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The World of Psychology

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205334278

ISBN10:
020533427X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $101.80
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Summary

The World of Psychology offers an accessible text that is designed to seamlessly combine basic learning principles with applications to address the needs of today's diverse student population. The 6th edition of Wood/Wood/Boyd reflects the authors' commitment to the importance of learning and applying core principles in psychology. Students and Instructors of The World of Psychology will benefit by engaging in learning core concepts and applying them to the world we know. Biology and Behavior, Sensation and Perception, States of Consciousness, Learning, Memory, Cognition and Language, Intelligence and Creativity, Child, Adolescent and Adult Development, Motivation and Emotion, Human Sexuality and Gender, Health and Stress, Personality Theories, Psychological Disorders, and Therapies. Introduction to Psychology.

Table of Contents

Just for Students: How This Textbook Can Help You Study xiii
Use It! How to Use the Internet in Introductory Psychology xvii
To the Instructor xix
Introduction to Psychology
3(38)
Psychology: An Introduction
5(2)
Psychology: Science or Common Sense?
5(1)
The Goals of Psychology
6(1)
Critical Thinking: Thinking Like a Scientist
7(1)
Descriptive Research Methods
7(3)
Naturalistic and Laboratory Observation
7(1)
The Case Study Method: Studying a Few Individuals in Depth
8(1)
Survey Research: The Art of Sampling and Questioning
8(2)
The Experimental Method: Searching for Causes
10(6)
Independent and Dependent Variables
12(1)
Experimental and Control Groups: The Same Except for the Treatment
12(1)
Generalizing the Experimental Findings: Do the Findings Apply to Other Groups?
13(1)
Potential Problems in Experimental Research
13(2)
Advantages and Limitations of the Experimental Method
15(1)
Other Research Methods
16(3)
The Correlational Method: Discovering Relationships, Not Causes
16(1)
Meta-Analysis: Combining the Results of Many Studies
17(2)
Participants in Psychological Research
19(3)
Ethics in Research: Protecting the Participants
19(1)
Human Participants in Psychological Research: The Challenge of Diversity
20(1)
Bias in Psychological Research
20(1)
The Use of Animals in Research
21(1)
Exploring Psychology's Roots
22(9)
Wundt and the Founding of Psychology
22(1)
Titchener and Structuralism
23(1)
Functionalism: The First American School of Psychology
23(1)
Gestalt Psychology: The Whole Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts
24(1)
Behaviorism: Never Mind the Mind
24(1)
Psychoanalysis: It's What's Down Deep That Counts
25(1)
Humanistic Psychology: Looking at Human Potential
25(1)
Cognitive Psychology: Focusing on Mental Processes
26(1)
Evolutionary Psychology
27(2)
Women and Minorities: Pioneers in Psychology
29(2)
Psychology Today
31(4)
Modern Perspectives in Psychology: Current Views on Behavior and Thinking
31(2)
Psychologists at Work
33(2)
Apply It! Study Skills and Critical Thinking
35(1)
Thinking Critically
36(1)
Summary and Review
37(4)
Biology and Behavior
41(38)
The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters
42(7)
The Neurons: The Nervous System's Messenger Cells
42(2)
Neurotransmitters: The Chemical Messengers of the Brain
44(1)
The Effects of Drugs on Neural Transmission
45(1)
The Variety of Neurotransmitters
46(1)
The Rate of Neural Firing and the Speed of the Impulse
47(1)
Glial Cells: The Neurons' Helper Cells
48(1)
The Central Nervous System
49(5)
The Spinal Cord: An Extension of the Brain
49(1)
The Brainstem: The Most Primitive Part of the Brain
50(1)
The Cerebellum: A Must for Graceful Movement
51(1)
The Thalamus: The Brain's Relay Station
52(1)
The Hypothalamus: A Master Regulator
52(1)
The Limbic System: Primitive Emotion and Memory
52(2)
The Cerebral Hemispheres
54(12)
The Lobes of the Brain
55(6)
Specialized Functions of the Left Hemisphere: Language, First and Foremost
61(1)
Specialized Functions of the Right Hemisphere: The Leader in Visual-Spatial Tasks
62(2)
The Split Brain: Separate Halves or Two Separate Brains?
