9780072433012

World Politics 2001-2002

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780072433012

  • ISBN10:

    0072433019

  • Edition: 22nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2001-03-28
  • Publisher: McGraw Hill College Div

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Summary

Completely revised each year, this anthology contains articles addressing international political economy, North America, Latin America, Europe, Russia and the Former Soviet States, The Pacific Basin, The Middle East and Africa, and international organizations and global issues. This reader is complemented by a free student Web site, Dushkin Online, which provides links to related Web sites and study support tools.(www.dushkin.com/online/)

Table of Contents

UNIT 1. New World Order

1. Globalization: What's New? What's Not? (And So What?), Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye Jr., Foreign Policy, Spring 2000.

Two decades after writing a seminal book entitled Power and Interdependence, Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye examine recent trends and find several different forms of contemporary globalism. They see a thickening of contemporary globalization that has increased (1) the density of networks, (2) institutional velocity, and (3) transnational participation.

2. Ethnic Warfare on the Wane, Ted Robert Gurr, Foreign Affairs, May/June 2000.

Ethnic warfare peaked in the early 1990s and is on the decline in most regions as governments increasingly seek to accommodate ethnic demands using a common set of principles and a repertoire of strategies for handling ethnic crises. This trend suggests that a new regime governing minority/majority relations is being built based on an international consensus on how to respond to ethnic repression and violence.

3. Humanitarian Intervention: The Lessons Learned, Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, Current History, December 2000.

The 1990s were the intervention decade. With and sometimes without the UN's blessing, the world's nations made internal abuses global concerns. Chantal de Jonge Oudraat describes the legal, political and logistical questions that should be addressed as nation-states consider the best ways to intervene in internal conflicts.

UNIT 2. World Economy

4. International Political Economy: Beyond Hegemonic Stability, Helen V. Milner, Foreign Policy, Spring 1998.

Helen Milner reviews research on four aspects of the international political economy: big events such as the Great Depression of the 1930s, which could not be adequately explained by economics; explanations of states' foreign economic policy choices; why certain states grow rapidly and develop over time while others fail to do so; and the impact of the international economy on domestic politics.

5. The Color of Hot Money, Martin N. Baily, Diana Farrell, and Susan Lund, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2000.

Those who blame hedge funds for sparking Asia's recent financial crisis are wrong. The hot money that rushed in and out of emerging markets was short-term loans from most troubled banks, not from hedge funds. As capital markets grow and replace traditional bank lending as the primary source of international financing, capital flows are likely to become less volatile.

6. The Trade Agenda: A Different, New World Order, The Economist, November 11, 2000.

The collapse of the 2000 trade talks in Seattle was due to the failure of the self-appointed vanguard of America and Europe to respond to the concerns of developing countries. Since Seattle, the United States and Europe have been distracted by a string of bilateral trade disputes and by their efforts to shepherd China into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The days when two trading blocks could set trade policy for the world are over.

7. Helping the World's Poorest, Jeffrey Sachs, The Economist, August 14, 1999.

Recent recognition of the role played by debt in keeping Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) poor is a step in the right direction. However, Jeffrey Sachs, a well-known economist, argues that conditions for most people in many HIPCs are worsening dramatically. Rich countries need to mobilize global science and technology to address specific problems that help keep poor countries poor.

8. Can Debt Relief Make a Difference?, The Economist, November 18, 2000.

Hardly noticed amid the U.S. presidential election hullabaloo was new legislation passed that will provide $435 million in debt relief for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) as well as support for a limited sale of gold reserves by the IMF for debt relief. While many nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) dispute official claims of generosity, others worry that pressures for a speedy process will result in debt relief to some countries with bad economic policies.

UNIT 3. Weapons of Mass Destruction

9. The Folly of Arms Control, Jonathan Schell, Foreign Affairs, September/October 2000.

Ten years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, nuclear arms control is faring worse in the first days of the twenty-first century than it did in the last days of the cold war, and weapons of mass destruction continue to proliferate. Jonathan Schell argues that only after the great nuclear powers commit themselves to abolish nuclear weapons will it be possible to control the spread of weapons of mass destruction.

