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The World of Psychology

by ; ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205499410

ISBN10:
0205499414
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $154.40

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Summary

The World of Psychologyoffers an accessible text that is designed to seamlessly combine basic learning principles with applications to address the needs of today's diverse student population.The 6th edition of Wood/Wood/Boyd reflects the authors'commitment to the importance of learning and applying core principles in psychology. Students and Instructors ofThe World of Psychologywill benefit by engaging in learning core concepts and applying them to the world we know.Biology and Behavior, Sensation and Perception, States of Consciousness, Learning, Memory, Cognition and Language, Intelligence and Creativity, Child, Adolescent and Adult Development, Motivation and Emotion, Human Sexuality and Gender, Health and Stress, Personality Theories, Psychological Disorders, and Therapies.Introduction to Psychology.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xxiii
Introduction to Psychologyp. 2
An Introduction to The World of Psychologyp. 5
Studying Psychology: Some Tricks of the Tradep. 6
Psychology: Science or Common Sense!p. 7
The Goals of Psychologyp. 8
Exploring Psychology's Rootsp. 9
Structuralismp. 10
Functionalismp. 10
The Changing Face of Psychologyp. 11
Schools of Thought in Psychologyp. 13
Behaviorismp. 13
Psychoanalysisp. 14
Humanistic Psychologyp. 14
Cognitive Psychologyp. 14
Thinking about Theories and Researchp. 16
Evaluating Theoriesp. 16
Evaluating Researchp. 17
Descriptive Research Methodsp. 18
Naturalistic and Laboratory Observationp. 18
The Case Studyp. 19
Survey Researchp. 19
The Correlational Methodp. 21
The Experimental Methodp. 23
Experiments and Hypothesis Testingp. 23
Independent and Dependent Variablesp. 24
Experimental and Control Groupsp. 25
Sources of Bias in Experimental Researchp. 25
Limitations of the Experimental Methodp. 26
Participants in Psychological Researchp. 28
Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Researchp. 28
Protecting Research Participants' Rightsp. 29
The Use of Animals in Researchp. 29
Current Trends in Psychologyp. 31
Evolutionary Psychologyp. 31
Biological (Physiological) Psychologyp. 31
The Sociocultural Approachp. 32
Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticismp. 33
Psychologists at Workp. 34
Specialties in Psychologyp. 34
Majoring in Psychologyp. 35
Biology and Behaviorp. 40
The Neurons and the Neurotransmittersp. 43
The Structure of the Neuronp. 44
Communication between Neuronsp. 44
Neurotransmitters: The Neuron's Messengersp. 46
The Variety of Neurotransmittersp. 48
The Human Nervous Systemp. 49
The Spinal Cordp. 50
The Hindbrainp. 51
The Midbrainp. 52
The Forebrainp. 53
The Peripheral Nervous Systemp. 54
Discovering the Brain's Mysteriesp. 56
The EEC and the Microelectrodep. 56
The CT Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imagingp. 57
The PET Scan, fMRI, and Other Imaging Techniquesp. 57
A Closer Look at the Brainp. 58
Components of the Cerebrump. 58
The Cerebral Hemispheresp. 59
The Frontal Lobesp. 63
The Parietal Lobesp. 66
The Occipital Lobesp. 67
The Temporal Lobesp. 67
The Brain across the Life Spanp. 68
Gender Differences in the Adult Brainp. 69
The Endocrine Systemp. 70
Genes and Behavioral Geneticsp. 72
The Mechanisms of Heredityp. 73
Behavioral Geneticsp. 74
Sensation and Perceptionp. 80
The Process of Sensationp. 83
The Absolute and Difference Thresholdsp. 84
Transduction and Adaptationp. 84
Visionp. 86
The Eyep. 86
Vision and the Brainp. 88
Color Visionp. 90
Theories of Color Visionp. 90
Color Blindnessp. 91
Hearingp. 92
Soundp. 92
The Earp. 93
Theories of Hearingp. 94
Hearing Lossp. 95
The Other Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, and Balancep. 96
Smellp. 96
Tastep. 99
Touchp. 100
Painp. 101
Balance and Movementp. 103
Principles of Perceptionp. 104
Perceptual Organizationp. 104
Depth Perceptionp. 106
Motion Perceptionp. 107
Puzzling Perceptionsp. 109
Influences on Perceptionp. 111
