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World Religions (with InfoTrac)

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Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534527624

ISBN10:
0534527620
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/14/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $116.66

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Summary

Presenting both the histories and the prevalent worldviews of the major world religions, Matthews' WORLD RELIGIONS methodically introduces students to the richness and diversity of these traditions. This text combines insightful, engaging prose with maps, photographs, timelines, excerpts from sacred texts, and other helpful pedagogical aids, to employ a scholarly approach that neither shields students from current research nor encumbers them with it. Students are encouraged, individually and collectively, to pursue their own dialogues with the voices and nuances of these religions.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1(1)
Common Features of Most Religions
2(2)
What Is Sacred?
2(1)
Sacred Space
2(1)
Sacred Stories
2(1)
Sacred Writings
3(1)
Rituals
3(1)
Dance
4(1)
Religious Drama
4(1)
Distinctive Features of This Textbook
4(2)
Historical Development
6(1)
Worldview
6(5)
The Point of View of the Text
11(1)
Vocabulary
11(1)
Readings
11(2)
I Religions of Tribes and City-States
13(64)
Religions of the Americas
15(34)
Religions of North America
16(14)
The Naskapi
16(1)
The Soul
16(3)
The Universe
19(1)
The Hunt
19(1)
Other Beliefs and Rituals
20(1)
The Kwakiutl Peoples
21(1)
The Powhatan Peoples
21(2)
Hunting and Gathering
23(1)
Farming
24(1)
Religion
24(1)
The Cherokees
25(1)
Stories of the Cherokees
26(3)
The Zuni
29(1)
The Hopi
29(1)
Dakota and Pawnee Peoples
30(1)
Worldview
30(1)
Common Features of Religions in North America
30(4)
The Absolute
30(1)
The World
31(1)
Humans
31(1)
The Problem for Humans
31(1)
The Solution for Humans
32(1)
Community and Ethics
32(1)
An Interpretation of History
33(1)
Rituals and Symbols
33(1)
Life after Death
34(1)
Relationship to Other Religions
34(1)
Objections to Older Scholarship
34(1)
Religions of Mesoamerica and South America
34(1)
Religion Today: Native American Religions in the United States
35(3)
The Aztecs
35(1)
The Absolute
36(1)
Rituals and Symbols
37(1)
Worldview
38(1)
The Influence of Aztec Religion
39(1)
The Incas
39(1)
Historical Development
39(5)
The Absolute
40(1)
Rituals and Symbols
41(1)
Relationship to Other Religions
42(2)
Worldview
44(1)
Common Features of Religions in Mesoamerica and South America
44(1)
Consider This: Seeing and Believing
45(1)
Vocabulary
46(1)
Questions for Review
46(1)
Questions for Discussion
46(1)
Notes
46(1)
Readings
47(2)
Religions of Africa
49(28)
The Ancient Egyptian Religion
50(1)
Historical Development
51(1)
Worldview
52(1)
The Ancient Egyptians
52(7)
The Absolute
52(2)
Rituals and Symbols
54(2)
Osiris and Isis
56(1)
Life after Death
57(2)
Relationship to Other Religions
59(1)
The Basongye of the Congo
59(1)
Historical Development
59(4)
Worldview of the Basongye
60(1)
Basongye Religion
60(3)
The Zulu Peoples
63(1)
Historical Development of South Africa
63(1)
Worldview
63(1)
The Zulu Peoples
63(4)
Rites of Passage
64(2)
Deities of the Zulu Peoples
66(1)
The Yoruba
67(1)
Historical Development of Nigeria
67(1)
Worldview
67(1)
The Yoruba Peoples
67(2)
Organization of Religion
67(1)
Community and Individual Responsibilities
67(2)
Worldview
69(1)
Common Features of Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
69(3)
The Absolute
69(1)
The World
70(1)
Humans
70(1)
The Problem for Humans
71(1)
The Solution for Humans
71(1)
Rituals and Symbols
71(1)
Life after Death
71(1)
Relationship with Other Religions
71(1)
Consider This: Dead or Alive?
