society

(1985), which won the Bolton Prize for the best book in Latin American

History. He is also the author of Slaves, Peasants, and Rebels (1992), Early

Latin America(1983), and Victors and Vanquished (1999). He has held fellowships

from the Guggenheim Foundation and the Institute for Advanced

Study (Princeton). For his work on Brazil he was recently

decorated by the Brazilian government. He continues to read widely in

the history and anthropology of Latin America, Africa, and early modern

Europe.

 

 

 

Marc Jason Gilbert

Marc Jason Gilbert is the holder of an NEHsupported

Chair in World History at Hawaii Pacific

University in Honolulu, Hawaii. He is a former University

System of Georgia Distinguished Professor of

Teaching and Learning. He received his Ph.D in history

in 1978 at UCLA, where he built his own program

in world history out of a mixture of more traditional fields. He is a

founding member of the World History Association and one of its initial

elected officers.More than a decade ago, he founded and served as executive

director of the Southeastern World History Association. He has codirected

two Summer Institutes for Teaching Advanced Placement World

History. He has attempted to bring a global dimension to the study of

south and southeast Asian history in numerous articles and books, such

as Why the North Won the Vietnam War.

 

Table of Contents

PART IV

THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD, 1450–1750:

THEWORLD SHRINKS 458

 THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD, 1450—1750:

THEWORLD SHRINKS 458

CHAPTER 21 The World Economy 466

The West’s First Outreach:Maritime Power 466

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Causation and the West’s

Expansion 471

Toward a World Economy 472

VISUALIZING THE PAST:West Indian Slaveholding 475

Colonial Expansion 477

DOCUMENT:Western Conquerors: Tactics and Motives 478

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The World Economy–

And the World 483

Further Readings 484

On the Web 484

CHAPTER 22 The Transformation of the West,

1450—1750 486

The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce,

1450—1650 487

The Commercial Revolution 492

The Scientific Revolution: The Next Phase of Change 495

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Versailles 497

Political Change 497

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Elites and Masses 498

The West by 1750 500

DOCUMENT: Controversies About Women 501

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Europe and the World 504

Further Readings 504

On the Web 505

CHAPTER 23 The Rise of Russia 506

Russia’s Expansionist Politics Under the Tsars 506

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Multinational Empires 510

Russia’s First Westernization, 1690—1790 511

DOCUMENT: The Nature of Westernization 513

Themes in Early Modern Russian History 516

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Oppressed Peasants 517

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Russia and the World 519

Further Readings 519

On the Web 520

CHAPTER 24 Early Latin America 522

Spaniards and Portuguese: From Reconquest

to Conquest 524

DOCUMENT: A Vision from the Vanquished 529

The Destruction and Transformation

of Indigenous Societies 532

Colonial Economies and Governments 533

THINKING HISTORICALLY: An Atlantic History? 534

Brazil: The First Plantation Colony 537

Multiracial Societies 540

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Race or Culture? A Changing

Society 541

The 18th-Century Reforms 542

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Latin American Civilization

and the World Context 547

Further Readings 547

On the Web 548

CHAPTER 25 Africa and the Africans in the Age

of the Atlantic Slave Trade 550

Africa and the Creation of an Atlantic System 551

The Atlantic Slave Trade 552

African Societies, Slavery, and the Slave Trade 557

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Slavery and Human

Society 558

White Settlers and Africans in Southern Africa 563

The African Diaspora 566

DOCUMENT: An African’s Description of the Middle

Passage 567

VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Cloth of Kings in an Atlantic

Perspective 569

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Africa and the African Diaspora

in World Context 571

Further Readings 571

On the Web 572

CHAPTER 26 The Muslim Empires 574

The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors

to Empire Builders 575

DOCUMENT: An Islamic Traveler Laments the Muslims’

Indifference to Europe 583

The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids 583

THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Gunpowder Empires

and the Shifting Balance of Global Power 586

The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization

in India 590

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Art as A Window into the Past:

Paintings and History in Mughal India 594

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Gunpowder Empires

and the Restoration of the Islamic Bridge

Between Civilizations 597

Further Readings 598

On the Web 599

CHAPTER 27 Asian Transitions in an Age

of Global Change 600

The Asian Trading World and the Coming

of the Europeans 602

Ming China: A Global Mission Refused 609

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viii Contents

DOCUMENT: Exam Questions as a Mirror

of Chinese Values 611

VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Great Ships of the Ming

Expeditions that Crossed the Indian Ocean 615

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Means and Motives for Overseas

Expansion: Europe and China Compared 616

Fending Off the West: Japan’s Reunification

and the First Challenge 617

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: An Age of Eurasian

Protoglobalization 621

Further Readings 621

On the Web 622

PART V

THE DAWN OF THE INDUSTRIAL AGE, 1750—1914 628

CHAPTER 28 The Emergence of Industrial Society

in the West, 1750—1914 636

The Age of Revolution 637

VISUALIZING THE PAST: The French Revolution

in Cartoons 640

The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850—1914 644

DOCUMENT: Protesting the Industrial Revolution 646

Cultural Transformations 649

Western Settler Societies 652

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Two Revolutions: Industrial

and Atlantic 653

Diplomatic Tensions and World War I 656

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Industrial Europe

and the World 657

Further Readings 658

On the Web 658

CHAPTER 29 Industrialization and Imperialism:

The Making of the European Global Order 660

The Shift to Land Empires in Asia 662

THINKING HISTORICALLY:Western Education and the Rise

of an African and Asian Middle Class 668

Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World,

1870—1914 670

Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change 673

DOCUMENT: Contrary Images: The Colonizer Versus

the Colonized on the “Civilizing Mission” 674

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Capitalism and Colonialism 677

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: A European-Dominated Early

Phase of Globalization 682

Further Readings 682

On the Web 683

CHAPTER 30 The Consolidation of Latin America,

1830—1920 684

From Colonies to Nations 685

New Nations Confront Old and New Problems 689

Latin American Economies and World Markets,

1820—1870 692

DOCUMENT: Confronting the Hispanic Heritage:

From Independence to Consolidation 698

Societies in Search of Themselves 701

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Explaining

Underdevelopment 704

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Images of the Spanish-American

War 706

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: New Latin American Nations

and the World 708

Further Readings 710

On the Web 710

CHAPTER 31 Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman

Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China 712

From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth

of Turkey 713

Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic

Heartlands 717

THINKING HISTORICALLY:Western Dominance

and the Decline of Civilizations 718

The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire

in China 723

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Mapping the Decline

of Civilizations 724

DOCUMENT: Transforming Imperial China

into a Nation 732

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Muslim and Chinese Decline

and a Shifting Global Balance 733

Further Readings 734

On the Web 734

CHAPTER 32 Russia and Japan: Industrialization

Outside the West 736

Russia’s Reforms and Industrial Advance 737

DOCUMENT: Conditions for Factory Workers in Russia’s

Industrialization 742

Protest and Revolution in Russia 743

Japan: Transformation Without Revolution 746

THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Separate Paths of Japan

and China 748

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Two Faces ofWestern Influence 751

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Russia and Japan in the World 754

Further Readings 754

On the Web 755

PART VI

THE NEWEST STAGE OFWORLD HISTORY:

1914—PRESENT 760

CHAPTER 33 Descent into the Abyss:World War I

and the Crisis of the European Global Order 770

The Coming of the Great War 772

A World at War 775

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Trench Warfare 776

Failed Peace and Global Turmoil 782

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Contents ix

The Nationalist Assault on the European

Colonial Order 783

DOCUMENT: Lessons for the Colonized from the Slaughter

in the Trenches 784

THINKING HISTORICALLY:Women in Asian and African

Nationalist Movements 792

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS:World War and Global

Upheavals 795

Further Readings 795

On the Web 796

CHAPTER 34 The World between the Wars: Revolutions,

Depression, and Authoritarian Response 798

The Roaring Twenties 799

Revolution: The First Waves 804

THINKING HISTORICALLY: A Century of Revolutions 810

The Global Great Depression 817

The Authoritarian Response 820

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Guernica and the Images

of War 823

DOCUMENT: Socialist Realism 828

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Economic Depression, Authoritarian