64(2)
Discovering the Brain's Mysteries
66(2)
The EEG and the Microelectrode
66(1)
The CT Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
66(1)
The PET Scan, fMRI, and Other Imaging Techniques
66(2)
Brain Damage: Causes and Consequences
68(2)
Stroke
68(1)
Head Injury
68(1)
Recovering from Brain Damage
68(2)
The Peripheral Nervous System
70(2)
The Endocrine System
72(2)
Apply It! Handedness--Does It Make a Difference?
74(1)
Thinking Critically
75(1)
Summary and Review
75(4)
Sensation and Perception
79(44)
Sensation: The Sensory World
80(3)
The Absolute Threshold: To Sense or Not to Sense
81(1)
The Difference Threshold: Detecting Differences
81(1)
Signal Detection Theory
82(1)
Transduction: Transforming Sensory Stimuli into Neural Impulses
82(1)
Sensory Adaptation
82(1)
Vision
83(8)
Light: What We See
84(1)
The Eye: Window to the Visual Sensory World
84(4)
Color Vision: A Multicolored World
88(3)
Hearing
91(5)
Sound: What We Hear
91(2)
The Ear: More to It Than Meets the Eye
93(1)
Theories of Hearing: How Hearing Works
94(1)
Bone Conduction: Hearing Sound Vibrations through the Bones
94(1)
Hearing Loss: Kinds and Causes
95(1)
Smell and Taste
96(4)
Smell: Sensing Scents
96(1)
Taste: What the Tongue Can Tell
97(3)
The Other Senses
100(5)
The Skin Senses: Information from the Natural Clothing
100(1)
Pain: Physical Hurts
101(3)
The Kinesthetic Sense: Keeping Track of the Body's Parts
104(1)
The Vestibular Sense: Sensing Up and Down and Changes in Speed
104(1)
Perception: Ways of Perceiving
105(10)
The Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization
105(2)
Perceptual Constancy
107(2)
Depth Perception: Perceiving What's Up Close and Far Away
109(2)
Perception of Motion
111(1)
Extraordinary Perceptions: Puzzling Perceptions
112(3)
Additional Influences on Perception
115(1)
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing
115(1)
The Role of Psychological Factors in Perception
115(1)
Subliminal Persuasion and Extrasensory Perception
115(3)
Subliminal Persuasion: Does It Work?
116(1)
Extrasensory Perception: Does It Exist?
116(2)
Apply It! Noise and Hearing Loss: Bad Vibrations
118(1)
Thinking Critically
119(1)
Summary and Review
119(4)
States of Consciousness
123(40)
What Is Consciousness?
124(1)
Circadian Rhythms: 24-Hour Highs and Lows
125(3)
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: The Body's Timekeeper
126(1)
Jet Lag: Where Am I and What Time Is It?
126(1)
Shift Work: Working Day and Night
126(1)
Taking Melatonin as a Sleep Aid
127(1)
Sleep: That Mysterious One-Third of Life
128(11)
NREM and REM Sleep: Watching the Eyes
129(1)
Sleep Cycles: The Nightly Pattern of Sleep
130(1)
Variations in Sleep: How People Differ
131(2)
The Functions of Sleep: The Restorative and Circadian Theories
133(1)
Sleep Deprivation: What Are Its Effects?
133(2)
Dreaming: Mysterious Mental Activity during Sleep
135(4)
Sleep Disorders
139(3)
Parasomnias: Unusual Behaviors during Sleep
139(1)
Major Sleep Disorders
140(2)
Altering Consciousness through Concentration and Suggestion
142(5)
Meditation: Expanded Consciousness or Relaxation?
142(1)
Hypnosis: The Power of Suggestion
143(3)
Culture and Altered States of Consciousness
146(1)
Altered States of Consciousness and Psychoactive Drugs
147(11)
Variables Influencing Individual Responses to Drugs
148(1)
Drug Addiction: Slavery to a Substance
148(1)
Stimulants: Speeding Up the Nervous System
149(3)
Depressants: Slowing Down the Nervous System
152(2)
Hallucinogens: Seeing, Hearing, and Feeling What Is Not There
154(3)
How Drugs Affect the Brain
157(1)
Apply It! Should You Kick Your Caffeine Habit?
