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Teacher award in 1993.
Spodek’s work in world history began in 1988 when he became Academic Director of a comprehensive, innovative program working with teachers in the School District of Philadelphia to improve their knowledge base in world history and facilitate a rewriting of the world history program in the schools. Immediately following this program, he became principal investigator of a program that brought college professors and high school teachers together to reconsider, revise, and, in many cases, initiate the teaching of world history in several of the colleges and universities in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Those projects led directly to the writing of the first edition of the current text (1997).
Howard Spodek has published extensively on urbanization in India, including Urban-Rural Integration in Regional Development (1976); Urban Form and Meaning in South-East Asia (editor, with Doris Srinivasan, 1993); and a wide array of articles, including analyses of working women’s organizations. In addition he wrote and produced the documentary film, Ahmedabad (1983). He has written on his experiences with world history faculty at the college and high school levels in articles in The History Teacher (1992, 1995). He has received funding for his research, writing, teaching, and film from Fulbright, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, the American Institute of Indian Studies, and the Smithsonian Institution.
Table of Contents
HUMAN ORIGINS AND HUMAN CULTURES To 10,000 B.C.E.
Building an Interpretive Framework: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It?
The Dry Bones Speak
To 10,000 B.C.E.
Human Origins in Myth and History
The Evolutionary Explanation
The New Challenges
Fossils and Fossil Hunters
The Puzzling Neanderthals
Homo erectus: A Worldwide Wanderer
The Search Shifts to Africa
The Debate over African Origins
Reading the Genetic Record
The Theory of Scientific Revolution
Humans Create Culture
How Did We Survive?
Increased Population and New Settlements
Changes in the Toolkit
Language and Communication
Cave Art and Portable Art
Agriculture: From Hunter-gatherer to Farmer
The Story of Prehistory:What Difference Does It Make?
TURNING POINT: The Agricultural Village
SETTLING DOWN 10,000 B.C.E.—1000 C.E.
The First Cities and Why They Matter: Digs, Texts, and Interpretations
From Village Community to City-state
Food First: The Agricultural Village
10,000 B.C.E.—750 B.C.E.
The Agricultural Village
The First Cities
Sumer : The Birth of the City
The Growth of the City-state
Religion: The Priesthood and the City
Occupational Specialization and Class Structure
Arts and Invention
Trade and Markets: Wheeled Cart and Sailboat
Monumental Architecture and Adornment
Achievements in Literature and Law
The First Cities:What Difference Do They Make?
River Valley Civilizations: The Nile and the Indus
7000 B.C.E.—750 B.C.E.
Egypt : The Gift of the Nile
Earliest Egypt: Before the Kings
The Written Record
Unification and the Rule of the Kings
The Gods, the Unification of Egypt, and the Afterlife
Cities of the Dead
The Growth of Cities
Monumental Architecture of the Old Kingdom: Pyramids and Fortresses
The Disintegration of the Old Kingdom
The Rise and Fall of the Middle Kingdom
Akhetaten, Capital City of King Akhenaten
The Indus Valley Civilization and its Mysteries
The Roots of the Indus Valley Civilization
The Design and Construction of Well-planned Cities
Crafts and the Arts
Carefully Planned Cities
Questions of Interpretation
Legacies of the Harappan Civilization
The Cities of the Nile and Indus: What Difference Do They Make?
A Polycentric World
Cities and States in East Asia, the Americas, and West Africa
1700 B.C.E.—1000 C.E.
China : The Xia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties
The Earliest Villages
The Beginnings of State Formation
Early Evidence of Writing
Historical Evidence of the Xia Dynasty
Similarities Among the Three Dynasties
City and State under the Shang and Zhou
Early Royal Capitals
Anyang : The Last Shang Capital
The Zhou Dynasty
The Western Hemisphere: Mesoamerica and South America
Origins: Migration and Agriculture
Mesoamerican Urbanization: The First Stages
Olmec Civilization along the Gulf Coast
Zapotec Civilization in the Oaxaca Valley
The Urban Explosion: Teotihuacán
Successor States in the Valley of Mexico
The Rise and Fall of the Maya
The Great City of Tikal
Maya Civilization in Decline
Urbanization in South America
Coastal Settlements and Networks
Urbanization in the Andes Mountains
The Tiwanaku, Huari, and Nazca
Agricultural Towns in North America
West Africa: The Niger River Valley
West Africa Before Urbanization
Jenne-jeno: A New Urban Pattern?
The First Cities:What Difference Do They Make?