72(1)
Religion Today: African Religions
73(1)
Vocabulary
74(1)
Questions for Review
74(1)
Questions for Discussion
74(1)
Notes
74(1)
Readings
75(2)
II Religions Arising in India
77(124)
Hinduism
79(44)
Historical Development
80(28)
Historiography
80(1)
The Origins of Hinduism
81(1)
Shruti: Revelation and Scriptures
82(1)
Gods of the Rig-Veda
82(1)
Agni
82(1)
Indra
83(1)
Soma
84(1)
Varuna
84(1)
Mitra
85(1)
Three Collections of the Vedas
86(1)
The Brahmanas and Aranyakas
86(1)
The Upanishads
86(1)
The Gurus
87(2)
Monism or Dualism?
89(1)
Karma and Samsara
90(1)
Alternatives to the Vedas and Upanishads
91(1)
The Bhagavad Gita
91(1)
Work
91(2)
Knowledge
93(1)
Yoga
93(1)
Love
93(1)
Four Goals for Hindus
94(1)
The Four Castes
94(1)
Four Stages of Life
95(1)
Four Ways of Salvation
96(2)
The Laws of Manu
98(1)
Orthodox Hindu Systems of Philosophy
99(1)
The Sankhya
99(1)
Other Philosopic Systems
99(1)
Islam in India
100(1)
Christianity in India
100(1)
Hindu Responses to Western Influence
101(1)
Ram Mohan Roy
101(1)
Dayananda Sarasvati
101(1)
Ramakrishna
102(1)
Rabindranath Tagore
102(1)
Mohandas K. Gandhi
103(1)
Sri Aurobindo
103(1)
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
104(1)
Independent India
105(3)
Consider This: Forming Attachments
108(1)
Worldview
108(10)
The Absolute
108(1)
The World
109(2)
Humans
111(1)
The Problem for Humans
111(1)
The Solution for Humans
111(1)
Community and Ethics
112(1)
An Interpretation of History
113(1)
Rituals and Symbols
113(2)
Life after Death
115(1)
Hinduism and Other Religions
115(2)
Hinduism in the United States
117(1)
Religion Today: Hinduism Today
118(1)
Vocabulary
118(1)
Questions for Review
119(1)
Questions for Discussion
119(1)
Notes
119(1)
Readings
120(3)
Buddhism
123(48)
Historical Development
124(32)
Historiography
124(1)
The Life of the Buddha
125(1)
The Birth of the Buddha
125(1)
Prince Siddhartha
126(1)
The Four Passing Sights
126(1)
The Great Renunciation
127(1)
The Enlightenment
127(1)
The First Sermon at Benares
128(2)
The Four Noble Truths
130(3)
Samsara and Karma
133(1)
The Buddha and Metaphysics
134(1)
The Buddha's Ministry
135(1)
The Development of Buddhism after the Buddha
136(1)
The Buddhist Scriptures
136(1)
The First Buddhist Councils
137(1)
Two Ways of Experiencing the Buddha
138(1)
Theravadin Buddhism
138(1)
Mahayana Buddhism
138(1)
A Comparison of Theravadin and Mahayana Buddhism
139(1)
The Madhyamika School
140(1)
The Yogacara School
141(1)
Buddhist Missionary Activities in Asia
141(1)
Buddhism in China
142(1)
Tian Tai (Tyian-Tai)
143(1)
Hua-Yen
143(1)
Jingtu (Ching-T'u)
143(1)
Chan (Ch'an)
144(1)
Buddhism in Korea
144(1)
Buddhism in Japan
145(4)
Buddhism in Tibet
149(1)
Buddhism in Later India
150(1)
Buddhism and Marxism
150(1)
Some Recent Buddhist Political Leaders
151(2)
Buddhism and the West
153(2)
Buddhism in America in the Twenty-First Century
155(1)
Buddhist Women
155(1)
Consider This: Governing Desires
156(1)
Worldview
156(9)
Absolute
156(1)
The World
157(1)
Humans
158(1)
The Problem for Humans
158(1)
The Solution for Humans
159(2)
Community and Ethics
161(1)
An Interpretation of History
161(1)
Rituals and Symbols
162(1)
Life after Death
163(1)
Buddhism and Other Religions
164(1)
Religion Today: Buddhism Today
165(1)
Vocabulary
165(1)
Questions for Review
166(1)
Questions for Discussion
166(1)
Notes
166(2)
Readings
168(3)
Jainism and Sikhism
171(30)
Jainism
172(1)
Introduction
172(1)
Historical Development
172(1)
Historiography
172(1)
The Life of Mahavira
173(2)
Jain Scriptures
175(1)
Consider This: Respect for All Living Things
176(1)
Worldview
176(6)
The Absolute
176(1)
The World
177(1)
Humans
178(1)
The Problem for Humans
178(1)
The Solution for Humans
179(1)
Community and Ethics
180(1)
Rituals and Symbols
181(1)