158(1)
Thinking Critically
159(1)
Summary and Review
160(3)
Learning
163(40)
Classical Conditioning: The Original View
164(8)
Pavlov and Classical Conditioning
165(1)
The Elements and Processes of Classical Conditioning
166(4)
John Watson, Little Albert, and Peter
170(2)
Classical Conditioning: The Contemporary View
172(6)
The Cognitive Perspective: Prediction Is the Critical Element
172(2)
Biological Predispositions: Their Role in Classical Conditioning
174(1)
Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life
175(2)
Factors Influencing Classical Conditioning
177(1)
Operant Conditioning
178(16)
Thorndike and the Law of Effect
178(1)
B. F. Skinner: A Pioneer in Operant Conditioning
179(1)
The Elements and Processes of Operant Conditioning
179(3)
Reinforcement: What's the Payoff?
182(5)
Factors Influencing Operant Conditioning
187(1)
Comparing Classical and Operant Conditioning: What's the Difference?
188(1)
Punishment: That Hurts!
189(3)
Escape and Avoidance Learning
192(1)
Learned Helplessness
192(1)
Applications of Operant Conditioning
193(1)
Cognitive Learning
194(5)
Learning by Insight: Aha! Now I Get It
195(1)
Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps: I Might Use That Later
195(1)
Observational Learning: Watching and Learning
196(3)
Apply It! How to Win the Battle against Procrastination
199(1)
Thinking Critically
200(1)
Summary and Review
200(3)
Memory
203(42)
Remembering
205(9)
The Three Processes in Memory: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval
205(1)
The Three Memory Systems: The Long and the Short of It
206(6)
The Levels-of-Processing Model: Another View of Memory
212(2)
Measuring Memory
214(3)
Three Methods of Measuring Memory
214(2)
Ebbinghaus and the First Experimental Studies on Learning and Memory
216(1)
Forgetting
217(5)
The Causes of Forgetting
218(3)
Prospective Forgetting: Forgetting to Remember
221(1)
The Nature of Remembering and Forgetting
222(8)
Memory as a Permanent Record: The Video Cassette Recorder Analogy
222(1)
Memory as a Reconstruction: Partly Fact and Partly Fiction
222(2)
Eyewitness Testimony: Is It Accurate?
224(1)
Recovering Repressed Memories: A Controversy
225(2)
Unusual Memory Phenomena
227(1)
Memory and Culture
228(2)
Factors Influencing Retrieval
230(3)
The Serial Position Effect: To Be Remembered, Be First or Last But Not in the Middle
230(1)
Environmental Context and Memory
230(1)
The State-Dependent Memory Effect
231(1)
Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Memory
232(1)
Biology and Memory
233(2)
Brain Damage: A Clue to Memory Formation
233(1)
Neuronal Changes in Memory: Brain Work
234(1)
Hormones and Memory
235(1)
Improving Memory: Some Helpful Study Habits
235(4)
Organization: Everything in Its Place
236(1)
Overlearning: Reviewing Again, and Again, and Again
236(1)
Spaced Practice versus Massed Practice: A Little at a Time Beats All at Once
237(1)
Recitation versus Rereading: Recitation Wins
237(2)
Apply It! Improving Memory with Mnemonic Devices
239(2)
Thinking Critically
241(1)
Summary and Review
241(4)
Cognition and Language
245(32)
Imagery and Concepts: Tools of Thinking
246(6)
Imagery: Picture This
247(2)
Concepts: A Mental Classification System (Is a Penguin a Bird?)
249(3)
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning: Logical Thinking
252(1)
Decision Making: Making Choices in Life
253(4)
The Additive Strategy
253(1)
Elimination by Aspects
254(1)
Heuristics and Decision Making
254(2)
Framing and Decision Making
256(1)
Problem Solving: Beyond Decision Making
257(4)
Approaches to Problem Solving: Helpful Basic Techniques
257(3)
Impediments to Problem Solving: Mental Stumbling Blocks
260(1)
High-Tech Applications of Cognition: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
261(3)
Artificial Intelligence
261(2)
Robotics
263(1)
Language
264(8)
The Structure of Language
265(2)
Animal Language
267(2)
Language and Thinking
269(2)
Bilingualism
271(1)
Apply It! Avoiding Bad Decisions
272(1)
Thinking Critically
273(1)
Summary and Review
274(3)
Intelligence and Creativity
277(32)
The Nature of Intelligence
279(3)
The Search for Factors Underlying Intelligence
279(1)
Intelligence: More Than One Type?
