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A Writer's Workshop: Student Edition with Student Access Card,9780072882223

A Writer's Workshop: Student Edition with Student Access Card

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780072882223

ISBN10:
0072882220
Format:
Nonspecific Binding
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $52.33

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Summary

This process-based paragraph-to-essay level text makes three basic assumptions about developing writers: they learn to write best by writing, they need to revise their work significantly, and they deserve comprehensive instruction on why and how to revise to express themselves more effectively. To this end, A Writer's Workshop provides many opportunities for students at all levels--from the least-to best prepared--to write often with a rhetorical context and to critically evaluate their work.

Table of Contents

*New to this Edition

Preface

Unit I: Getting Our Feet Wet

1. Practicing the Writing Process

How Do We Begin to Write?

Questions to Ask at the Start of a Writing Project

After Breaking Ground—into the Writing Process

Steps in the Writing Process

Discovering Ideas
Freewriting
Clustering
Brainstorming (Listing)
Journalist’s Questions
Patterns of Development
Journal Entries
Considering Your Audience

Organizing Ideas

Rough Outlines
Formal Outlines

Drafting

Preparing a Workspace and Moving Ahead
Breaking Out of Writer’s Block

Revising

Revision Priority List
Group Revising
How the Writer Can Help the Reader
How the Reader Can Help the Writer

Editing

How to Edit
Major Categories of Mechanical Errors

Proofreading

How to Proofread and Prepare Your Final Manuscript

Diagnostic Writing Assignments

Chapter Summary

2. Making the Most of Reading

Is There a Method to Effective Reading?

Methods for Reading

Prereading: Preparing to Understand

Signposts
Beginnings and Endings
Connections: Linking New to Previous Knowledge

Reading: Processing Ideas

Anticipating and Reacting
Visualizing
Linking New to Previous Knowledge

Reading: Focusing and Recording Main Ideas

Looking for Thesis, Topic, and Summary Sentences
Focusing on Primary (Essential) Examples
Expecting to Find Repeated Material
Noticing the Patterns of Development
Learning to Annotate, Outline, Summarize, and Paraphrase
Organizing Body Paragraphs

Postreading: Retaining Ideas

Chapter Summary

Unit II: Working with the Paragraph

3. Introducing the Paragraph

What Is a Paragraph?

Writing a Topic Sentence

How to Write a Topic Sentence
Focusing Topic Sentences
Revising Topic Sentences

Developing Body Paragraphs

Kinds of Support
Sufficient Support
Relevant Support—Achieving Unity
Clear Support

Writing a Concluding Sentence

How to Write a Concluding Sentence
Expanded Thought

Organizing Body Paragraphs

Connecting Sentences—Achieving Coherence

Methods for Achieving Coherence
Transitions
Repetition
Synonyms
Pronouns
Reference to Main Ideas

Selecting a Title

How to Write Effective Titles
What to Avoid in Titles

Formatting

Chapter Summary

4. Revising Paragraphs

Revising Paragraphs

Revising First-Stage Drafts: Chapters 8-11

Revising Second-Stage Drafts

Editing

Editing Review
Editing Problems for All Patterns of Development
A Special Note on Verb Tense in Narrative

Proofreading

How to Proofread and Prepare Your Final Manuscript

5. Picturing A Place

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Descriptive

Paragraphs
Using Specific, Concrete Language
Establishing and Strengthening the Dominant Impression
Organizing Descriptions by Using a Spatial Arrangement
Locating the Reader in Space and Time

Descriptive Paragraphs: Looking Closely at Student Models

"Untitled" by Andrea Turner
"Waking Up the Right Way" by Stacey Becker
Questions for Paragraph Analysis

Writing a Descriptive Paragraph

The Assignment

Establishing Audience and Purpose

Working Through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Prewriting Suggestions
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising First-Stage Drafts
Revising Second and Final Drafts

Annotated Student Model

"Our Family Outing" by Jo Lucas

Final-Draft Checklist

Chapter Summary

Alternate Writing Assignments

6. Telling Your Own Story

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Narrative Paragraphs

Creating Conflict, Suspense, and a Climax
Finding the Significance of a Story
Building a Story That Shows as well as Tells
Using Effective Dialogue
Including Metaphors and Similes to Add Clarity and Interest

Narrative Paragraphs: Looking Closely at Student Models

"Sixteen and Mother of Twelve" by Leilani Houston
"What a Joke!" by Anna Suarez
Questions for Paragraph Analysis

Writing a Narrative Paragraph

The Assignment

Establishing Your Audience and Purpose

Working through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Prewriting Suggestions
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising First-Stage Drafts
Revising Second and Final Drafts