Jainism and Other Religions
182(1)
Summary of Jainism
182(1)
Consider This: The Soul of the Matter (Jainism)
183(1)
Sikhism
183(1)
Introduction
183(1)
Historical Development
184(1)
Historiography
184(1)
The Life of Guru Nanak
185(4)
The Teachings of Guru Nanak
189(1)
The Nine Gurus after Nanak
190(3)
Consider This: Feeding the Soul (Sikhism)
193(1)
Worldview
193(5)
The Absolute
193(1)
The World and Humans
194(1)
The Problem and the Solution for Humans
194(1)
Community and Ethics
194(1)
Rituals and Symbols
195(1)
Life after Death
196(1)
Sikhism and Other Religions
196(2)
Religion Today: Jainism and Sikhism
198(1)
Vocabulary
198(1)
Questions for Review
199(1)
Questions for Discussion
199(1)
Notes
199(1)
Readings
200(1)
III Religions of China and Japan
201(48)
China and Japan
203(46)
China
204(1)
The Religions of China
204(1)
Background of the Religions of China
204(2)
Heaven
204(1)
Daoism
205(1)
Historical Development
206(1)
Historiography
206(1)
Laozi (Lao Tzu)
207(2)
Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)
209(1)
Religious, Sectarian Daoism
210(1)
Consider This: Natural Is Best
211(1)
Worldview
211(4)
The Absolute
211(1)
The World
212(1)
Humans
212(1)
The Problem for Humans
212(1)
The Solution for Humans
212(1)
Community and Ethics
213(1)
Rituals and Symbols
214(1)
Confucianism
214(1)
Historical Development
215(11)
Historiography
215(1)
The Life of Confucius
215(1)
The Teachings of Confucius
216(1)
Principles of the Junzi
217(1)
Religion in Confucius
218(1)
Challenges to the Teachings of Confucius
218(1)
The Mohists
218(1)
The Fajia (Legalists)
219(1)
The Daoists (Taoists)
220(1)
Confucius and Other Thinkers
220(1)
Confucianism after Confucius
221(1)
Mengzi (Mencius)
221(1)
Xunxi (Hsun Tsu)
222(1)
Han Support for Confucianism
223(1)
Neo-Confucianism
223(1)
Confucianism and Daoism in Korea and Japan
224(1)
The Height and Downfall of Confucianism
225(1)
Confucianism under Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
225(1)
Chinese Folk Religion
226(1)
Consider This: Ordered Culture Is Best
226(1)
Worldview
227(3)
The Absolute
227(1)
The World
227(1)
Humans
227(1)
The Problem for Humans
228(1)
The Solution for Humans
228(1)
Community and Ethics
229(1)
Rituals and Symbols
229(1)
Life after Death
230(1)
Japan
230(1)
Introduction
230(1)
Historical Development
231(7)
Historiography
231(1)
Prehistoric Japan
231(1)
Visitors from Korea
231(1)
Myths of Japan
232(1)
Buddhist Influence on Shinto
233(1)
The Bushido Code
234(1)
Reactions to Foreign Influence
234(1)
State Shinto
235(1)
Recent Shinto
235(1)
Sectarian Shinto
235(2)
New Religions
237(1)
Consider This: One's Own Nation Is Best
238(1)
Worldview
238(3)
The Absolute
238(1)
The World
239(1)
Humans
239(1)
The Problem for Humans
239(1)
The Solution for Humans
239(1)
Community and Ethics
240(1)
Rituals and Symbols
240(1)
Life after Death
240(1)
Shintoism and Other Religions
241(1)
Religion Today: The Traditional Religions of Japan and China Today
241(3)
Vocabulary
244(1)
Questions for Review
244(1)
Questions for Discussion
244(1)
Notes
244(2)
Readings
246(3)
IV Religions That Influenced East and West
249(24)
Ancient Religions of Iraq and Iran
251(22)
Mesopotamian Religion
252(1)
Historical Development
252(1)
Historiography
252(1)
Recovering the History of Mesopotamia
252(2)
Worldview
254(5)
The Absolute
254(1)
Myths
255(1)
Gilgamesh
256(1)
Rituals and Symbols
257(1)
Relationship to Other Religions
257(2)
Consider This: Judaism in Babylon
259(1)
Iranian Religion
259(1)
Historical Development
259(1)
Historiography
259(2)
The Life of Zarathustra
261(1)
Teachings of Zarathustra
262(1)
Scriptures
262(1)
Principles of Zarathustra
262(1)
Zoroastrianism after Zarathustra
263(1)
Consider This: Cyrus the Persian---A Champion of Two Religions?
