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Worlds of History; A Comparative Reader, Volume One: To 1550,9780312402013

Worlds of History; A Comparative Reader, Volume One: To 1550

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780312402013

ISBN10:
0312402015
Format:
Trade Paper
Pub. Date:
2/23/2004
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's
List Price: $43.33
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Table of Contents

Preface iii
Introduction vii
1. Prehistory and the Origins of Patriarchy
Gathering, Agricultural, and Urban Societies, 20,000-3000 B.C.E.
1(28)
The agricultural revolution ten thousand years ago and the urban revolution five thousand years ago were probably the two most important events in human history. Did they "revolutionize" the power of women or begin the age of male domination? Thinking in "stages" can be more useful than thinking in years.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
1(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Thinking about History in Stages
2(1)
1. Natalie Angier, Furs for Evening, But Cloth Was the Stone Age Standby
2(8)
2. Marjorie Shostak, From Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman
10(6)
3. Elise Boulding, Women and the Agricultural Revolution
16(5)
4. Gerda Lerner, The Urban Revolution: Origins of Patriarchy
21(5)
Reflections
26(3)
2. The Urban Revolution and "Civilization"
Mesopotamia and Egypt, 3500-1000 B.C.E.
29(40)
The urban revolution created writing and interpretation, war and law, individuality and anonymity, money and taxes, paupers and kings. Did Mesopotamia and Egypt undergo the same development and changes? We have primary as well as secondary sources to find the answers.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
29(1)
MAP 2.1 Early Civilizations: Egypt and Mesopotamia
30(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Distinguishing Primary and Secondary Sources
31(1)
5. Kevin Reilly, Cities and Civilization
32(9)
6. From The Epic of Gilgamesh
41(10)
7. From Hammurabi's Code
51(3)
8. Zahi Hawass, Love and Marriage in Ancient Egypt
54(8)
9. The Instructions of Ptahhotep
62(5)
Reflections
67(2)
3. Identity in Caste and Territorial Societies
Greece and India, 1000-300 B.C.E.
69(38)
Ancient Greece and India developed with different ideas of society. Does who we are depend on where we are or who we know? While finding out, we explore the relationship between facts and opinions, sources and interpretations.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
69(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Interpreting Primary Sources in Light of a Secondary Source
70(1)
10. William H. McNeill, Greek and Indian Civilization
70(7)
11. From the Rig-Veda: Sacrifice as Creation
77(2)
12. From the Upanishads: Karma and Reincarnation
79(2)
13. From the Upanishads: Brahman and Atman
81(1)
14. From the Bhagavad Gita: Caste and Self
82(5)
15. Aristotle, From The Athenian Constitution: Territorial Sovereignty
87(3)
16. Thucydides, The Funeral Oration of Pericles
90(6)
17. Plato, From The Republic
96(10)
Reflections
106(1)
4. Women in Classical Societies
India, China, and Rome, 500 B.C.E.-500 C.E.
107(32)
Classical societies were largely patriarchal, but the experiences of women varied greatly both within and between the cultures of India, China, and Rome. Reading classic texts often reveals more than their authors imagined.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
107(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Using Classic Texts as Primary Sources
108(1)
18. R.K. Narayan, From The Ramayana
108(5)
19. From the Devi-Mahatmya
113(5)
20. Ban Zhao, Lessons for Women
118(5)
21. Roxann Prazniak, Ban Zhao and the End of Chinese Feudalism
123(5)
22. Livy, Women Demonstrate against the Oppian Law
128(5)
23. J.P.V.D. Balsdon, From Roman Women
133(4)
Reflections
137(2)
5. Empire and Officialdom: Bureaucracy, Law, and Individuality
China and Rome, 300 B.C.E.-300 C.E.
139(34)
Two thousand years ago the Chinese Han dynasty and the Roman Empire spanned Eurasia. But they governed their vast realms according to different principles and with different personnel. What does the experience of individuals tell us about the history of empires?
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
