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Accessible, flexible, and affordable, The World of Philosophy: An Introductory Reader presents philosophy in all its diverse array of thought and practice, offering standard Western historical and analytic materials alongside writings from Chinese, Indian, Native-American, African American, continental, and other sources. Approximately 25% of the contemporary readings are by women, including leading feminist theorists. Many articles have been edited to sharpen their focus and make them understandable to students with little or no background in philosophy. The readings are enhanced by introductions, study questions, and a glossary at the end of the book. A new online Ancillary Resource Center and a Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/cahn offer additional resources for instructors and students.
Featuring not only essential readings from the Western canon but also selections on compelling topics like Hindu and Buddhist conceptions of the self, Confucian and Buddhist morality, world hunger, animal rights, sexism, and racism, The World of Philosophy offers students a distinctive blend of traditional and non-traditional perspectives.
Steven M. Cahn is Professor of Philosophy at The City University of New York Graduate Center. He is the author or editor of more than fifty books. Most recently, he wrote From Student to Scholar: A Candid Guide to Becoming a Professor (2008) and coauthored Happiness and Goodness: PhilosophicalReflections on Living Well (2015). Dr. Cahn is the editor of Exploring Philosophy, Fifth Edition (OUP, 2014), Political Philosophy, Third Edition (OUP, 2014), and Exploring Ethics, Third Edition (OUP, 2013) and coeditor of Ethics, Sixth Edition (OUP, 2015).
Table of Contents
Preface I. THE NATURE OF PHILOSOPHY Monroe C. Beardsley and Elizabeth Lane Beardsley: What Is Philosophy? Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy Plato: Defence of Socrates II. REASONING Wesley C. Salmon: The Scope of Logic Stephen F. Barker: Improving Your Thinking Carl G. Hempel: Scientific Inquiry Nancy Tuana: Science and the Practices of Women III. KNOWLEDGE René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy George Berkeley: A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding A. J. Ayer: What Is Knowledge? Edmund L. Gettier: Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? Uma Narayan: The Project of Feminist Epistemology Christopher W. Gowans: Buddhist Epistemology IV. REALITY A. Mind and Body René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy Gilbert Ryle: The Ghost in the Machine Paul M. Churchland: The Mind-Body Problem Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat? John Searle: Do Computers Think? Barbara Montero: The Body Problem B. The Self Joel Kupperman: Hinduism and the Self Thomas P. Kasulis: The Buddhist Concept of Self C. Identity Brian Smart: A Case of Identity John Perry: The Problem of Personal Identity D. Free Will Thomas Nagel: Free Will W. T. Stace: Free Will and Determinism Steven M. Cahn: Freedom or Determinism? Harry Frankfurt: The Principle of Alternative Possibilities V. RELIGION A. Religious Beliefs Anselm and Gaunilo: The Ontological Argument Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways William L. Rowe: The Kalam Cosmological Argument Ernest Nagel: Does God Exist? Richard Swinburne: Why God Allows Evil Raynor Johnson: Karma and Rebirth Whitley R. P. Kaufman: Karma, Rebirth, and the Problem of Evil Blaise Pascal: The Wager Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski: Pascal's Wager: An Assessment Xunzi: A Discussion of Heaven B. Religious Diversity Philip L. Quinn and Kevin Meeker: The Challenge of Religious Diversity Jeffery D. Long: The Jain Path Herbert Fingarette: The Confucian Way Ray Billington: The Tao Twelve Zen Stories Vine Deloria, Jr.: God Is Red: A Native View of Religion John H. Hick: Religious Pluralism and Salvation Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski: The Problem of Religious Diversity Dalai Lama: Interreligious Harmony VI. MORAL THEORY Steven M. Cahn: God and Morality Mary Midgley: Moral Isolationism James Rachels: Egoism and Moral Skepticism Immanuel Kant: The Categorical Imperative John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism Aristotle: The Nature of Virtue Virginia Held: The Ethics of Care Friedrich Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil Albert Camus: The Myth of Sisyphus Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialism Is a Humanism Christopher W. Gowans: The Buddha's Message VII. MORAL PROBLEMS Jr.: Confucian Morality A. Morality and The Law Plato: Crito Martin Luther King, Jr.: Letter from a Birmingham Jail B. Abortion Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion Don Marquis: Why Abortion Is Immoral Rosalind Hursthouse: Virtue Theory and Abortion C. World Hunger Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality John Arthur: World Hunger and Moral Obligation: The Case Against Singer D. Terrorism Michael Walzer: Terrorism Lionel K. McPherson: Is Terrorism Distinctively Wrong? E. Animal Rights Tom Regan: The Case for Animal Rights Mary Anne Warren: Speaking of Animal Rights F. The Environment Tom Regan: We Are What We Eat Elliott Sober: Philosophical Problems for Environmentalism VIII. SOCIAL THEORY Plato: The Republic Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan John Stuart Mill: On Liberty Karl Marx: Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 John Dewey: Democracy John Rawls: A Theory of Justice Robert Nozick: Distributive Justice Virginia Held: Non-contractual Society: A Feminist View IX. SOCIAL PROBLEMS A. Education Sidney Hook: What Is a Liberal Education? Michel Foucault: Discipline and Punish B. Affirmative Action Celia Wolf-Devine: Proportional Representation Karen Hanson: Facing Facts and Responsibilities Laurence Thomas: What Good Am I? C. Sexism, Racism, and Rights Marilyn Frye: Sexism Iris Marion Young: Fives Faces of Oppression Kwame Anthony Appiah: Globalizing Human Rights X. ULTIMATE QUESTIONS Plato: Phaedo Epicurus: Writings Thomas Nagel: Death Shelly Kagan: The Badness of Death Walpola Rahula: What The Buddha Taught Christopher W. Gowans: The Cessation of Suffering Richard Taylor: The Meaning of Life Susan Wolf: Meaning in Life Christine Vitrano: Meaningful Lives? Glossary