279(3)
Measuring Intelligence
282(8)
Binet and the First Successful Intelligence Test
282(1)
Intelligence Testing in the United States
283(1)
Requirements of Good Tests: Reliability, Validity, and Standardization
284(1)
The Range of Intelligence
285(3)
Intelligence and Neural Processing
288(2)
The IQ Controversy: Brainy Dispute
290(7)
The Uses and Abuses of Intelligence Tests
290(1)
The Nature-Nurture Controversy: Battle of the Centuries
291(3)
Intelligence: Is It Fixed or Changeable?
294(1)
Expectations, Effort, and Academic Achievement: A Cross-Cultural Comparison
295(2)
Emotional Intelligence
297(3)
Personal Components of Emotional Intelligence
297(1)
Interpersonal Components of Emotional Intelligence
298(2)
Creativity: Unique and Useful Productions
300(5)
The Creative Process
300(1)
The Nature of Creative Thinking
301(1)
Measuring Creativity: Are There Reliable Measures?
302(1)
Characteristics of Creative People
303(1)
Savant Syndrome: A Special Form of Creativity
303(2)
Apply It! Stimulating Creativity
305(1)
Thinking Critically
306(1)
Summary and Review
306(3)
Child Development
309(40)
Developmental Psychology: Basic Issues and Methodology
310(1)
Controversial Issues in Developmental Psychology
310(1)
Approaches to Studying Developmental Change
311(1)
Heredity and Prenatal Development
311(6)
The Mechanism of Heredity: Genes and Chromosomes
311(2)
The Stages of Prenatal Development: Unfolding According to Plan
313(1)
Negative Influences on Prenatal Development: Sabotaging Nature's Plan
314(3)
Physical Development and Learning in Infancy
317(4)
The Neonate: Seven Pounds of Beauty?
317(1)
Perceptual Development in Infancy
317(2)
Learning in Infancy
319(1)
Motor Development in Infancy
319(2)
Emotional Development in Infancy
321(6)
Temperament: How and When Does It Develop?
321(1)
Attachment
322(3)
The Father-Child Relationship
325(2)
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
327(5)
The Cognitive Stages of Development: Climbing the Steps to Cognitive Maturity
327(5)
An Evaluation of Piaget's Contribution
332(1)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural View of Cognitive Development
332(1)
Cognitive Development: The Information-Processing Approach
333(2)
Attention
333(1)
Memory
334(1)
Metacognition: Theory of Mind
334(1)
Language Development
335(4)
The Stages of Language Development: The Orderly Progression of Language
335(2)
Theories of Language Development: How Is Language Acquired?
337(2)
Socialization of the Child
339(5)
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
339(1)
The Parents' Role in the Socialization Process
340(2)
Peer Relationships
342(1)
Television as a Socializing Agent: Does It Help or Hinder?
343(1)
Apply It! The Importance of Prenatal Care
344(1)
Thinking Critically
345(1)
Summary and Review
346(3)
Adolescence and Adulthood
349(36)
Adolescence: Physical and Cognitive Development
350(4)
Physical Development during Adolescence: Growing, Growing, Grown
351(2)
Cognitive Development in Adolescence: Piaget's Formal Operations Stage
353(1)
Adolescence: Moral and Social Development
354(7)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
354(3)
Parental Relationships: Their Quality and Influence
357(1)
The Peer Group
358(1)
Sexuality and Adolescence
358(1)
Teenage Pregnancy: Too Much Too Soon
359(1)
Part-Time Jobs for Adolescents: A Positive or a Negative?
360(1)
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory: Adolescence through Adulthood
361(3)
Identity versus Role Confusion: Erikson's Stage for Adolescence
362(1)
Intimacy versus Isolation: Erikson's Stage for Early Adulthood
362(1)
Generativity versus Stagnation: Erikson's Stage for Middle Adulthood
362(1)
Ego Integrity versus Despair: Erikson's Final Stage
363(1)
Erikson's Theory: Does Research Support It?