Prior Knowledgep. 112
Attentionp. 113
Social Perceptionp. 114
Unusual Perceptual Experiencesp. 115
States of Consciousnessp. 120
What Is Consciousness?p. 123
Circadian Rhythmsp. 124
The Influence of Circadian Rhythmsp. 124
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleusp. 125
Disruptions in Circadian Rhythmsp. 125
Circadian Timing and Neurological Disordersp. 127
Sleepp. 128
Why Do We Sleep?p. 128
Types of Sleepp. 128
Sleep Cyclesp. 129
REM Sleep and Memoryp. 130
Variations in Sleepp. 131
Sleep Deprivationp. 131
Dreamsp. 133
Interpreting Dreamsp. 134
Sleep Disordersp. 135
Meditation and Hypnosisp. 136
Meditationp. 137
Hypnosisp. 138
Culture and Altered States of Consciousnessp. 140
Psychoactive Drugsp. 141
How Drugs Affect the Brainp. 141
Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Abusep. 142
Drug Addictionp. 144
The Behavioral Effects of Psychoactive Drugsp. 146
Herbal Remedies and Supplementsp. 151
Learningp. 156
Classical Conditioning: The Original Viewp. 159
Pavlov and Classical Conditioningp. 160
The Process of Classical Conditioningp. 161
Changing Conditioned Responsesp. 162
John Watson and Emotional Conditioningp. 165
Classical Conditioning: The Contemporary Viewp. 166
The Cognitive Perspectivep. 167
Biological Predispositionsp. 167
Classical Conditioning in Everyday Lifep. 168
Factors Influencing Classical Conditioningp. 170
Operant Conditioningp. 170
Thorndike and the Law of Effectp. 171
The Process of Operant Conditioningp. 171
Reinforcementp. 173
Schedules of Reinforcementp. 174
Factors Influencing Operant Conditioningp. 177
Punishmentp. 177
Escape and Avoidance Learningp. 180
Applications of Operant Conditioningp. 181
Cognitive Learningp. 183
Learning by Insightp. 183
Latent Learning and Cognitive Mapsp. 184
Observational Learningp. 184
Learning from Mediap. 187
Memoryp. 194
The Structure of Human Memoryp. 197
The Information-Processing Approachp. 197
Sensory Memoryp. 198
Short-Term Memoryp. 199
Long-Term Memoryp. 201
The Nature of Rememberingp. 203
Three Types of Memory Tasksp. 203
The Serial Position Effectp. 204
Context and Memoryp. 205
Memory as Reconstructionp. 206
Memory in Everyday Lifep. 208
Flashbulb and Photographic Memoriesp. 208
Memory and Culturep. 209
Eyewitness Testimonyp. 210
The Repressed Memory Controversyp. 211
Biology and Memoryp. 213
The Hippocampus and Hippocampal Regionp. 213
Neuronal Changes and Memoryp. 214
Hormones and Memoryp. 215
Forgettingp. 216
Ebbinghaus and the First Experimental Studies on Forgettingp. 216
The Causes of Forgettingp. 217
Improving Memoryp. 221
Cognition, Language, and Intelligencep. 228
Cognitionp. 231
Reasoningp. 231
Imageryp. 232
Conceptsp. 233
Decision Makingp. 234
Problem Solvingp. 237
Artificial Intelligencep. 239
Languagep. 240
The Structure of Languagep. 240
Language and Thinkingp. 242
Learning a Second Languagep. 242
Animal Communicationp. 244
Intelligencep. 246
The Nature of Intelligencep. 246
Measuring Intelligencep. 249
Requirements of Good Testsp. 251
The Bell Curvep. 252
Giftednessp. 253
Mental Retardationp. 254
Explaining Differences in Cognitive Abilitiesp. 255
The Heritability of Intelligencep. 255
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?p. 257
Race and IQp. 259
Culture, IQ, and Achievementp. 260
Beyond Intelligencep. 262
Emotional Intelligencep. 262
Creativityp. 263
Savant Syndromep. 265
Child Developmentp. 270
Developmental Psychology: Basic Issues and Methodologyp. 273
Controversial Issues in Developmental Psychologyp. 273
Approaches to Studying Developmental Changep. 274
Prenatal Developmentp. 276
Stages of Prenatal Developmentp. 276
Fetal Behaviorp. 277
Negative Influences on Prenatal Developmentp. 278
Infancyp. 280
Reflexes and Motor Developmentp. 280
Sensory and Perceptual Developmentp. 282
Learningp. 282
Temperamentp. 283
Attachmentp. 284
The Father-Child Relationshipp. 286
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Developmentp. 288
Schemes: The Foundation of Cognitive Developmentp. 288
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Developmentp. 289
An Evaluation of Piaget's Contributionp. 294
Other Approaches to Cognitive Developmentp. 296
