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Through a collection of speeches, letters, and primary accounts, and with a revised introduction that draws on an outpouring of scholarship over the past twenty years, Colin Calloway provides insight into the underrepresented Native American voices of the colonial, Revolutionary, and early national periods. With four new text documents and four new visual source documents, the volume continues to portray such themes as loss of land, war and peace, missionaries and Christianity, the education of Native American youth, European technology, European alcohol, and political changes within Indian societies in Early America. Revised Questions for Consideration and an updated Selected Bibliography, along with a new Chronology of Encounters between Indians and Colonists, serve to further support student learning.
Colin G. Calloway is the John Kimball Jr. 1943 Professor of History and Professor of Native American Studies at Dartmouth College. He served for two years as associate director of and editor at the D’Arcy McNickle Center for the History of the American Indian at the Newberry Library in Chicago and taught for seven years at the University of Wyoming. Professor Calloway has written many books on Native American history, including The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and The Transformation of North America (2006); One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark (2003); and two books for the Bedford Series in History and Culture: Our Hearts Fell to the Ground: Plains Indians Views of How the West Was Lost (1996), and The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (1994).
Table of Contents
Foreword Preface Maps and Illustrations
PART ONE Introduction: “Times Are Altered with Us Indians” A World of Changes Indians in Colonial America Sources of Indian History: Weighing the Evidence
PART TWO The Documents 1. Voices from the Shore The Creation of the World 1. John Norton, Iroquois Creation Story, ca. 1816 The League of Peace in Wampum 2. The Hiawatha Belt The Creeks Come to Their Homeland 3. Chekilli, Origin of the Creek Confederacy, 1735 A Dream of Strangers 4. Josiah Jeremy, The Floating Island, 1869 Meeting the Dutch at Manhattan 5. John Heckewelder, The Arrival of the Dutch, ca. 1765 “What Can You Get by Warre . . .?” 6. Powhatan, Speech to Captain John Smith, 1609 A Pequot Looks Back at King Philip’s War 7. William Apess, Eulogy on King Philip, 1836
2. Cultural Conflicts, Contests, and Confluences A Native American Theological Debate 8. John Eliot, A Dialogue between Piumbukhou and His Unconverted Relatives, ca. 1671 A Mi’kmaq Questions French “Civilization” 9. Chrestien LeClerq, A Mi’kmaq Responds to the French, ca. 1677 An Indian Woman Bequeaths Her Property 10. Naomai Omaush, Will, 1749 Autobiography of an Indian Minister 11. Samson Occom, A Short Narrative of My Life, 1768 Letters of a Narragansett Family 12. Sarah Simon, Letter to Eleazar Wheelock, 1767 13. Sarah Simon (the Daughter), Letter to Eleazar Wheelock, 1769 14. Daniel Simon, Letter to Eleazar Wheelock, 1771 The Iroquois Reject Wheelock’s “Benevolence” 15. Speech of the Oneida Headmen, 1772 16. Speech of the Onondaga Council, 1772 A Delaware “Mouthpiece” 17. Joseph Pepee, Response to the Unconverted Delawares, 1772 “The White Woman of the Genesee” 18. Mary Jemison, A Narrative of Her Life, 1824
3. Land, Trade, and Treaties Submission to “Old England” 19. Narragansett Indians, Act of Submission, 1644 Two Land Deeds from Maine 20. Nanuddemance, Deed to John Parker, June 14, 1659 21. Jane of Scarborough, Deed to Andrew and Arthur Alger, September 19, 1659 Indian Land Claims Disputed 22. Mittark, Agreement of Gay Head Indians Not to Sell Land to the English, 1681 The “River Indians” Answer Governor Burnet 23. Mahican Indians, Reply to William Burnet, Governor of New York, 1722