264(1)
Worldview
264(6)
The Absolute
264(1)
The World
264(1)
Humans
265(1)
The Problem for Humans
265(1)
The Solution for Humans
266(1)
Rituals and Symbols
266(1)
Life after Death
267(1)
An Interpretation of History
268(1)
Zoroastrianism and Other Religions
269(1)
Religion Today: Zoroastrianism Today
270(1)
Vocabulary
270(1)
Questions for Review
270(1)
Questions for Discussion
271(1)
Notes
271(1)
Readings
272(1)
V Religions of the Family of Abraham
273(148)
Judaism
275(50)
The Jewish Bible
276(1)
Interpreting the Bible
277(1)
Historical Development
277(30)
Historiography
278(1)
Abraham
278(1)
Life under the Egyptians
279(1)
Moses
280(2)
Settlement in Canaan
282(1)
The Hebrew Prophets
283(1)
Destroyed Kingdoms, Exiled Leaders
284(1)
Life of Babylonian Exiles
285(1)
Editing the Scriptures
285(1)
An Alternative to Temple Worship
286(1)
Postexilic Judaism
287(1)
The Greeks
288(1)
Wisdom Literature
288(1)
The Maccabean Revolt
289(1)
The Romans
290(1)
Rabbinic Judaism
291(3)
Philo
294(1)
Medieval Judaism
294(1)
Jewish Philosophy
295(1)
Saadia ben Joseph
295(1)
Judah Halevi
295(1)
Maimonides
296(2)
The Kabballah
298(1)
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
298(1)
Judaism in the Modern Age
299(1)
Baruch Spinoza
299(1)
Moses Mendelssohn
300(1)
Forms of Judaism
300(1)
Abraham Geiger
301(1)
Zacharias Frankel
301(1)
Samson Raphael Hirsch
301(1)
Reform Judaism
301(1)
Conservative Judaism
302(1)
Reconstructionism
302(1)
Orthodox Judaism
302(1)
Hasidism
302(1)
Hermann Cohen, Philosopher
303(1)
Zionism
303(1)
The Holocaust
304(1)
Israel
305(1)
The Roots of the Arab-Israeli Conflict
305(2)
Consider This: Sibling Rivalries among Abraham's Children
307(3)
Worldview
310(10)
The Absolute
310(1)
The World
311(1)
Humans
312(2)
The Problem and the Solution for Humans
314(1)
Community and Ethics
314(3)
Rituals and Symbols
317(1)
Life after Death
318(1)
Judaism and Other Religions
319(1)
Religion Today: Judaism Today
320(1)
Vocabulary
320(1)
Questions for Review
321(1)
Questions for Discussion
321(1)
Notes
321(1)
Readings
321(4)
Christianity
325(52)
Historical Development
326(37)
Historiography
326(1)
Jesus of Nazareth
326(1)
The Teachings of Jesus
327(2)
Jesus' Authority
329(1)
The Teachings and Authority of Jesus in John, the Fourth Gospel
329(1)
The Last Week of Jesus
330(4)
Three Thousand People Join the Church
334(1)
Some Jews Feel Threatened by the Church
334(1)
Saul of Tarsus
335(3)
Romans Persecute Christians
338(2)
Forming the New Testament
340(1)
Christian Worship
341(1)
Christian Platonists of Alexandria
341(1)
Ecumenical Councils
342(2)
Grace of God for the Sin of Man
344(1)
Monasticism
344(2)
Church Governance in Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Traditions
346(1)
Orthodox and Roman Catholic Paths of Service
347(1)
St. Thomas Aquinas
348(2)
The Crusades
350(1)
The Arts
350(1)
Protestant and Reformed Churches
351(1)
Martin Luther
351(1)
John Calvin
352(1)
King Henry VIII
