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Revealing the significance of religion in contemporary life,World Religions Today,Fourth Edition, explores major religious traditions--Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, East Asian Religions, indigenous religions, and new religions--as dynamic, ongoing forces in the lives of individuals and in the collective experience of modern societies.This unique volume accomplishes two goals: it connects today's religions to their classical beliefs and practices and focuses on how these religions have responded to and been transformed by the modern world.The authors combine thorough coverage of the historical background of each religion with up-to-the-minute discussions of its current practices. The volume is enhanced by numerous pedagogical aids--text boxes, timelines, maps, illustrations, discussion questions, a comprehensive glossary of key terms, and suggestions for further reading--and more than 200 photographs. NEW TO THIS EDITION: * Updates throughoutthat cover more aspects of the current international situation and developments in religious life around the world * "Rituals and Rites" boxesexamining rituals that have changed in practice or meaning over time * "Gender Focus" boxesthat highlight gender-specific customs within each faith * A revised and updated Instructor's Manual and Test Bank on CDcontaining overviews, learning goals, and summaries for each chapter; lecture outlines; PowerPoint-based lecture slides; fill-in-the-blank, multiple-choice, and true/false test questions; sample essay/discussion questions; flash cards of key terms; and suggested reading, viewing, and links * An updated Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/espositofeaturing all of the material from the Instructor's Manual and additional resources for students World Religions Today,Fourth Edition, is also available as two separate volumes: Religions of Asia Today,Second Edition (978-0-19-975949-1) Religions of the West Today,Second Edition (978-0-19-975950-7)
John L. Esposito is University Professor, Professor of Religion and International Affairs, Professor of Islamic Studies, and Founding Director of the Prince Alwaleed bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University. Darrell J. Fasching is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of South Florida. Todd Lewis is Professor of World Religions at the College of the Holy Cross.
Table of Contents
|Globalization: World Religions in Everyone's Hometown||p. 3|
|Why Study World Religions?||p. 5|
|Our Task||p. 6|
|Understanding Religious Experience and Its Formative Elements||p. 7|
|The Great Religious Stories of the World||p. 18|
|Historical Overview: From Premodern to Postmodern||p. 25|
|The Modern/Postmodern Transition: Colonialism, the Socialist Challenge, and the End of Modernity||p. 29|
|Postmodern Trends in a Postcolonial World||p. 33|
|Conclusion: We Are All Heretics in the Postmodern Situation||p. 34|
|Discussion Questions||p. 34|
|Key Terms||p. 35|
|Indigenous Religions||p. 37|
|Origins of Homo religiosus: Prehistory||p. 38|
|Religion's Origins Among Hunter-Gatherers||p. 41|
|Indigenous Religious Traditions: Soul Belief and Afterlife||p. 48|
|Shamans: "Technicians of the Sacred"||p. 54|
|Indigenous Religions Today||p. 62|
|Discussion Questions||p. 71|
|Key Terms||p. 72|
|Suggested Readings||p. 72|
|Additional Resources||p. 73|
|The Many Stories of Judaism: Sacred and Secular||p. 75|
|Encounter with Modernity: Modern Judaisms and the Challenge of Ultra-Orthodoxy||p. 79|
|Premodern Judaism: The Formative Era (2000 BCE-500 CE)||p. 83|
|Premodern Judaism: The Classical Era (500 CE-1729 CE)||p. 101|
|Judaism and Modernity (1729-1967)||p. 115|
|Judaism and Postmodern Trends in a Postcolonial World (1967-)||p. 128|
|Discussion Questions||p. 143|
|Key Terms||p. 144|
|Suggested Readings||p. 144|
|Additional Resources||p. 145|
|Christian Diversity and the Road to Modernity||p. 147|
|Encounter with Modernity: The Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy (1859-)||p. 152|
|Premodern Christianity: The Formative Era (31-451 CE)||p. 157|
|Premodern Christianity: The Classical Era (451-1517 CE)||p. 172|
|Christianity and Modernity (1517-1962)||p. 182|
|Christianity and Postmodern Trends in a Postcolonial World (1962-)||p. 199|
|Discussion Questiotis||p. 212|
|Key Terms||p. 212|
|Suggested Readings||p. 213|
|Additional Resources||p. 213|
|Islam: The Many Faces of the Muslim Experience||p. 215|
|Encounter with Modernity: The Challenge of Western Colonialism||p. 221|
|Premodern Islam: The Formative Era||p. 224|
|Premodern Islam: The Classical Era||p. 238|
|Islam and Modernity||p. 259|
|Islam and Postmodern Trends in a Postcolonial World||p. 265|
|Islam: Postmodern Challenges||p. 285|
|Discussion Questions||p. 292|
|Key Terms||p. 293|
|Suggested Readings||p. 294|
|Additional Resources||p. 295|
|Hinduism and Other South Asian Religions: Myriad Paths to Liberation||p. 297|
|Defining Hinduism: Unity, Diversity, Localities||p. 298|
|Encounter with Modernity: Hindu Challenges to India as a Secular State||p. 301|
|Premodern Hinduism: The Formative Era||p. 304|
|Premodern Hinduism: The Classical Era (180 BCE-900 CE)||p. 312|
|Premodern Hinduism: The Postclassical Era (900 CE-1500 CE)||p. 324|
|Hinduism and Modernity||p. 332|
|Hinduism and Postmodern Trends in a Postcolonial World||p. 343|
|Hindu Festival Practice||p. 355|
|The Religious Institutions of Contemporary Hinduism||p. 363|
|Discussion Questiotis||p. 386|
|Key Terms||p. 387|
|Suggested Readings||p. 388|
|Additional Resources||p. 389|
|Buddhism: Paths Toward Nirvana||p. 391|
|Encounter with Modernity: Socially "Engaged Buddhism"||p. 393|
|Premodern Buddhism: The Formative Era (600 BCE-100 CE)||p. 398|
|Premodern Buddhism: The Classical Era (100-800 CE)||p. 412|
|Premodern Buddhism: Buddhist Expansion (400-1500 CE)||p. 427|
|Buddhism and Modernity||p. 433|
|Buddhism and Postmodern Trends in a Postcolonial World||p. 447|
|Discussion Questions||p. 474|
|Key Terms||p. 475|
|Suggested Readings||p. 476|
|Additional Resources||p. 477|
|East Asian Religions: Traditions of Human Cultivation and Natural Harmony||p. 479|
|Geographical Orientation||p. 481|
|Encounter with Modernity: The Fall and Return of Confucianism||p. 484|
|East Asian Religions in the Formative Era (1500 BCE-200 CE)||p. 488|
|East Asian Religions in the Early Modern Era||p. 518|
|East Asian Religions and Postmodern Trends in a Postcolonial World||p. 529|
|Conclusion: Have We Entered a Third Confucian Age?||p. 561|
|Discussion Questions||p. 566|
|Key Terms||p. 567|
|Suggested Readings||p. 567|
|Additional Resources||p. 569|
|Globalization: From New to New Age Religions||p. 571|
|Encounter with Modernity: The Challenge of Global Diversity to the "Purity" of Tradition||p. 573|
|New Religions||p. 574|
|New Age Religions||p. 581|
|Conclusion: The Postmodern Challenge-Can There Be a Global Ethic in a World of Religious Diversity?||p. 595|
|Discussion Questions||p. 608|
|Suggested Readings||p. 608|
|Additional Resources||p. 609|
|Art Credits||p. A-1|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|