The Alienation of the Natchez 24. Antoine Le Page du Pratz, Reply of the Stung Serpent, 1723 Signing and Disputing a Treaty 25. Eastern Indians, Treaty Pictographs, 1725 26. Sauguaarum, alias Loron, An Account of Negotiations Leading to the Casco Bay Treaty, 1727 The “Walking Purchase”: A Delaware Complaint and an Iroquois Response 27. Delaware Indians, Complaint against the “Walking Purchase,” November 21, 1740 28. Canasatego, Response to the Delawares’ Complaint, July 12, 1742
The Treaty of Lancaster 29. Canasatego, Speech at the Treaty of Lancaster, July 4, 1744 A Guardian System for Indian Lands 30. Indians at Mashpee, Petition to the Massachusetts General Court, June 11, 1752 Resolving Conflicts with Colonial Neighbors 31. King Hagler (Nopkehe), Reply to Colonists’ Complaints, 1754 Colonists Encroach on the Stanwix Line 32. John Killbuck, Speech to the Governors of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, December 4, 1771
4. In a World of Warfare: Indians and the Wars for Empire La Barre’s Failed Bluff 33. Garangula, Speech to New France Governor La Barre, 1684 A Native War Record 34. Drawings Made on a Tree by an Iroquois War Party Iroquois Loyalty Turns to Disenchantment 35. Cheda, Promise to Uphold the Covenant Chain, 1692 Intertribal Conflict Fostered by Colonists 36. Gachadow, Speech to the Virginia Commissioners at the Treaty of Lancaster, 1744 The Half King Defies the French 37. Tanaghrisson, Speech to Sieur de Marin, 1753 Allies and Enemies in Indian Country 38. English and French Copies of Chickasaw Deerskin Maps, c. 1723 and 1737 The Chickasaws Appeal for Help 39. Chickasaw Headmen, Speech to the Governor of South Carolina, April 5, 1756 French and Indian Wars, or French and English Wars? 40. Delaware Indians, Response to the Moravian Ambassador, 1758 A New Era for Algonkians and Englishmen 41. Minavavana, Speech to Alexander Henry, 1761 Pontiac’s War 137 42. Pontiac, The Master of Life Speaks to the Wolf, 1763 The Pleas and Plight of the Choctaw Chiefs 43. Choctaw Chiefs, Speeches to John Stuart, Mobile, Alabama, 1772
5. American Indians and the American Revolution, 1775–1783 The Oneidas Declare Neutrality 44. Oneida Indians, Speech to Governor Trumbull, 1775 Joseph Brant Addresses His Majesty’s Secretary of State 45. Joseph Brant, Address to Lord Germain, 1776 Cherokees Fight for Their Survival 46. Corn Tassel, Speech at Treaty Talks with Virginia and North Carolina, 1777 Struggling to be Neutral in the Ohio Valley 47. Cornstalk, Message to Congress, 1776 The Revolution through the Eyes of a Seneca Woman 48. Mary Jemison, A View of the Revolution, 1775–1779 The Revolution through Captain Pipe’s Eyes 49. Captain Pipe, Speech to British Colonel DePeyster, November 1781
Adjusting to New Realities: The Chickasaws’ Revolution 50. Chickasaw Chiefs, Message to Congress, July 1783 Brant Demands the Truth 51. Joseph Brant, Message to Governor Frederick Haldimand, 1783
6. Indian Voices from the New Nation Alexander McGillivray Rejects American Pretensions 52. Alexander McGillivray, Letter to Governor Arturo O’Neill, July 10, 1785
The United Indian Nations Announce a New Policy 53. United Indian Nations, Speech at the Confederate Council, November 28 and December 18, 1786 The World Turned Upside Down 54. Henry Quaquaquid and Robert Ashpo, Petition to the Connecticut State Assembly, May 1789 Joseph Brant Weighs Indian and White Civilizations 55. Joseph Brant, Indian vs. White Civilization, 1789 First Americans Address the First President 56. Speech of Cornplanter, Half Town, and Big Tree to George Washington, 1790 Epilogue: Surviving as Vanishing Americans
APPENDIXES Chronology of Encounters between Indians and Colonists (1492-1800) Questions for Consideration Selected Bibliography Index