139(1)
MAP 5.1 The Qin and Han Empires
140(1)
MAP 5.2 The Roman Empire, at 264 B.C.E. and 117 C.E.
141(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Relating the Individual and History
142(1)
24. Valerie Hansen, The Creation of the Chinese Empire
143(7)
25. Confucius, From The Analects
150(4)
26. Sima Qian, The Annals of Qin
154(4)
27. Nicholas Purcell, Rome: The Arts of Government
158(3)
28. Plutarch, Cicero
161(3)
29. Cicero, Letter on Provincial Government
164(4)
30. Paul Veyne, The Roman Empire: Where Public Life Was Private
168(3)
Reflections
171(2)
6. Tribal to Universal Religion
Hindu-Buddhist and Judeo-Christian Traditions, 1000 B.C.E.-100 C.E.
173(29)
Two religious traditions transformed themselves into universal religions at about the same time in two different parts of Asia as each became part of a more connected world. Their holy books reveal the changes as well as the desire to hold on to the tried and true.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
173(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Detecting Change in Primary Sources
174(1)
31. Svetasvatara Upanishad
174(4)
32. Buddhism: Gotama's Discovery
178(4)
33. The Buddha's First Sermon
182(2)
34. Buddhism and Caste
184(2)
35. The Bible: History, Laws, and Psalms
186(8)
36. The Hebrew Bible: Prophets and Apocalypse
194(3)
37. Christianity: Jesus according to Matthew
197(3)
Reflections
200(2)
7. Encounters and Conversions: Monks and Merchants
Expansion of Salvation Religions, 400 B.C.E.-1000 C.E.
202(36)
Christianity, Buddhism, and later, Islam, spread far across Eurasia often along the same routes in the first thousand years of the Common Era. To understand their success, we explore the evolution of religions in a larger context.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
202(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Studying Religion in Historic Context
203(1)
MAP 7.1 The Silk Road
204(1)
38. Jerry H. Bentley, The Spread of World Religions
205(9)
39. Pliny Consults the Emperor Trajan
214(3)
40. Eusebius, From Life of Constantine
217(4)
41. Buddhism in China: From The Disposition of Error
221(4)
42. Richard C. Foltz, The Islamization of the Silk Road
225(7)
43. Richard W. Bulliet, Religious Conversion and the Spread of Innovation
232(4)
Reflections
236(2)
8. Medieval Civilizations
European, Islamic, and Chinese Societies, 600-1300 C.E.
238(42)
Three great civilizations spanned Eurasia between 500 and 1500. Of the three, China and Islam were the strongest, Europe the weakest. But their differences can be best understood by looking separately at the social structure, economy, politics, and culture of each.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
238(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Distinguishing Social, Economic, Political, and Cultural Aspects
238(1)
44. Feudalism: An Oath of Homage and Fealty
239(3)
45. Manorialism: Duties of a Villein
242(2)
46. From the Magna Carta
244(5)
47. From the Koran
249(5)
48. Sayings Ascribed to the Prophet
254(2)
49. J.J. Saunders, Civilization of Medieval Islam
256(10)
50. Ichisada Miyazaki, The Chinese Civil Service Exam System
266(8)
51. Liu Tsung-yuan, Camel Kuo the Gardener
274(2)
52. Rules for the Fan Lineage's Charitable Estate
276(2)
Reflections
278(2)
9. Love and Marriage
Medieval Societies and Cultures, 1000-1200 C.E.
280(35)
Love and marriage make the world go 'round today, but not a thousand years ago. Love meant different things in Europe, India, Japan, and Africa, and we use cultural comparisons to find out more.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
280(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Analyzing Cultural Differences
281(1)
53. Kevin Reilly, Love in Medieval Europe, India, and Japan
282(9)
54. Jack Goody, Love, Lust, and Literacy
291(8)
55. Andreas Capellanus, From The Art of Courtly Love
299(6)
56. Murasaki Shikibu, From The Tale of Genji
305(8)
Reflections
313(2)
10. The First Crusade
Muslims, Christians, and Jews during the First Crusade, 1095-1102 C.E.
315(34)
The First Crusade initiated a centuries-long struggle and dialogue between Christians and Muslims that would have a lasting impact on both. Wars are windows on cultures, but they also make moving narratives. Using the selections here, put together your own version of the story.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