TURNING POINT: From City-state to Empire
EMPIRE AND IMPERIALISM (2000 B.C.E.—1100 C.E.)
What are Empires and Why are they Important?
Dawn of the Empires
Empire-building in North Africa,West Asia, and the Mediterranean
2000 B.C.E.—300 B.C.E.
The Meaning of Empire
The Earliest Empires
Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent
Sargon of Akkad
Waves of Invaders: The Babylonians and the Hittites
Egypt and International Conquest
The Art of Palace and Temple
The End of Empire
The Persian Empire
Symbols of Power
The Greek City-states
Early City-states of the Aegean
The Greek Polis: Image and Reality
War with Persia
The Golden Age of Athenian Culture
The Limits of City-state Democracy
From City-state to Small Empire
The Peloponnesian War
The Empire of Alexander the Great
The Conquests of Philip
The Reign of Alexander the Great
The Legacies of Alexander
Empire-building: What Difference Does It Make?
Rome and the Barbarians: The Rise and Dismemberment of Empire
753 B.C.E.—1453 C.E. 162
From Hill Town to Republic, 753—133 B . C . E .
Patricians and Plebeians in the
The Struggle of the Orders
The Senate of Rome
Roman Military Power
The Expansion of the Republic
The Punic Wars
The “New Wisdom”
The Eastern Mediterranean
The Politics of Imperial Rule
Citizens of Rome
The Politics of Private Life
The Roman Family
Class Conflict: Urban Splendor and Squalor
Attempts at Reform
“Bread and Circuses”
Slavery in Roman Life
The End of the Republic
Generals in Politics
The Dictatorship of Julius Caesar
The Roman Principate, 30 B . C . E .—330 C . E .
Family Life in the Age of Augustus
The Military under Augustus
The Roman Empire Expands
Economic and Trade Policies
The Golden Age of Greco-Roman Culture
Religion in Imperial Rome
Rome and the Jews
Rome and the Early Christians
The Dismemberment of the Roman Empire
Invaders at the Gates
Decline and Dismemberment
The Crisis of the Third Century
The Fragmentation of Authority
Causes of the Decline and Fall
The Eastern Empire, 330—1453 C . E .
Resurgence under Justinian
A Millennium of Byzantine StrengthThe Legacy of the Roman Empire: What Difference Does It Make?
Fracture and Unification: The Qin, Han, Sui, and Tang Dynasties
200 B.C.E.–900 C.E.
The Qin Dynasty
Military Power and Mobilization
Competing Ideologies of Empire
Daoism The Struggle Between Legalism and Confucianism
The Mandate of Heaven
The Fall of the Qin Dynasty
The Han Dynasty
A Confucian Bureaucracy
Military Power and Diplomacy
Population and Migration
Fluctuations in Administrative Power
A Weakened Han Dynasty
Peasant Revolt and the Fall of the Han
Disintegration and Reunification
Ecology and Culture
Buddhism Reaches China
Reunification under the Sui and Tang Dynasties
The Short-lived Sui Dynasty
Arts and Technology under the Tang Dynasty
The West and Northwest
The South and Southwest
Immigration and Cultural Influences
Legacies for the Future: What Difference Do They Make?
Longevity and Persistence
Policy and Powers of Assimilation
Ideology and Cultural Cohesion
Influence on Neighbors
Relations with Barbarians
The Role of the Emperor
Gender Relationships and the Family
The Significance of Imperial Armies
Public Works Projects
The Concentration of Wealth
Policies for and against Individual Mobility
Indian Empires: Cultural Cohesion in a Divided Subcontinent
1500 B.C.E.—1100 C.E.
New Arrivals in South Asia
Chronicles of the Aryan Immigrants
The Mahabharataand the Ramayana
The Establishment of States
The Empires of India
The Maurya Empire
Government under the Maurya Dynasty
Asoka , India ’s Buddhist Emperor
Successor States Divide the Empire
The Gupta Empire
A Golden Age of Learning
The Resurgence of Hinduism
Invasions End the Age of Empires
The Hunas and their Legacy
Regional Diversity and Power
Sea Trade and Cultural Influence: From Rome to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia: “Greater India”
India , China, and Rome: Empires and Intermediate Institutions
Invasion of the Hunas
Local Institutions and the State
Indian Empires:What Difference Do They Make?
TURNING POINT: Politics and Religion
THE RISE OF WORLD RELIGIONS (2500 B.C.E.–1500 C.E.)