10. The Asian Nuclear Reaction Chain, Joseph Cirincione, Foreign Policy, Spring 2000.

As faith in arms control weakens, several Asian nations are beginning to reconsider their self-imposed moratoriums on nuclear-weapon development. If Asia goes nuclear, it could mean a new global arms race and a war that could engulf the world.

11. Missile Defences: A Shield in Space, The Economist, June 3, 2000.

America wants to build a new system of missile defenses that is not popular with allies or potential foes. Supporters of an anti-missile defense system argue it is necessary for America's homeland defense because of the proliferation of ballistic missiles. Critics question its technological feasibility and emphasize the financial and diplomatic costs of the proposed missile defense system.

UNIT 4. North America

A. THE UNITED STATES

12. The One Percent Solution: Shirking the Cost of World Leadership, Richard N. Gardner, Foreign Affairs, July/August 2000.

A successful U.S. foreign policy cannot be carried out with barely 1 percent of the federal budget. Richard Gardner says that the next president must end this dangerous charade.

13. Promoting the National Interest, Condoleezza Rice, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2000.

Condoleezza Rice argues that even with no Soviet threat, the Clinton administration failed to maintain a disciplined and consistent foreign policy. She outlines the foreign policy priorities of a Republican administration as building a military ready to ensure American power, extending free trade, and a stable international monetary system, and renewing relationships with allies, Russia, and China.

14. Home Alone: Can America Play the Superpower Role?, Robert V. Daniels, Dissent, Fall 2000.

All the triumphalist talk since the end of the cold war is empty. While America is in a position without precedent since the end of the Roman Empire, the nation's political leadership cannot agree on what to do with this power, and the American public may not be willing or able to sustain it. The contradictions and divisions in the national political psyche about the role of America in the world are apparent in the current debate over the proposed Missile Defense Initiative.

B. CANADA

15. No-First-Use for NATO?, Policy Options, March 1999.

The Canadian House of Commons Foreign Affairs and International Trade Committee recommended that NATO adopt a policy stating that it would not be the first to use nuclear weapons in a conflict. This approach of Canadian foreign policy and the military implications for Canada's defense policy are discussed here.

16. Canada Battles With Its Vision of Peace, The Economist, March 4, 2000.

Canada has long prided itself on having invented modern peacekeeping, but the country's involvement in international peacekeeping is dwindling. During 2000, Canadian troops declined to 3,000 as troops pulled out of East Timor and Kosovo, while a contingent remains in Bosnia. Canada is contributing few military observers and some money to peacekeeping missions in Sierra Leone and the Congo. At the same time, Canada is embarking on a military hardware spending spree and implementing new tax cuts.

17. Canada's Water: Hands Off, The Economist, December 4, 1999.

Water is increasingly viewed as "blue gold" by federal officials in Ontario, where the federal government is moving to regulate the provinces' right to export bulk water to the United States and worldwide customers.

UNIT 5. Latin America

18. The International Relations of Latin America and the Caribbean: Defining the New Era, G. Pope Atkins, McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2000.

As the United States abandoned its 180-year preoccupation with minimizing what it saw as hostile foreign incursions in the Western Hemisphere, a general consensus emerged that democratic development and economic reform constituted the overarching norms in hemispheric relations. Latin American and Carribean international relations require that we acknowledge and link national, subregional, hemispheric, and global and extrahemispheric levels of analysis.

19. The Coca Leaf War: A Report From Colombia--the Front Line in Washington's War on Drugs, Martin Hodgson, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May/June 2000.

The United States' war on drugs in Colombia is seeking to rescue a war-torn country, but critics question whether the United States' strategy will accomplish its objective.

20. Is Latin America Doomed to Failure?, Peter Hakim, Foreign Policy, Winter 1999-2000.

Many citizens in Latin American countries appear willing to give up some measure of democracy and accept authoritarian governments that they believe will solve their problems. The recent popularity and success of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela seem to support this proposition. However, Peter Hakim concludes that most countries in the region need to worry more about stagnation than backsliding.