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Viewp. 296
The Information-Processing Approachp. 296
Language Developmentp. 298
The Sequence of Language Developmentp. 298
Theories of Language Developmentp. 299
Learning to Readp. 300
Social Developmentp. 301
The Parents' Role in the Socialization Processp. 301
Peer Relationshipsp. 303
Television as a Socializing Agentp. 304
Culture and Child Developmentp. 305
Adolescence and Adulthoodp. 312
The Lifespan Perspectivep. 315
Erikson's Psychosocial Theoryp. 315
The Identity Crisisp. 316
Generativityp. 317
Adolescencep. 319
Pubertyp. 319
Cognitive Developmentp. 321
Moral Developmentp. 322
Parental Relationshipsp. 325
The Peer Groupp. 326
Emerging Adulthoodp. 326
Early and Middle Adulthoodp. 328
Physical Changesp. 328
Intellectual Abilitiesp. 329
The Impact of College Attendancep. 330
Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthoodp. 333
Later Adulthoodp. 336
Physical Changes in Later Adulthoodp. 336
Cognitive Changes in Later Adulthoodp. 338
Alzheimer's Disease-the Most Common Dementiap. 338
Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthoodp. 339
Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderlyp. 341
Death and Dyingp. 342
Motivation and Emotionp. 348
Explaining Motivationp. 352
The Components of Motivationp. 352
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivationp. 352
Biological Approaches to Motivationp. 353
Two Primary Drives: Hunger and Thirstp. 355
Thirstp. 356
Internal and External Hunger Cuesp. 356
Explaining Variations in Body Weightp. 357
Weight Loss Strategiesp. 360
Eating Disordersp. 361
Social Motivesp. 363
Achievement Motivationp. 364
Work Motivationp. 365
Understanding Emotionp. 366
Explaining the Components of Emotionsp. 366
Theories of Emotionp. 367
Emotion and the Brainp. 369
Expressing Emotionp. 370
The Range of Emotionp. 370
The Development of Facial Expressionsp. 371
The Universality of Facial Expressionsp. 371
Cultural Rules for Displaying Emotionp. 372
Emotion as a Form of Communicationp. 373
The Art and Science of Lie Detectionp. 374
Experiencing Emotionp. 375
The Facial-Feedback Hypothesisp. 376
Gender Differences in Experiencing Emotionp. 376
Emotion and Cognitionp. 377
Lovep. 378
Human Sexuality and Genderp. 384
Sex, Gender, and Gender Rolesp. 387
Biological Sexp. 387
Psychological Genderp. 388
Early Theories of Gender Role Developmentp. 389
The Multi-Dimensional Approach to Gender Rolesp. 391
Gender Schema Theoryp. 393
Evolutionary Theoryp. 393
Gender Differencesp. 395
Thinking about Gender Differencesp. 396
Cognitive Abilitiesp. 397
Gender Differences in Social Behavior and Personalityp. 400
Sexual Attitudes and Behaviorp. 401
Gender and Cultural Differencesp. 402
Sexual Desire and Arousalp. 404
Sexual Orientationp. 406
Determinants of Sexual Orientationp. 406
Social Attitudes toward Gays and Lesbiansp. 408
Gay and Lesbian Relationshipsp. 409
Sexual Dysfunctionsp. 410
Sexual Desire Disordersp. 410
Sexual Arousal Disordersp. 410
Orgasmic and Sexual Pain Disordersp. 411
Sexually Transmitted Diseasesp. 412
Bacterial STDsp. 413
Viral STDsp. 414
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)p. 414
Health and Stressp. 422
Sources of Stressp. 425
Life Events: Big and Smallp. 425
Daily Hassles and Upliftsp. 427
Conflicts and Controllabilityp. 428
Stress in the Workplacep. 429
Catastrophic Eventsp. 430
Racism and Stressp. 430
Socioeconomic Status and Stressp. 431
Responding to Stressp. 433
Selye and the General Adaptation Syndromep. 433
Lazarus's Cognitive Theory of Stressp. 434
Coping Strategiesp. 434
Health and Illnessp. 436
Two Approaches to Health and Illnessp. 436
Coronary Heart Diseasep. 436
Cancerp. 438
The Immune System and Stressp. 439
Personal Factors Reducing the Impact of Stress and Illnessp. 440
Gender and Healthp. 442
Race and Healthp. 442
Lifestyle and Healthp. 444
Smoking and Healthp. 445
Alcohol Abusep. 446
Dietp. 447
Exercisep. 448
Alternative Medicinep. 448
Personality Theory and Assessmentp. 454
Psychoanalytic Theoriesp. 457
The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconsciousp. 457
The Id, the Ego, and the Superegop. 458
The Psychosexual Stages of Developmentp. 460