Not by Bread Alone: Religion in World History
Hinduism and Buddhism
The Sacred Subcontinent: The Spread of Religion in India and Beyond
1500 B.C.E.—1200 C.E.
Examining Religious Beliefs
The Origins of Hinduism
Sacred Geography and Pilgrimage
The Central Beliefs of Hinduism
The Brahmanasand Upanishads
The Great Epics
Temples and Shrines
Religion and Rule
Hinduism in Southeast Asia
The Origins of Buddhism
The Life of the Buddha
The Emergence of Mahayana Buddhism
The Decline of Buddhism in India
Buddhism in China
Arrival in China: The Silk Route
Relations with Daoism and Confucianism
Buddhism under the Tang Dynasty
Buddhism’s Decline in China
Buddhism in Japan
Buddhism’s Arrival in Japan
Buddhism’s Role in Unifying Japan
Japanese Buddhism Develops New Forms
Lasting Buddhist Elements in Japanese Society
Comparing Buddhism and HinduismHinduism and Buddhism: What Difference Do They Make?
Judaism and Christianity: Peoples of the Bible: God’s Evolution in West Asia and Europe
1700 B.C.E.–1100 C.E.
The Sacred Scriptures
Essential Beliefs of Judaism in Early Scriptures
The Later Books of Jewish Scripture
Rule by Judges and by Kings
The Teachings of the Prophets: Morality and Hope
The Evolution of the Image of God
Patriarchy and Gender Relations
Defeat, Exile, and Redefinition
Minority–Majority Relations in the Diaspora
Christianity Emerges from Judaism
Jesus’ Life, Teachings, and Disciples
Adapting Rituals to New Purposes
Overturning the Old Order
Jesus and the Jewish Establishment
Miracles and Resurrection
The Growth of the Early Church
Paul Organizes the Early Church
The Christian Calendar
From Persecution to Triumph
The Conversion of Constantine
How had Christianity Succeeded?
Doctrine: Definition and Dispute
Battles Over Dogma
Christianity in the Wake of Empire
The Conversion of the Barbarians
Decentralized Power and Monastic Life
The Church Divides into East and West
The Split between Rome and Constantinople
New Areas Adopt Orthodox Christianity
Christianity in Western Europe
The Pope Allies with the Franks
Charlemagne Revives the Idea of Empire
The Attempt at Empire FailsJudaism and Early Christianity: What Difference Do They Make?
Islam: Submission to Allah: Muslim Civilization Bridges the World
570 C.E.—1500 C.E.
The Origins of Islam
The Prophet: His Life and Teaching
The Five Pillars of Islam
Responses to Muhammad
The Hijraand the Islamic Calendar
Muhammad Extends his Authority
Connections to Other Monotheistic Faiths
Successors to the Prophet
Civil War: Religious Conflict and the Sunni—Shi’a Division
The Umayyad Caliphs Build an Empire
The Third Civil War and the Abbasid Caliphs
The Weakening of the Caliphate
The Emergence of Quasi-independent States
Seljuk Turks and their Sultanate
The Mongols and the Destruction of the Caliphate
Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
Islam Reaches New Peoples
Law Provides an Institutional Foundation
Sufis Provide Religious Mysticism
The Role of Mysticism
Mathematics, Astronomy, and Medicine
The Extension of Technology
City Design and Architecture
Relations with Non-Muslims
A Golden Age in Spain
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: What Difference Do They Make?TURNING POINT: Religion and Trade
GLOBAL TRADE: THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN WORLD (1300–1700)
Trade, Traders, Disease, and Migration
Establishing World Trade Routes: The Geography and Philosophies of Early Economic Systems
World Trade: A Historical Analysis
Trade in the Americas Before 1500
The Inca Empire
Central America and Mexico
Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa
Asia ’s Complex Trade Patterns
The South Pacific
The South China Sea
The Indian Ocean
China : A Magnet for Traders
The Voyages of Zheng He
Central Asia : The Mongols and the Silk Routes
Intercontinental Trade Flourishes
The End of the Mongol Empire
From Mongol to Ming: Dynastic TransitionWorld Trade Routes Before Columbus: What Difference Do They Make?
The Opening of the Atlantic and the Pacific: Economic Growth, Religion and Renaissance, Global Connections
Economic and Social Changes in Europe
Workers and the Landed Gentry
Textiles and Social Conflict
Business and the Church
Plague and Social Unrest
The Roots of the Renaissance
New Artistic Styles
Developments in Technology
A New World
The Early Explorers, 800–1000
Down Africa’s Atlantic Coast
Crossing the Atlantic
Crossing the Pacific
Legacies to the Future:What Difference Do They Make?