315(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Analyzing and Writing Narrative
316(1)
57. Fulcher of Chartres, Pope Urban at Clermont
316(7)
58. Chronicle of Solomon bar Simson
323(5)
59. Anna Comnena, From The Alexiad
328(2)
MAP 10.1 Routes of the First Crusade
330(4)
60. Fulcher of Chartres, The Siege of Antioch
334(3)
61. Raymond of St. Giles, Count of Toulouse, The Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders
337(4)
62. Ibn al-Athir, The Conquest of Jerusalem
341(3)
63. Letter from a Jewish Pilgrim in Egypt
344(2)
64. Fulcher of Chartres, The Latins in the Levant
346(1)
Reflections
347(2)
11. Ecology, Technology, and Science
Europe, Asia, and Africa, 500-1500 C.E.
349(37)
The most important changes since the Middle Ages have been technological. Did these changes originate in Europe or South Asia? In comparing two interpretations, can images offer clues?
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
349(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY
Understanding and Evaluating Large-Scale Interpretations
350(1)
65. Lynn White Jr., The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis
351(11)
66. Lynda Norene Shaffer, Southernization
362(14)
67. Image from a Cistercian Manuscript, Twelfth Century
376(2)
68. Image from a French Calendar, Fifteenth Century
378(2)
69. Fan Kuan, Image of a Chinese Landscape
380(2)
70. Image of Chinese Feng-Shui Master
382(2)
Reflections
384(2)
12. "Barbarians" and Mongols
Mongol Eurasia, 1200-1350 C.E.
386(40)
In the thirteenth century, the Mongols created the largest empire the world had ever known. Did they bring peace, as they claimed, or unrelieved terror, as those they conquered complained? How do you judge the past?
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
386(1)
MAP 12.1 Mongol Invasions in the Thirteenth Century
387(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Making Moral Judgments about History
388(1)
71. Gregory Guzman, Were the Barbarians a Negative or Positive Factor in Ancient and Medieval History?
389(7)
72. David Morgan, From The Mongols
396(7)
73. From The Secret History of the Mongols
403(10)
74. John of Plano Carpini, History of the Mongols
413(6)
75. Guyuk Khan, Letter to Pope Innocent IV
419(2)
76. The Journey of William of Rubrick
421(3)
Reflections
424(2)
13. On Cities
European, Chinese, and Islamic Cities, 1000-1550 C.E.
426(39)
Has global urbanization made us more alike or different? You evaluate two theories about urban history as you wander through some of the great cities of medieval Europe, China, and the Islamic world.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
426(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Evaluating Alternate Theses
426(1)
77. Fernand Braudel, Towns and Cities
427(13)
78. European Guilds and Urban Autonomy
440(1)
Guild Recognition: Oxford Cordwainers, 1175
440(1)
City Charter: Dunwich, 1200
441(1)
Guilds and Government: Florence, 1224
442(1)
79. Aidan Southall, Guilds and the Chinese City
443(4)
80. Marco Polo, From The Travels of Marco Polo
447(8)
81. S.D. Goitein, Cairo: An Islamic City in Light of the Geniza
455(4)
82. Al Omari, Cairo and Niane
459(4)
Reflections
463(2)
14. The Spanish Conquest of Mexico
Mexico and "The Indies," 1500-1550 C.E.
465
The meeting of Cortez and Montezuma was fraught with peril for both. Similarly driven, they understood almost nothing of each other. Eyewitnesses on both sides recounted the inevitable conflict. Later generations reinterpreted it for their own times. What does it mean today?
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
465(1)
THINKING HISTORICALLY Understanding How and Why Events Are Reinterpreted
466(1)
83. Bernal Diaz, From The Conquest of New Spain
467(1)
Map of Tenochtitlán (Mexico City)
470(1)
Detail of Central Square
471(10)
84. From The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico
481(5)
85. Bartolomé de las Casas, From The History of the Indies
486(7)
86. Carlos Fuentes, From The Buried Mirror
493(1)
Indians Mining Silver
494(1)
Three Native Americans
495(1)
Indians Retaliating
495(5)
87. Alfred Crosby, From Germs, Seeds, and Animals
500(4)
Reflections
504


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