Annotated Student Model

"Do Unto Others" by Chris Potts

Final-Draft Checklist

Chapter Summary

Alternate Writing Assignments

7. Illustrating through Examples

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Illustration Paragraphs

Organizing Examples through Subtopic Sentences
Arranging Examples by Order of Importance
Linking Sentences
Developing Examples

Illustration Paragraphs: Looking Closely at Student Models

"Teaching with Whips" by Jeong Yi

"Dying to Have Fun" by Thomas Kellogg

"Dangers in a Deli" by Catherine Denning

Questions for Paragraph Analysis

Writing an Illustration Paragraph

The Assignment

Establishing Your Audience and Purpose

Working through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Prewriting Suggestions
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising First-Stage Drafts

Annotated Student Model

"Nothing Worthwhile Comes Easy" by William Ross

Final-Draft Checklist

Chapter Summary

Alternate Writing Assignments

8. Creating and Explaining Groups

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Classification Paragraphs

Using a Single Organizing Principle
Selecting an Organizing Principle
Dividing and Developing Topics
Completing the Groups

Classification Paragraphs: Looking Closely at Student Models

"Mall Crashers" by Chanthan Srouch
"Shopping the Easy Way" by Ann Nall
Questions for Paragraph Analysis

Writing a Classification Paragraph

The Assignment

Establishing Your Audience and Purpose

Working through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Prewriting Suggestions
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising Drafts

Annotated Student Model

"I Do" by Richard Bailey

Final-Draft Checklist

Chapter Summary

Alternate Writing Assignments

9. Recognizing Causes, Explaining Effects

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Cause or Effect Paragraphs

Discovering Causes and Effects
Developing Causes and Effects
Choosing Real Causes and Effects
Thinking Critically

Cause or Effect Paragraphs: Analyzing Student Models

"Making the Promise Last" by Gebdao Kaiwalweroj

"The Thousand-Dollar Lesson" by Lucas Eimers

Questions for Paragraph Analysis

Writing a Cause or Effect Paragraph

The Assignment

Establishing Your Audience and Purpose

Working through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Prewriting Suggestions
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising Drafts

Annotated Student Model

"Building Memories" by Brian Peraud

Final-Draft Checklist

Chapter Summary

Alternate Writing Assignments

10. Explaining Activities: Doing Them, Understanding Them

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Process-Analysis Paragraphs

Listing All Necessary Steps
Explaining Steps Thoroughly—Giving Reasons and Warnings
Defining All Terms
Avoiding Monotonous Sentence Patterns

Process Analysis Paragraphs: Analyzing Student Models

"A Boy’s Best Friend" by Steve Oh
"Recipe for a Red-Hot Sunday" by Jeff Coburn
Questions for Paragraph Analysis

Writing a Process Analysis Paragraph

The Assignment

Establishing Your Audience and Purpose

Working through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Prewriting Suggestions
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising Drafts

Annotated Student Model

"Staying Alive" by Carla Schumann

Chapter Summary

Alternate Writing Assignments

11. Explaining Similarities and Differences

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs

Making a Meaningful Comparison or Contrast
Making an Interesting Comparison or Contrast
Developing Topics Thoroughly
Using Transitions and Other Connectors

Comparison and Contrast Paragraphs: Analyzing Student Models

"Two Different Worlds" by David Harrison

"Breakin’ Through" by Gina Rizzo

Questions for Paragraph Analysis

Writing a Comparison or Contrast Paragraph

The Assignment

Establishing Your Audience and Purpose

Working through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Prewriting Suggestions
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising Drafts

Annotated Student Model

"The Joy of Simple Living" by Ana Maria Sauer

Final-Draft-Checklist

Chapter Summary

Alternate Writing Assignments

Unit III: Working with the Essay

12. Introducing the Essay

What Is an Essay?

Essay Form
Introductory Paragraphs

Thesis Sentence

Limiting the Thesis Sentence
Making a Clear Statement about the Topic
Polishing the Thesis Sentence

Developing Introductions

Methods for Developing Introductory Paragraphs

Hooks

Avoiding Weak Introductions

Body Paragraphs

Topic and Summary Sentences in Body Paragraphs
Developing Body Paragraphs
Arranging Body Paragraphs within Essays
Using Outlines

Concluding Paragraphs

Lead Sentences and Summaries
Developing Conclusions
Concluding Paragraphs with Expanded Thoughts

Avoiding Weak Conclusions

Creating Coherence

Selecting a Title

Chapter Summary

13. Revising Essays

Revising Essays

Revising First-Stage Drafts

Common First-Stage Draft Issues

Revising Second-Stage Drafts

Common Second-Stage Draft Issues

Editing

Common Editing Problems

Proofreading

How to Proofread and Prepare Your Final Manuscript

Final-Draft Checklist

14. Expanding Paragraphs into Essays

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Illustrating Essays through Examples (Illustration)

