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The Writer's Brief Handbook

by ;
ISBN13:

9780321089311

ISBN10:
0321089316
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div

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Summary

Ever written a letter to the editor? A report for your boss? An email to an old friend? A compact, easy-to-use guide, The Writerrs"s Brief Handbook offers clear definitions, helpful explanations, and up-to-the-minute research and reference toolsaltogether the best concise yet comprehensive reference available for todayrs"s writers in any context. An extensive research section provides clear guidelines for how to research online, and examples of special-purpose writingemail, letters to the editor, business reports, and othersmake this book useful to everyone who puts pen to paperor fingers to keyboards. Topics include: Composing, Paragraphs, Grammar Essentials, Sentence Basics and Sentence Style, Word Choice, Punctuation, Mechanics, Document Design, Special Kinds of Writing, and Research.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiv
I COMPOSING 1(397)
Writing with a computer
2(1)
Planning
3(12)
Analyzing the writing task
4(1)
Choosing a subject
4(1)
Focusing on a topic
5(1)
Generating ideas and collecting information
5(5)
Asking questions
6(1)
Brainstorming
6(2)
Clustering
8(1)
Keeping a journal
9(1)
Freewriting
9(1)
Researching
9(1)
Rehearsing ideas
9(1)
Visualizing topics
10(1)
Thinking creatively
10(1)
Determining your purpose
10(2)
Writing from experience
10(1)
Writing to inform
11(1)
Writing to persuade
11(1)
Formulating a thesis statement
12(1)
Analyzing your audience
13(1)
Outlining
13(2)
Writing a draft
15(3)
Choosing a title
16(1)
Writing the body
17(1)
Writing the beginning and ending
17(1)
Revising
18(4)
Revising the largest elements
18(1)
Revising sentences and diction
19(2)
Conducting peer conferences
21(1)
Editing
22(1)
Editing for grammar, punctuation, and mechanics
22(1)
Preparing the final copy
22(1)
Proofreading the final copy
23(1)
Annotated student essay
23(6)
II PARAGRAPHS
Unity
29(4)
Topic sentence
29(2)
Controlling idea
31(2)
Development
33(7)
Completeness
33(1)
Implied strategy
34(6)
Narration
34(1)
Description
35(1)
Exemplification
35(1)
Facts, statistics, reasons
36(1)
Definition
36(1)
Process analysis
37(1)
Comparison and contrast
37(1)
Analogy
38(1)
Division and classification
38(1)
Cause and effect
39(1)
Mixed strategies
39(1)
Coherence
40(7)
Effective order
41(1)
Chronological order
41(1)
Spatial order
41(1)
Logical order
42(1)
Transitional words and phrases
42(2)
Key words and phrases
44(1)
Parallel structure
44(1)
Transitions between paragraphs
45(2)
III GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS
Parts of speech
47(7)
Verbs
47(2)
Forms of verbs
48(1)
Intransitive, transitive, and linking verbs
48(1)
Verbals
49(1)
Nouns
49(1)
Pronouns
50(1)
Adjectives
51(1)
Adverbs
52(1)
Prepositions
52(1)
Conjunctions
53(1)
Interjections
54(1)
Parts of sentences
54(2)
Subjects
55(1)
Predicates
55(1)
Objects
55(1)
Complements
56(1)
Phrases
56(2)
Prepositional phrases
56(1)
Verbal phrases
57(1)
Appositive phrases
57(1)
Absolute phrases
58(1)
Clauses
58(2)
Adjective clauses
58(1)