UNIT 6. Europe

A. WESTERN EUROPE

21. Their Own Army? Making European Defense Work, Philip H. Gordon, Foreign Affairs, July/August 2000.

Europe is about to create a unified military force. If done right, the development of a serious EU defense force could be a good thing for the United States and Europe. Done wrong, it could strain transatlantic relations and weaken European defense.

22. The Search for a Common Foreign Policy, Reginald Dale, Europe, July/August 1999.

A long-term goal of the European Union has been the creation of a common foreign policy. The principle of "constructive abstention" is now used to assure member governments that their national policies will not be overruled. The war in Kosovo, the need to stabilize southeastern Europe, and recent political trends are fueling public support and government endeavors to implement long-dormant efforts to develop European military capabilities.

B. CENTRAL EUROPE

23. Europe After Communism: Ten Years Since the Wall Fell, The Economist, November 6, 1999.

Despite ethnic conflict, inequality, corruption, and dead hopes, postcommunist Europe is a lot better off than it was in 1989.

24. Free at Last, Joshua Hammer and Zoren Cirjakovic, Newsweek, October 16, 2000.

A wave of popular discontent forced Europe's last dictator, Slobodan Milosevic, to step down. Serbia now prepares to reenter the democratic world--and Milosevic weighs his next move.

UNIT 7. Former Soviet Union

25. Putin in Power, Michael McFaul, Current History, October 2000.

During the reign of Boris Yeltsin, it was fashionable in the West to cite Russia's weak state as the source of Russia's ills. Vladimir Putin, the current Russian leader, has demonstrated that the Russian federal state still has tremendous power--if the man in control of a state is vigorous, ambitious, and popular. Ten years after the Soviet Union's collapse, the whims of one man at the top can still profoundly influence the fate of the whole Russian regime.

26. Chaos in the Caucasus, The Economist, October 9, 1999.

Recent fighting in the Caucasus is not evidence of a "clash of civilizations" between the Islamic world and other geopolitical blocs. Instead, conflicts in the Caucasus and Central Asia underscore the fact that Islam exists in many different forms. As Islamic militancy recedes in the Middle East, political Islam is spreading to the periphery.

27. Russia Adrift: Strategic Anchors for Russia's Foreign Policy, Alvin Z. Rubinstein, Harvard International Review, Winter/Spring 2000.

Since 1991, Russia has tried to fashion a national security policy to fit its changed status in the new era. The first foreign policy debate was over Atlanticism (or Westernism) against Eurasianism. The second focused on the enlargement of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Today, most Russian foreign policy elite consider themselves derzhavniki--believers in strong central government and Russia as a great power.

UNIT 8. The Pacific Basin

28. Does China Matter?, Gerald Segal, Foreign Affairs, September/October 1999.

Gerald Segal outlines the reasons why China is overrated as a market, a military or political power in international relations, and a source of ideas. Segal stresses that China is best viewed as a second-rank middle power that has mastered the art of diplomatic theater. The United States and the West will only be able to craft a sensible policy toward China once we understand how little China matters.

29. Asia: Kimaraderie, at Last, The Economist, June 17, 2000.

The leaders of the two Koreas met for the first time in nearly half a century. While the meeting was warm, it will take some time for many South Koreans to reconcile the conflicting images of North Korea's leader, Kim Jong Il. This meeting was the first step on a long journey.

30. East Asian Regionalism: Towards a Tripartite World, The Economist, July 15, 2000.

In Asia, a challenge to the dominance of the international financial architecture ruled by the G-7 group of industrialized countries and the International Monetary Fund is developing. New regional arrangements that are being fashioned by Japan, China, South Korea, and the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) is described in this essay.

UNIT 9. Middle East and Africa

A. THE MIDDLE EAST

31. Frightening Fall-Out, Rosemary Hollis, The World Today, November 2000.

In the Middle East, the violent collapse of the Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations shows how much America's standing and leverage in the region depends on its ability to deliver on this core issue. The United States turned to other players, from the UN Secretary General to the Russians and European Union, for help in coping with this multifaceted crisis. In the future, the price for this help may be acceptance of a more inclusive, multilateral approach to regional peace and security.