363(1)
Other Theories of Adulthood
364(2)
Levinson's Seasons of Life
364(1)
Reinke and Others: The Life Course in Women
365(1)
Life Stages: Fact or Fiction?
365(1)
Early and Middle Adulthood
366(5)
Physical Changes in Adulthood
366(1)
Intellectual Capacity during Early and Middle Adulthood
367(1)
Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood
368(2)
Personality and Social Development in Middle Age
370(1)
Later Adulthood
371(8)
Physical Changes in Later Adulthood
371(2)
Cognitive Development in Later Adulthood
373(2)
Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthood
375(1)
Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly
376(1)
Death and Dying
377(2)
Apply It! Building a Good Relationship
379(1)
Thinking Critically
380(1)
Summary and Review
381(4)
Motivation and Emotion
385(40)
Introduction to Motivation
386(1)
Theories of Motivation
387(4)
Instinct Theories of Motivation
387(1)
Drive-Reduction Theory: Striving to Keep a Balanced Internal State
388(1)
Arousal Theory: Striving for an Optimal Level of Arousal
389(2)
The Primary Drives: Hunger and Thirst
391(10)
Thirst: There Are Two Kinds
391(1)
The Biological Basis of Hunger: Internal Hunger Cues
392(1)
Other Factors Influencing Hunger: External Eating Cues
393(1)
Understanding Body Weight: Why Does It Vary So Widely?
394(3)
Dieting: A National Obsession
397(1)
Eating Disorders: The Tyranny of the Scale
398(3)
Social Motives
401(4)
The Need for Achievement: The Drive to Excel
401(2)
Fear of Success
403(1)
Work Motivation
403(2)
The What and Whys of Emotions
405(5)
The Components of Emotions: The Physical, the Cognitive, and the Behavioral
405(1)
Theories of Emotion: Which Comes First, the Thought or the Feeling?
406(1)
Emotion and the Brain
407(1)
The Polygraph: Lie Detector or Emotion Detector?
408(2)
The Expression of Emotion
410(5)
The Range of Emotion: How Wide Is It?
410(1)
The Development of Facial Expressions in Infants: Smiles and Frowns Come Naturally
411(1)
Facial Expressions for the Basic Emotions: A Universal Language
412(1)
Cultural Rules for Displaying Emotion
413(1)
Emotion as a Form of Communication: Cultural, Evolutionary, and Technological Views
414(1)
Experiencing Emotion
415(5)
The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis: Does the Face Cause the Feeling?
415(2)
Gender Differences in Experiencing Emotion: The Evolutionary Psychology Perspective
417(1)
Love: The Strongest Emotional Bond
418(2)
Apply It! The Quest for Happiness
420(1)
Thinking Critically
421(1)
Summary and Review
421(4)
Human Sexuality and Gender
425(36)
What Makes a Male, a Male or a Female, a Female?
426(1)
The Sex Chromosomes: X's and Y's
426(1)
The Sex Hormones: Contributing to Maleness and Femaleness
427(1)
Gender-Role Development
427(4)
Biological Influences on Gender Typing
428(1)
Environmental Influences on Gender Typing
428(1)
Psychological Theories of Gender-Role Development
428(3)
Gender Differences: Fact or Myth?
431(6)
The Evolutionary Psychology Perspective on Gender Differences
431(1)
Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities
432(1)
Gender Differences in Social Behavior and Personality
433(2)
Adjustment and Gender Typing: Feminine, Masculine, or Androgynous?
435(1)
Gender Bias in the Workplace
436(1)
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior
437(7)
The Kinsey Surveys: The First In-Depth Look at Sexual Behavior
437(1)
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior Today: The New Sexual Revolution
437(3)
Sexual Desire and Arousal: Driving the Sex Drive
440(2)
Child Sexual Abuse
442(2)
Sexual Orientation
444(4)
Determinants of Sexual Orientation: Physiological or Psychological?