Response, and Democratic Retreat 830

Further Readings 831

On the Web 832

CHAPTER 35 A Second Global Conflict and the End

of the European World Order 834

Old and New Causes of a Second World War 835

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Total War, Global

Devastation 837

Unchecked Aggression and the Coming of War in Europe

and the Pacific 838

The Conduct of a Second Global War 840

DOCUMENT: Japan’s Defeat in a Global War 847

War’s End and the Emergence of the Superpower

Standoff 848

Nationalism and Decolonization in South and Southeast

Asia and Africa 849

VISUALIZING THE PAST: National Leaders for a New Global

Order 852

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Persisting Trends in a World

Transformed by War 857

Further Readings 857

On the Web 858

CHAPTER 36 Western Society and Eastern Europe

in the Decades of the Cold War 860

After World War II: A New International Setting

for the West 860

The Resurgence of Western Europe 864

THINKING HISTORICALLY: The United States and Western

Europe: Convergence and Complexity 868

Cold War Allies: The United States, Canada, Australia,

and New Zealand 870

Culture and Society in the West 872

VISUALIZING THE PAST:Women at Work in France

and the United States 874

Eastern Europe After World War II: A Soviet Empire 878

Soviet Culture: Promoting New Beliefs and Institutions 881

DOCUMENT: A Cold War Speech 886

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Cold War and the World 887

Further Readings 887

On the Web 888

CHAPTER 37 Latin America: Revolution and Reaction

into the 21st Century 890

Latin America After World War II 892

Radical Options in the 1950s 894

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Murals and Posters: Art

and Revolution 895

DOCUMENT: The People Speak 898

The Search for Reform and the Military Option 898

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Human Rights

in the 20th Century 902

Societies in Search of Change 905

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Struggling Toward the Future

in a Global Economy 909

Further Readings 910

On the Web 910

CHAPTER 38 Africa, the Middle East, and Asia

in the Era of Independence 912

The Challenges of Independence 913

DOCUMENT: Cultural Creativity in the Emerging Nations:

Some Literary Samples 921

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Artificial Nations and the Rising

Tide of Communal Strife 922

Post-Colonial Options for Achieving Economic Growth

and Social Justice 924

Delayed Revolutions: Religious Revivalism and Liberation

Movements in Settler Societies 930

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Globalization and Postcolonial

Societies 935

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Postcolonial Nations in the Cold

War World Order 935

Further Readings 936

On the Web 936

CHAPTER 39 Rebirth and Revolution: Nation-Building

in East Asia and the Pacific Rim 938

East Asia in the Postwar Settlements 939

The Pacific Rim:More Japans? 946

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Pacific Rim Growth 948

THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Pacific Rim

as a U.S. Policy Issue 950

Mao’s China: Vanguard of World Revolution? 951

DOCUMENT:Women in the Revolutionary Struggles

for Social Justice 956

Colonialism and Revolution in Vietnam 958

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: East Asia and the Pacific Rim

in the Contemporary World 963

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x Contents

Further Readings 964

On the Web 964

CHAPTER 40 Power, Politics, and Conflict in World

History, 1990—2010 966

The End of the Cold War 967

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Symbolism in the Breakdown

of the Soviet Bloc 974

The Spread of Democracy 975

DOCUMENT: Democratic Protest and Repression

in China 976

The Great Powers and New Disputes 977

The United States as Sole Superpower 980

THINKING HISTORICALLY: Terrorism, Then and Now 982

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: New Global Standards,

New Divisions 984

Further Readings 984

On the Web 986

CHAPTER 41 Globalization and Resistance 988

Globalization: Causes and Processes 989

DOCUMENT: Protests Against Globalization 996

Resistance and Alternatives 998

THINKING HISTORICALLY: How Much Historical

Change? 999

The Global Environment 1000

VISUALIZING THE PAST: Two Faces of Globalization 1003

Toward the Future 1005

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Civilizations and Global Forces 1006

Further Readings 1006

On the Web 1007

Glossary G-1

Credits C-1

Index I-1



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