Illustration Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models

"The Jobs from Hell" by Eric Latham
"Teaching with Whips" by Jeong Yi
Key Elements of Illustration Essays

Creating and Explaining Groups (Classification)

Classification Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models

"A Skill beyond Price" by Ho-Chul Sung
"Shopping the Easy Way" by Ann Nall
Key Elements of Classification Essays

Explaining Causes and Effects (Cause and Effect)

Cause and Effect Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models

"My Friend Who Gave Up on Life" by Julie Hammond
"The Thousand-Dollar Lesson" by Lucas Eimers
Key Elements of Cause-and- Effect Essays

Explaining Activities, Doing Them, Understanding Them (Process Analysis)

Process Analysis Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models

"Jokers Wild" by Michael Feldman
"A Boy’s Best Friend" by Steve Oh
Key Elements in Process-Analysis Essays

Explaining Similarities and Differences (Comparison and Contrast)

Comparison/Contrast Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models

"I’ll Park. You Get the Tickets—Hurry!" by Hugh Edwards
"Break on through to the Other Side" by Gina Rizzo
Key Elements in Comparison and Contrast Essays

Questions for Essay Analysis

Writing an Essay

The Assignment

Establishing Your Audience and Purpose

Working through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising Drafts

Alternate Writing Assignments

15. Defining Terms, Clarifying Ideas

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Definition Essays

Defining with Synonyms
Defining by Negation
Defining with Comparisons
Defining Formally
Creating Extended Definitions

Definition Essays: Analyzing Student Models

"Finding Home" by April Griffin
"Deaf, Not Dumb" by Bruce Hayworth
Questions for Essay Analysis

Writing a Definition Essay

The Assignment

Establishing Your Audience and Purpose

Working through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Prewriting Suggestions
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising Drafts

Annotated Student Model

"Get Wet" by Kyle Jennings

Chapter Summary

Alternate Writing Assignments

16. Writing Persuasively

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Persuasive Essays

Defining the Issue
Presenting Reasons and Providing Support
Connecting with the Audience
Avoiding Errors in Logic
Countering Opposition

Persuasive Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models

"Just Say No" by Marisa Youmbi
"Something for Nothing?" by Matt Smith
Questions for Essay Analysis

Writing a Persuasive Essay

The Assignment

Establishing Your Audience and Purpose

Working through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Prewriting Suggestions
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising Drafts

Annotated Student Model

"Should Our Grandparents Be Driving?" by Erica Hood

Chapter Summary

Alternate Writing Assignments

17. Taking Essay Exams

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Writing for Essay Exams

Analyzing the Question
Writing Relevant, Specific Responses
Writing Essay-Exam Introductory Paragraphs
Writing Essay-Exam Concluding Paragraphs
Writing a Complete Essay-Exam Response

Essay-Exam Responses: Analyzing Student Models

"Clinging by Their Fingers" by Adam Fletcher
"Natural Selection" by Emma Perez
Questions for Essay Analysis

Writing an Essay-Exam Response

The Assignment

Establishing Your Audience and Purpose

Working through the Writing Assignment

Discovering Ideas
Prewriting out of Class
Prewriting in Class
Organizing Ideas
Drafting
Revising Drafts

Annotated Student Model

Chapter Summary

Alternate Writing Assignments

Unit IV: Polishing Style

18. Creating Sentence Variety

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Varying the Length of Sentences

Varying the Types of Sentences

Coordinating Words in Sentences

Subordinating Words in Sentences

Adjective Clauses—Nonessential
Adjective Clauses—Essential
Adverb Clauses

Varying Sentences with Questions, Commands, and Exclamations

Questions
Commands and Exclamations

Varying the Beginnings of Sentences

Varying Sentence Beginnings with Adverbs

Varying Sentence Beginnings with Phrases

Prepositional Phrases
Participial Phrase—Present Tense
Participial Phrase—Past Tense
Absolute Phrase
Infinitive Phrase
Appositive Phrase

Inverted Sentences

Chapter Summary

19. Choosing the Most Effective Word

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Specific and Concrete Language

Choosing Specific Words
Choosing Concrete Words

Writing Concisely

Revising to Eliminate Redundant Expressions
Revising to Reduce Empty and Padded Phrases
Removing Excessive Qualifiers and Emphasizers
Removing Unnecessary Examples, Details, and Explanations
Reducing Inflated Clauses and Phrases

Choosing Language for Tone

Revising Unneeded Big Words
Avoiding Slang and Colloquial Expressions
Controlling Denotation and Connotation
Eliminating Biased Language
Using Contractions Carefully

Using Figures of Speech

Metaphor, Simile, and Personification
Overstatement, Understatement, and Irony
Emphatic Repetition