444(2)
The Developmental Experiences of Gay Men and Lesbians
446(1)
Social Attitudes toward Gays and Lesbians: From Celebration to Condemnation
446(2)
Sexual Dysfunctions
448(2)
Sexual Desire Disorders: From Disinterest to Aversion
448(1)
Sexual Arousal Disorders
448(1)
Orgasmic Disorders
449(1)
Sexual Pain Disorders
450(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases: The Price of Casual Sex
450(6)
The Bacterial Infections: The Curable STDs
451(1)
The Viral Infections: The Incurable STDs
452(3)
Protection against Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Minimizing Risk
455(1)
Apply It! How to Improve Your Date-Seeking Skills
456(1)
Thinking Critically
457(1)
Summary and Review
458(3)
Health and Stress
461(34)
Stress: What Is It?
462(1)
Evaluating Life Stress: Major Life Changes, Hassies, and Uplifts
463(3)
Holmes and Rahe's Social Readjustment Rating Scale: Adding Up the Stress Score
463(1)
The Hassles of Life: Little Things Stress a Lot
463(3)
Sources of Stress: The Common and the Extreme
466(5)
Everyday Sources of Stress
466(1)
Stress in the Workplace
467(2)
Catastrophic Events and Chronic Intense Stress
469(2)
Theories of Stress
471(3)
Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome
471(1)
Lazarus's Cognitive Theory of Stress
472(2)
Coping with Stress
474(2)
Problem-Focused and Emotion-Focused Coping
474(1)
Proactive Coping: Dealing with Stress in Advance
474(2)
Health and Illness
476(9)
Two Approaches to Health and Illness
476(1)
Responding to Illness
477(1)
Coronary Heart Disease: The Leading Cause of Death
477(2)
Cancer: A Dreaded Disease
479(1)
Health in the United States
480(1)
The Immune System: An Army of Cells to Fight Off Disease
481(2)
Personal Factors Reducing the Impact of Stress and Illness
483(2)
Lifestyle and Health
485(5)
Smoking: Hazardous to Your Health
486(1)
Alcohol: A Problem for Millions
487(1)
Exercise: Keeping Fit Is Healthy
488(2)
Apply It! Dealing with Road Rage
490(1)
Thinking Critically
491(1)
Summary and Review
491(4)
Personality Theory and Assessment
495(42)
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
497(8)
The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious: Levels of Awareness
497(1)
The Id, the Ego, and the Superego: Warring Components of the Personality
498(1)
Defense Mechanisms: Protecting the Ego
498(3)
The Psychosexual Stages of Development: Centered on the Erogenous Zones
501(1)
Freud's Explanation of Personality
502(2)
Evaluating Freud's Contribution
504(1)
The Neo-Freudians
505(3)
Carl Gustav Jung: Delving into the Collective Unconscious
505(1)
Alfred Adler: Overcoming Inferiority
506(1)
Karen Horney: Championing Feminine Psychology
507(1)
Trait Theories
508(5)
Gordon Allport: Personality Traits in the Brain
509(1)
Raymond Cattell's 16 Personality Factors
509(1)
Hans Eysenck: Stressing Two Factors
510(1)
The Five-Factor Theory of Personality: The Big Five
511(1)
Evaluating the Trait Perspective
512(1)
Learning Theories and Personality
513(3)
The Behaviorist View of B. F. Skinner
513(1)
The Social-Cognitive Theorists: Expanding the Behaviorist View
514(2)
Humanistic Personality Theories
516(3)
Abraham Maslow: The Self-Actualizing Person
516(1)
Carl Rogers: The Fully Functioning Person
517(1)
Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective
518(1)
Personality: Is It in the Genes?
519(5)
The Twin Study Method: Studying Identical and Fraternal Twins
519(2)
The Shared and Nonshared Environment
521(1)
The Adoption Method
521(1)
Personality and Culture
522(2)
Personality Assessment
524(8)
Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales
524(1)
Personality Inventories: Taking Stock
525(3)
Projective Tests: Projections from the Unconscious
528(3)
Personality Theories: A Final Comment
531(1)
Apply It! How to Practice Positive Psychology
532(1)
Thinking Critically
533(1)
Summary and Review
534(3)
Psychological Disorders
537(38)
What Is Abnormal?