353(1)
George Fox
353(1)
The Catholic Reformation
354(1)
Missions in North America
355(1)
Eastern Orthodox Christianity in the New World
356(1)
Religious Diversity in the United States
356(1)
The Age of Reason
356(1)
Emerging Forms of Protestant Christianity
357(1)
African-American Churches
358(1)
Independent Evangelists
359(1)
The Church of Christ, Scientist
359(1)
Cooperation among Protestants
359(1)
Newer Forms of Christianity
359(2)
Major Roman Catholic Reforms
361(1)
Christianity and Liberation
362(1)
Worldview
363(9)
The Absolute
363(1)
Christ
364(1)
The World
365(1)
Humans
366(1)
The Problem and the Solution for Humans
366(1)
Community and Ethics
367(1)
An Interpretation of History
368(1)
Rituals and Symbols
369(1)
Worship
369(1)
Sacraments
370(1)
Life after Death
370(1)
Christianity and Other Religions
371(1)
Consider This: Evolution of Church Leadership
372(1)
Religion Today: Christianity Today
372(1)
Vocabulary
373(1)
Questions for Review
373(1)
Questions for Discussion
373(1)
Notes
374(1)
Readings
375(2)
Islam
377(44)
Historical Development
378(28)
Historiography
378(1)
The Background of Islam
378(2)
The Life of Muhammad
380(7)
The Pillars of Islam
387(3)
The Successors of the Prophet
390(1)
Sunni and Shi'a
390(1)
The Expansion of Islam
391(2)
The Shari'a
393(1)
Greek Influences on Islam
394(1)
Muslim Spiritual Experiences
394(1)
Sufis
395(1)
Al-Ghazali
396(1)
Philosophy after Al-Ghazali: Ibn Arabi
397(1)
Islam and Other Religions: The Past
397(1)
The Crusades
398(1)
Cooperation
399(1)
Ibn Rushd
399(1)
Islam in India
400(1)
The Baha'i Religion
400(1)
Modernism in Islam
401(1)
Muslim Responses to Modernism
401(2)
Islam in the Twenty-First Century
403(1)
Pakistan
403(1)
Egypt
403(1)
Iran
404(1)
Islam in the United States
404(1)
Muslims of the Midwest
405(1)
Muslims of the East Coast
405(1)
Black Muslims
405(1)
Two Black Muslim Organizations
406(1)
Worldview
406(9)
The Absolute
406(1)
The World
407(1)
Humans
407(2)
The Problem for Humans
409(1)
The Solution for Humans
409(1)
Community and Ethics
409(1)
Rituals and Symbols
410(2)
Life after Death
412(1)
Islam and Other Religions: Today
412(2)
Islam and the Future
414(1)
Two Continuing Issues in Islam
415(2)
Women in Islam
415(1)
Sub-Saharan Africans and African Americans in Islam
416(1)
Consider This: Who Speaks for Islam?
417(1)
Religion Today: Islam Today
417(1)
Vocabulary
418(1)
Questions for Review
418(1)
Questions for Discussion
418(1)
Notes
418(2)
Readings
420(1)
CONCLUSION
421(6)
Diversity within Branches of Religion
421(1)
Diversity and Common Ground
422(1)
Deepening Your Knowledge of World Religions
422(2)
Campus Opportunities
423(1)
Campus and Community Organizations
423(1)
Travel: Virtual and Real
423(1)
Discovering Hidden Values
424(1)
Vocabulary
424(1)
Notes
424(1)
Readings
424(1)
Appendix
425(2)
World Religions Membership 2001
425(2)
Glossary 427(14)
Index 441


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