Adverb clauses
59(1)
Noun clauses
59(1)
Types of sentences
60(3)
Classification by structure
60(1)
Classification by purpose
61(2)
IV ESL BASICS
Verbs
63(9)
Modals
63(1)
Perfect tenses
64(1)
Progressive tenses
65(2)
Passive voice
67(1)
Two-word verbs
68(2)
Verbs followed by an infinitive or a gerund
70(2)
Nouns, quantifiers, and articles
72(3)
Noncount nouns
72(1)
Quantifiers
73(1)
Indefinite article (a/an)
73(1)
Definite article (the)
74(1)
Adjectives and adverbs
75(3)
Cumulative adjectives
76(1)
Present and past participles
76(1)
Adverbs
77(1)
Prepositions and prepositional phrases
78(2)
Correct prepositions
78(1)
Necessary prepositions
79(1)
Unnecessary words in prepositional phrases
79(1)
Infinitives
79(1)
Compound prepositions
79(1)
Adjective + preposition combinations
80(1)
Parts of sentences
80(2)
Omitted verbs
80(1)
Omitted subjects
81(1)
Expletives (there, here, it)
81(1)
Special problems
82(6)
Word order in questions
82(1)
Questions with who, whom, and what
83(1)
Word order in indirect questions
83(1)
Reported speech
84(2)
Conditional sentences
86(2)
Confusing words and phrases
88(1)
V SENTENCES
Parallelism
89(1)
With coordinating conjunctions
89(1)
With correlative conjunctions
89(1)
With comparisons using than or as
90(1)
Misplaced and dangling modifiers
90(2)
Placement of modifiers
91(1)
Dangling modifiers
92(1)
Shifts
92(4)
Shifts in person and number
93(1)
Shifts in verb tense
94(1)
Shifts in mood
94(1)
Shifts in subject and voice
94(1)
Shifts in quotation
95(1)
Shifts in tone and style
95(1)
Shifts in point of view
96(1)
Unified and logical sentences
96(3)
Relevant details
97(1)
Mixed or illogical constructions
97(2)
Subordination and coordination
99(2)
Choppy sentences
99(1)
Excessive subordination
100(1)
Ideas of equal importance
101(1)
Emphasis
101(2)
Placement of important words and phrases
101(1)
Logical order
102(1)
Active voice
102(1)
Repetition
102(1)
Short, dramatic sentences
102(1)
Periodic sentences
103(1)
Balanced constructions
103(1)
Sentence variety
103(6)
Overuse of short, simple sentences
104(1)
Sentence openings
105(1)
Overuse of compound sentences
106(3)
VI EDITING FOR GRAMMAR
Subject-verb agreement
109(5)
Identifying subjects
109(1)
Compound subjects
110(1)
Subjects joined by either/or or neither/nor
111(1)
Collective nouns
111(1)
Relative pronouns
111(1)
Indefinite pronouns
112(1)
Subject after verb
113(1)
Subject complements
113(1)
Singular nouns ending in -s
113(1)
Titles as subjects
114(1)
Words used as words
114(1)
Noun clauses
114(1)
Verbs: form, tense, mood, and voice
114(9)
Irregular verbs
114(3)
Lay/lie and set/sit
117(1)
Tense
118(2)
Present tense
118(1)
Present perfect
118(1)
Present progressive
119(1)
Present perfect progressive
119(1)
Past tense
119(1)
Past perfect
119(1)
Past progressive
119(1)
Past perfect progressive
119(1)
Future tense
119(1)
Future perfect
120(1)
Future progressive
120(1)
Future perfect progressive
120(1)
Sequences of tense forms
120(2)
Subordinate clauses
120(1)
Infinitives
121(1)
Participles
122(1)
Mood
122(1)
Active voice
123(1)
Pronoun problems
123(9)
Pronoun-antecedent agreement
124(2)
Pronoun reference
126(2)
Case of pronouns
128(3)
Who and whom
131(1)
Adjectives and adverbs
132(4)