538(5)
Perspectives on the Causes and Treatment of Psychological Disorders
539(1)
Defining and Classifying Psychological Disorders
540(3)
Schizophrenia: The Most Serious Psychological Disorder
543(5)
The Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Many and Varied
544(1)
Types of Schizophrenia
545(1)
The Causes of Schizophrenia
546(2)
Gender and Schizophrenia
548(1)
Mood Disorders: Emotional Highs and Lows
548(8)
Major Depressive Disorder
549(2)
Bipolar Disorder
551(1)
Causes of Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
552(2)
Suicide and Gender, Race, and Age
554(2)
Anxiety Disorders: When Anxiety Is Extreme
556(7)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Chronic Worrying
557(1)
Panic Disorder: Disabling Attacks of Fear
558(1)
Phobias: Persistent, Irrational Fears
558(2)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
560(3)
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
563(3)
Somatoform Disorders: Physical Symptoms with Psychological Causes
563(1)
Dissociative Disorders: Mental Escapes
563(3)
Other Psychological Disorders
566(4)
Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
566(1)
Personality Disorders: Troublesome Behavior Patterns
567(3)
Apply It! Overcoming the Fear of Public Speaking
570(1)
Thinking Critically
571(1)
Summary and Review
571(4)
Therapies
575(34)
Insight Therapies
577(7)
Psychodynamic Therapies: Freud's Perspective
577(1)
Humanistic Therapies
578(2)
Therapies Emphasizing Interaction with Others
580(4)
Behavior Therapies: Unlearning the Old, Learning the New
584(6)
Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning
584(2)
Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning
586(3)
Therapies Based on Observational Learning Theory: Just Watch This!
589(1)
Cognitive Therapies: It's the Thought That Counts
590(4)
Rational-Emotive Therapy: Challenging False Beliefs
590(2)
Cognitive Therapy: Overcoming ``The Power of Negative Thinking''
592(2)
The Biological Therapies
594(6)
Drug Therapy: Pills for Psychological Ills
594(4)
Electroconvulsive Therapy: The Controversy Continues
598(1)
Psychosurgery: Cutting to Cure
599(1)
Therapies and Therapists: Many Choices
600(5)
Evaluating the Therapies: Do They Work?
600(1)
Mental Health Professionals: How Do They Differ?
601(2)
Selecting a Therapy: Finding One That Fits
603(1)
Therapy and Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
603(2)
Apply It! E-Therapy: Is It Right for You?
605(1)
Thinking Critically
606(1)
Summary and Review
606(3)
Social Psychology
609(41)
Introduction to Social Psychology
611(1)
Social Perception
611(3)
Impression Formation: Sizing Up the Other Person
611(1)
Attribution: Explaining Behavior
612(2)
Attraction
614(4)
Factors Influencing Attraction: Magnets That Draw People Together
614(2)
Romantic Attraction
616(1)
Mate Selection: The Mating Game
617(1)
Social Influence
618(4)
Conformity: Going Along with the Group
618(1)
Obedience: Following Orders
619(2)
Compliance: Giving In to Requests
621(1)
Group Influence
622(4)
The Effects of the Group on Individual Performance
622(2)
The Effects of the Group on Decision Making
624(1)
Social Roles
625(1)
Attitudes and Attitude Change
626(5)
Attitudes: Cognitive, Emotional, and Behavioral Patterns
626(3)
Persuasion: Trying to Change Attitudes
629(2)
Prejudice and Discrimination
631(6)
The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination
631(2)
Discrimination in the Workplace
633(1)
Combating Prejudice and Discrimination
634(1)
Prejudice: Is It Increasing or Decreasing?
635(2)
Prosocial Behavior: Behavior That Benefits Others
637(2)
The Bystander Effect: The More Bystanders, the Less Likely They Are to Help
637(1)
People Who Help in Emergencies
638(1)
Aggression: Intentionally Harming Others
639(7)
Where Aggression Occurs
640(2)
The Causes of Aggression
642(1)
Biological Factors in Aggression: Genes, Hormones, and Brain Damage
642(1)
Aggression in Response to Frustration: Sometimes, but Not Always
643(1)
Aggression in Response to Aversive Events: Pain, Heat, Noise, and Crowding
643(2)
The Social Learning Theory of Aggression: Learning to Be Aggressive
645(1)
Apply It! Nonverbal Behavior-The Silent Language
646(1)
Thinking Critically
647(1)
Summary and Review
648(2)
Appendix: Statistical Methods 650
References R-1
Glossary G-1
Name Index I-1
Subject Index I-11
Credits C-1


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