Evaluating Freud's Contributionp. 462
The Neo-Freudiansp. 463
Humanistic Theoriesp. 465
Two Humanistic Theoriesp. 465
Self-Esteemp. 466
Trait Theoriesp. 467
Early Trait Theoriesp. 467
The Five-Factor Modelp. 469
Origins and Stability of the Five Factorsp. 471
Culture and Personality Traitsp. 471
Social-Cognitive Theoriesp. 473
The Situation-Trait Debatep. 473
Reciprocal Determinismp. 474
Self-Efficacy and Locus of Controlp. 475
Personality Assessmentp. 477
Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scalesp. 477
Personality Inventoriesp. 478
Projective Testsp. 480
Psychological Disordersp. 486
Defining Psychological Disordersp. 489
What Is Abnormal?p. 489
Classifying Psychological Disordersp. 491
Explaining Psychological Disordersp. 492
Prevalence of Psychological Disordersp. 493
Anxiety Disordersp. 494
Panic Attacks and Agoraphobiap. 495
Common Anxiety Disordersp. 496
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorderp. 498
Mood Disordersp. 499
Major Depressive Disorderp. 499
Culture, Gender, and Depressionp. 500
Bipolar Disorderp. 500
Explaining Mood Disordersp. 502
Suicide and Race, Gender, and Agep. 502
Schizophreniap. 504
Age, Gender, and Schizophreniap. 504
Positive Symptoms of Schizophreniap. 505
Negative Symptoms of Schizophreniap. 505
Types of Schizophreniap. 506
Explaining Schizophreniap. 506
Somatoform and Dissociative Disordersp. 510
Somatoform Disordersp. 510
Dissociative Disordersp. 510
Personality Disordersp. 512
Characteristics of Personality Disordersp. 513
Types of Personality Disordersp. 513
Disorders Diagnosed in Childhoodp. 516
Pervasive Developmental Disordersp. 516
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorderp. 518
Therapiesp. 524
Insight Therapiesp. 527
Psychodynamic Therapiesp. 527
Interpersonal Therapyp. 528
Humanistic Therapiesp. 529
Gestalt Therapyp. 529
Relationship Therapiesp. 530
Couple Therapyp. 530
Family Therapyp. 530
Group Therapyp. 531
Behavior Therapiesp. 532
Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioningp. 532
Behavior Therapies Based on Other Learning Theoriesp. 533
Cognitive Therapiesp. 536
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapyp. 536
Beck's Cognitive Therapyp. 537
Biological Therapiesp. 538
Drug Therapyp. 538
Psychiatric Drugs for Children and Adolescentsp. 542
Electroconvulsive Therapyp. 543
Psychosurgeryp. 543
Evaluating the Therapiesp. 544
Culturally Sensitive and Gender-Sensitive Therapyp. 547
Social Psychologyp. 552
Social Perceptionp. 556
Impression Formationp. 556
Attributionp. 556
Attractionp. 557
Factors Influencing Attractionp. 557
Physical Attractivenessp. 558
Romantic Attraction and Matingp. 559
Conformity, Obedience, and Compliancep. 560
Conformityp. 560
Obediencep. 562
Compliancep. 562
Group Influencep. 563
Social Facilitationp. 564
Social Loafingp. 564
Social Rolesp. 565
Attitudes and Attitude Changep. 566
Attitudesp. 566
Cognitive Dissonancep. 567
Persuasionp. 568
Prosocial Behaviorp. 569
Reasons for Helpingp. 570
The Bystander Effectp. 570
Aggressionp. 572
Biological Factors in Aggressionp. 572
Other Influences on Aggressionp. 573
The Social Learning Theory of Aggressionp. 574
Sexual Aggressionp. 575
Prejudice and Discriminationp. 577
The Roots of Prejudice and Discriminationp. 577
Is Prejudice Decreasing?p. 579
Unlearning Prejudicep. 580
Psychology in the Workplacep. 584
Personnel Psychologyp. 587
Hiring Workersp. 587
Employee Training and Developmentp. 589
Evaluating Workersp. 590
Organizational Psychologyp. 591
Approaches to Managementp. 591
Leadershipp. 592
Organizational Culture and Climatep. 595
Ethics in the Workplacep. 596
Human Factors Psychologyp. 597
Workplace Designp. 597
The Quality of Work-Life Movementp. 598
Gender Issues at Workp. 600
Women's Work Patternsp. 600
Gender Differences in On-the-Job Coping Stylesp. 601
Gender Discriminationp. 601
Sexual Harassmentp. 603
Human Diversity in the Workplacep. 604
Race and Ethnicity in the Workplacep. 604
Cultural Diversity in the Workplacep. 605
Promoting Diversityp. 606
Statistical Methodsp. A-1
Referencesp. R-1
Glossaryp. G-1
Name Indexp. I-1
Subject Indexp. I-14
Creditsp. C-1
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