Adverbs with verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
132(1)
Adjectives as subject complements
133(1)
Bad/badly and good/well
133(1)
Demonstrative adjective-noun agreement
134(1)
Comparative and superlative
135(1)
Fragments
136(3)
Phrase fragments
137(1)
Subordinate clauses
137(1)
Appositives
137(1)
Compound predicates
138(1)
Intentional fragments
138(1)
Comma splices and fused sentences
139(4)
Separating sentences
140(1)
Connecting clauses with a semicolon
140(1)
Connecting clauses with a comma and a coordinating conjunction
141(1)
Restructuring sentences
141(2)
VII WORD CHOICE
Eliminating clutter
143(4)
Subjects and verbs
143(1)
Redundancies
144(1)
Empty words
145(1)
Inflated expressions and phrases
145(1)
Unnecessary clauses
146(1)
Exactness
147(5)
Denotation
147(1)
Connotation
147(1)
General/specific and abstract/concrete words
148(1)
Idioms
149(1)
Figurative language
150(1)
Cliches
151(1)
Appropriateness
152(3)
Degree of formality
152(1)
Nonstandard English, slang, and regional expressions
153(1)
Pretentious language, euphemisms, and doublespeak
153(1)
Jargon
154(1)
Vogue words
155(1)
Bias in writing
155(2)
The dictionary
157(3)
Spelling
157(1)
Word division
158(1)
Pronunciation
158(1)
Part-of-speech and other grammatical labels
159(1)
Word endings
159(1)
Meanings
159(1)
Etymology
159(1)
Synonyms and antonyms
159(1)
Special usage labels and usage notes
160(1)
The thesaurus
160(1)
Glossary of usage
161(10)
VIII PUNCTUATION
The comma
171(9)
Independent clauses with coordinating conjunctions
171(1)
Introductory word groups
172(1)
Nonrestrictive elements
173(1)
Nonrestrictive adjective phrases and clauses
173(1)
Nonrestrictive appositives
174(1)
Series
174(1)
Coordinate adjectives
175(1)
Interruptive expressions
176(1)
Contrasted elements
176(1)
Speech tags
176(1)
Mild interjections, direct address, yes and no, interrogative tags
177(1)
Titles, names, dates, and other conventions
177(1)
To prevent misreadings
178(1)
To indicate omissions
178(1)
Unnecessary commas
178(2)
The semicolon
180(2)
Independent clauses
180(1)
With transitional expressions or conjunctive adverbs
181(1)
With other punctuation
181(1)
Misuses
182(1)
The colon
182(2)
Independent clauses
182(1)
Series
182(1)
Appositives
183(1)
Direct quotations
183(1)
Business letters, biblical references, titles and subtitles, bibliographic entries
183(1)
Misuses
184(1)
The apostrophe
184(2)
Possessive case
184(1)
Contractions
185(1)
Plurals
185(1)
Misuses
186(1)
Quotation marks
186(3)
Direct quotations
186(1)
Titles
187(1)
Words used as words
188(1)
With other punctuation
188(1)
Misuses
189(1)
Other punctuation marks
189(8)
The period
189(2)
The question mark
191(1)
The exclamation point
191(1)
The dash
192(1)
Parentheses
192(1)
Brackets
193(1)
The ellipsis mark
194(2)
The slash
196(1)
IX MECHANICS
Capitals
197(5)
Proper nouns
197(2)
Proper adjectives
199(1)
Organizations, government agencies, call letters, acronyms
199(1)
Titles, family relationships, epithets
200(1)
Sentences, deliberate sentence fragments
200(1)
With colons
200(1)
Quoted sentences
201(1)
Poetry
201(1)
Titles, subtitles
201(1)
Complimentary close of letter
202(1)
Abbreviations
202(3)
Titles with proper nouns
203(1)
A.D., B.C., a.m., p.m., no.
