9780190233396

The World of Philosophy An Introductory Reader

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190233396

  • ISBN10:

    0190233397

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 7/1/2015
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Accessible, flexible, and affordable, The World of Philosophy: An Introductory Reader presents philosophy in all its diverse array of thought and practice, offering standard Western historical and analytic materials alongside writings from Chinese, Indian, Native-American, African American, continental, and other sources. Approximately 25% of the contemporary readings are by women, including leading feminist theorists. Many articles have been edited to sharpen their focus and make them understandable to students with little or no background in philosophy. The readings are enhanced by introductions, study questions, and a glossary at the end of the book. A new online Ancillary Resource Center and a Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/cahn offer additional resources for instructors and students.

Featuring not only essential readings from the Western canon but also selections on compelling topics like Hindu and Buddhist conceptions of the self, Confucian and Buddhist morality, world hunger, animal rights, sexism, and racism, The World of Philosophy offers students a distinctive blend of traditional and non-traditional perspectives.

Author Biography


Steven M. Cahn is Professor of Philosophy at The City University of New York Graduate Center. He is the author or editor of more than fifty books. Most recently, he wrote From Student to Scholar: A Candid Guide to Becoming a Professor (2008) and coauthored Happiness and Goodness: Philosophical Reflections on Living Well (2015). Dr. Cahn is the editor of Exploring Philosophy, Fifth Edition (OUP, 2014), Political Philosophy, Third Edition (OUP, 2014), and Exploring Ethics, Third Edition (OUP, 2013) and coeditor of Ethics, Sixth Edition (OUP, 2015).

Table of Contents


Preface
I. THE NATURE OF PHILOSOPHY
Monroe C. Beardsley and Elizabeth Lane Beardsley: What Is Philosophy?
Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy
Plato: Defence of Socrates
II. REASONING
Wesley C. Salmon: The Scope of Logic
Stephen F. Barker: Improving Your Thinking
Carl G. Hempel: Scientific Inquiry
Nancy Tuana: Science and the Practices of Women
III. KNOWLEDGE
René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy
George Berkeley: A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
A. J. Ayer: What Is Knowledge?
Edmund L. Gettier: Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?
Uma Narayan: The Project of Feminist Epistemology
Christopher W. Gowans: Buddhist Epistemology
IV. REALITY
A. Mind and Body
René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy
Gilbert Ryle: The Ghost in the Machine
Paul M. Churchland: The Mind-Body Problem
Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat?
John Searle: Do Computers Think?
Barbara Montero: The Body Problem
B. The Self
Joel Kupperman: Hinduism and the Self
Thomas P. Kasulis: The Buddhist Concept of Self
C. Identity
Brian Smart: A Case of Identity
John Perry: The Problem of Personal Identity
D. Free Will
Thomas Nagel: Free Will
W. T. Stace: Free Will and Determinism
Steven M. Cahn: Freedom or Determinism?
Harry Frankfurt: The Principle of Alternative Possibilities
V. RELIGION
A. Religious Beliefs
Anselm and Gaunilo: The Ontological Argument
Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways
William L. Rowe: The Kalam Cosmological Argument
Ernest Nagel: Does God Exist?
Richard Swinburne: Why God Allows Evil
Raynor Johnson: Karma and Rebirth
Whitley R. P. Kaufman: Karma, Rebirth, and the Problem of Evil
Blaise Pascal: The Wager
Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski: Pascal's Wager: An Assessment
Xunzi: A Discussion of Heaven
B. Religious Diversity
Philip L. Quinn and Kevin Meeker: The Challenge of Religious Diversity
Jeffery D. Long: The Jain Path
Herbert Fingarette: The Confucian Way
Ray Billington: The Tao
Twelve Zen Stories
Vine Deloria, Jr.: God Is Red: A Native View of Religion
John H. Hick: Religious Pluralism and Salvation
Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski: The Problem of Religious Diversity
Dalai Lama: Interreligious Harmony
VI. MORAL THEORY
Steven M. Cahn: God and Morality
Mary Midgley: Moral Isolationism
James Rachels: Egoism and Moral Skepticism
Immanuel Kant: The Categorical Imperative
John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism
Aristotle: The Nature of Virtue
Virginia Held: The Ethics of Care
Friedrich Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil
Albert Camus: The Myth of Sisyphus
Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialism Is a Humanism
Christopher W. Gowans: The Buddha's Message
VII. MORAL PROBLEMS Jr.: Confucian Morality
A. Morality and The Law
Plato: Crito
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Letter from a Birmingham Jail
B. Abortion
Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion
Don Marquis: Why Abortion Is Immoral
Rosalind Hursthouse: Virtue Theory and Abortion
C. World Hunger
Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality
John Arthur: World Hunger and Moral Obligation: The Case Against Singer
D. Terrorism
Michael Walzer: Terrorism
Lionel K. McPherson: Is Terrorism Distinctively Wrong?
E. Animal Rights
Tom Regan: The Case for Animal Rights
Mary Anne Warren: Speaking of Animal Rights
F. The Environment
Tom Regan: We Are What We Eat
Elliott Sober: Philosophical Problems for Environmentalism
VIII. SOCIAL THEORY
Plato: The Republic
Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan
John Stuart Mill: On Liberty
Karl Marx: Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
John Dewey: Democracy
John Rawls: A Theory of Justice
Robert Nozick: Distributive Justice
Virginia Held: Non-contractual Society: A Feminist View
IX. SOCIAL PROBLEMS
A. Education
Sidney Hook: What Is a Liberal Education?
Michel Foucault: Discipline and Punish
B. Affirmative Action
Celia Wolf-Devine: Proportional Representation
Karen Hanson: Facing Facts and Responsibilities
Laurence Thomas: What Good Am I?
C. Sexism, Racism, and Rights
Marilyn Frye: Sexism
Iris Marion Young: Fives Faces of Oppression
Kwame Anthony Appiah: Globalizing Human Rights
X. ULTIMATE QUESTIONS
Plato: Phaedo
Epicurus: Writings
Thomas Nagel: Death
Shelly Kagan: The Badness of Death
Walpola Rahula: What The Buddha Taught
Christopher W. Gowans: The Cessation of Suffering
Richard Taylor: The Meaning of Life
Susan Wolf: Meaning in Life
Christine Vitrano: Meaningful Lives?
Glossary

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