32. License to Kill: Usama bin Ladin's Declaration of Jihad, Bernard Lewis, Foreign Affairs, November/December 1998.

A little-noticed declaration of jihad by Usama bin Ladin in an Arabic newspaper underscores the Islamist's main grievance: infidel U.S. troops in Arabia. While most Muslims reject this declaration as a gross distortion of America's role in the region and reject the use of terrorism, a few accept the declaration's extreme interpretation. Bernard Lewis emphasizes the importance of Americans' understanding the forces that drive these extremists.

33. The Trap That Suits Saddam--and the U.S., Warren P. Strobel and Kevin Whitelaw, Washington Post, September 24, 2000.

Two U.S. reporters who recently visited 15 Iraqi provinces conclude that the status quo standoff between Baghdad and Washington that is entering its second decade suits all parties concerned, except for the vast majority of Iraq's 23 million people. Sanctions have decimated the middle class as well as the children, and for now, the people's anger is directed at Washington and the UN while Saddam Hussein presumably continues his weapons build-up.

B. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

34. Africa's Security Issues Through 2010, William Thom, Military Review, July/August 2000.

William Thom, senior Defense Intelligence Officer for Africa at the United States Defense Information Agency, reviews emerging trends in sub-Saharan Africa's security. Thom predicts that interstate warfare will increase even though disparities in military power on the African continent will continue to increase. Transnational criminality and war will also become virtually indistinguishable.

35. Nigeria: The Politics of Marginalization, Minabere Ibelema, Current History, May 2000.

Optimism in Nigeria associated with the election of a civilian president, Olusegun Obasanjo, after 14 years of military rule in Nigeria, was quickly replaced by ethnic agitation and conflict. Today, all regions and nationalities claim to be marginalized. Nigeria's future political well-being will require accommodation and perceptions of adequate representation by all of Nigeria's ethnic groups.

36. A Turning-Point for AIDS?, The Economist, July 15, 2000.

The impact of the global AIDS epidemic has been catastrophic, but many of the remedies are obvious. The July 2000 AIDS conference in South Africa illustrated that AIDS is also a political disease. Today, 25 million of the 34 million infected people in the world live in Africa. While the result is extreme social dislocation, the situation is not hopeless. Good science and sensible public policy can defeat this modern pandemic.

UNIT 10. International Organizations and Global Issues

37. Peacekeeping: The UN's Missions Impossible, The Economist, August 5, 2000.

After years of experimenting with coalitions among regional groups, the United Nations is again in action, called upon to end wars and even run disabled countries. The UN runs all Kosovo's civilian affairs in parallel with NATO and is the only authority in East Timor. Staff writers for The Economist warn that it should not take on more than it can do.

38. Outsourcing War, David Shearer, Foreign Policy, Fall 1998.

Modern mercenaries are playing an increasingly important role in a number of conflicts. Nowadays, the average soldier of fortune wears a suit and works out of a corporate office in Great Britain or South Africa. David Shearer examines these new types of international actors to determine whether they are murderous profiteers or the future of international peacekeeping.

39. Children Under Arms: Kalashnikov Kids, The Economist, July 10, 1999.

Increasingly, children are being used to fight wars, at great cost to themselves and their societies. Today, an estimated 300,000 children in over 60 countries are soldiers. This article discusses how and why the international community is tackling this difficult issue.

40. The Dilemma That Confronts the World, Paul Brown, Electronic Mail and Guardian, September 16, 1999.

According to the UN's, Global Environment Outlook 2000, water shortages, global warming, and pollution threaten the planet's future. The UN warns that it is still possible to reverse the process but conspicuous overconsumption by the world's rich countries has to be cut by 90 percent to do so. These changes do not have to lead to a lowering of living standards if the application of existing science, such as recycling, is widely used.

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