203(1)
Organizations, corporations, government agencies, states, countries
204(1)
Latin abbreviations
204(1)
Numbers
205(1)
Words vs. numbers
205(1)
Dates, times, addresses, chapters and pages, percentages, and other conventions
205(1)
Italics/underlining
206(3)
Titles
207(1)
Ships, planes, trains, spacecraft
207(1)
Numbers, letters, words used as such
208(1)
Foreign words
208(1)
For emphasis
208(1)
The hyphen
209(3)
Compound words
209(1)
Two or more words as a single adjective
209(1)
With compound numbers, written fractions
210(1)
Prefixes and suffixes
210(1)
Word division
210(2)
Spelling
212(9)
Conventional spelling rules
213(4)
Words that sound alike
217(4)
X DOCUMENT DESIGN
Understanding the principles of design
221(3)
Establishing direction, or flow
222(1)
Using white space
222(1)
Grouping related elements
222(1)
Giving emphasis
223(1)
Maintaining consistency
224(1)
The elements of design
224(5)
Margins and line spacing
225(1)
Type styles and sizes
225(1)
Headings and subheadings
226(2)
Lists
228(1)
Visuals
229(6)
Tables, charts, and graphs
229(2)
Diagrams
231(1)
Illustrations and photographs
232(1)
Clip art
233(2)
XI WRITING AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY/WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE
WRITING AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
Understanding the elements of argument
235(2)
Topics
235(1)
Claims
235(1)
Data, or evidence
236(1)
Warrants, or assumptions
237(1)
Making appropriate appeals
237(4)
Logical appeals
237(3)
Emotional appeals
240(1)
Ethical appeals
240(1)
Considering your audience
241(2)
Audience
241(1)
Rogerian (``common ground'') audience strategy
242(1)
Refuting the opposition's arguments
243(1)
Annotated student argumentative essay
244(4)
Organizing the argumentative essay
248(1)
WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE
Reading and analyzing a literary text
249(2)
Observing the conventions
251(1)
Using quotations
252(1)
Annotated student essay about literature
253(6)
XII SPECIAL KINDS OF WRITING
E-Communications
259(5)
E-mail
259(1)
E-mail attachments
260(1)
Listservs
260(1)
Netiquette
261(1)
Web site design
262(2)
Business writing
264(10)
Business letters
264(4)
Resumes
268(5)
Standard resumes
268(2)
Scannable resumes
270(2)
E-resumes
272(1)
Memos
273(1)
Oral presentations
274(4)
Outlining
275(1)
Preparing and practicing
275(2)
Visuals
277(1)
Essay examinations
278(3)
Budgeting time
278(1)
Answering the questions
278(1)
Analyzing verbs
279(1)
Planning
279(1)
Proofreading
280(1)
XIII THE RESEARCH PAPER
Conducting library and Internet research
281(21)
Setting a schedule
281(1)
Choosing a research topic and question
282(2)
Determining a search strategy
284(2)
Conducting research in the library
286(4)
Reference books
286(1)
Books
287(1)
Periodicals
288(2)
Conducting research on the Internet
290(12)
Accessing the World Wide Web
290(1)
Using search engines
291(2)
Using subject directories
293(5)
Using keyword searches
298(4)
Selecting and evaluating sources
302(5)
Previewing print and online sources
302(2)
Evaluating print and online sources
304(2)
Using interviews and questionnaries
306(1)
Keeping track of information
307(8)
Keeping a working bibliography
307(2)
Reading and analyzing sources
309(1)
Taking notes
310(5)
Elements of a note card
311(1)
Summary
311(1)
Paraphrase
312(1)
Direct quotation
313(2)
Organizing and drafting the research paper
315(2)
Formulating a thesis statement
315(1)
Developing a working outline
316(1)
Writing a first draft
317(1)
Documenting sources and avoiding plagiarism
317(5)
Using an accepted documentation style
317(3)
Avoiding plagiarism
320(2)
Quotation marks
320(1)
Summaries and paraphrases
321(1)
Integrating borrowed information
322(3)
Using signal phrases
322(2)
Appropriate signal phrases
322(1)
With quotations
322(1)
With paraphrases and summaries
323(1)
Setting off long quotations
324(1)
Revising the research paper
325(5)
XIV MLA DOCUMENTATION AND FORMATS
MLA in-text citations
330(5)
MLA list of works cited
335(12)
MLA information notes
347(1)
MLA manuscript format
347(3)
Annotated student research paper: MLA style
350(15)
XV OTHER SYSTEMS OF DOCUMENTATION AND FORMAT
APA style
365(19)
In-text citations
365(3)
References
368(5)
APA manuscript format
373(3)
Annotated student research paper: APA style
376(8)
Chicago Manual style
384(14)
Endnotes or footnotes
384(1)
Bibliography
384(1)
Model notes and bibliographic entries
385(6)
Subsequent references
391(1)
Chicago Manual manuscript format
391(2)
Annotated pages from a student research paper: Chicago Manual style
393(5)
Credits 398
Index 1


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