Chapter Summary

Unit V: Practicing Sentence Sense

20. Working with Sentence Parts

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Parts of Speech

Identifying Parts of Speech

Verbs
Nouns
Pronouns
Adjectives
Adverbs
Prepositions
Conjunctions
Interjections

Word Shifts

Verbs, Subjects, and Simple Sentences

Recognizing Verbs
Recognizing Subjects

Phrases

Prepositional Phrases
Infinitive Phrases
Participial Phrases
Gerund Phrases
Absolute Phrases
Appositive Phrases

Clauses

Noun Clauses
Adjective Clauses
Adverb Clauses

Sentence Types

Simple Sentences
Compound Sentences
Complex Sentences
Compound–Complex Sentences

A Writer’s Basic Sentence Grammar

21. Coordination, Subordination, and Parallelism

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Using Coordination
Excessive Coordination

Subordination

Adverb Clauses
Adjective Clauses
Excessive Subordination

Parallelism

Series
Lists and Outlines
Pairs

22. Run-Ons, Comma Splices, and Sentence Fragments

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices

Fixing Run-Ons and Comma Splices with End Punctuation
Fixing Run-Ons and Comma Splices with Coordination
Fixing Run-Ons and Comma Splices with Semicolons
Fixing Run-Ons and Comma Splices with Subordination

Sentence Fragments

Phrase Fragments
Subordinate Clause Fragments

23. Verbs: Form and Agreement

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

The Principal Parts of Verbs and Verb Tenses

Three Primary Verb Tenses
Helping Verbs
Perfect Tenses
Progressive Tenses
Irregular Verbs
Problem Verbs
Verb Tense Sequences and Unneeded Tense Shifts

Subject/Verb Agreement

Intervening Words
Compound Subjects
Indefinite Pronouns
Or, Either/Or, Neither/Nor
Relative Pronouns as Subjects
Linking Verbs
Changing the Order of Subjects and Verbs
Collective Nouns
Plural Nouns/Plural Verbs
"False" Plural Nouns

24. Pronouns: Reference, Agreement, and Form

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Referring Clearly to a Specific Antecedent

Agreeing in Number with the Antecedent

Indefinite Pronouns
Collective Nouns
Compound Antecedents

Choosing Proper Pronoun Case

Subjective Case
Objective Case
Possessive Case

Solving Common Problems

Compounds
Comparisons
Who/Whom

Avoiding Shifts in Person

25. Adjectives and Adverbs: Words that Describe

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Adjectives and Related Word Groups

Adverbs and Related Word Groups

Comparative and Superlative Forms

Avoiding Overuse of Modifiers

Avoiding Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers

26. Commas, Other Punctuation, and Mechanics

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Commas

The Big Three Comma Categories

Commas That Separate Introductory Words and Word Groups
Commas That Set Off Nonessential Words and Word Groups
Commas That Separate Main Clauses

Secondary Comma Categories

Items in a Series
Coordinate Adjectives
Contrasting Expressions
Misleading Expressions
Numbers, Addresses, Place Names, Dates, Direct Address
Avoiding Incorrect Commas

Other Punctuation and Mechanics

Semicolon
Colon
Dash
Parentheses
Quotation Marks
Apostrophe
Hyphen
Capitalization
Numbers
Underlining and Italicizing

27. Spelling and Sound-Alike Words

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Some Suggestions for Help with Spelling

Reviewing Vowels and Consonants

Some Useful Spelling Patterns

Doubling the Final Consonant
Dropping or Keeping the Final e
Changing or Not Changing the Final y to i
Forming Plurals: -s or -es
Using ie or ei
List of Frequently Misspelled Words

Sound-Alike Words

28. ESL Concerns

What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?

Count and Noncount Nouns

Articles

Verbs

Word Order
Three Irregular Verbs— to Do, to Have, to Be
Modals
Stative Verbs
Two-Word (Phrasal) Verbs

Prepositions

Prepositions of Place
Prepositions of Time
Idiomatic Phrases

Ordering Adjectives

Unit VI: Additional Readings

Description

The Great Tide Pool, John Steinbeck

Narration

The Dare, Roger Hoffmann

Illustration

Rambos of the Road, Martin Gottfried

Classification

The Ways of Meeting Oppression, Martin Luther King, Jr.

*Friends, Good Friends, and Such Good Friends, Judith Viorst

Cause and Effect

Two by Two, We’ll Fill the Planet, Benjamin Zuckerman

Black Men and Public Space, Brent Staples

Process Analysis

*The Fine Art of Complaining, Caroline Rego

Comparison and Contrast

Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts, Bruce Catton

A Nice Place to Visit, Russell Baker

Definition

*They’ve Gotta Keep It: People Who Save Everything, Lynda W. Warren and Jonnae C. Ostrom

What Is a Dad?, Bob Brannan

Persuasion

Abortion, Right and Wrong, Rachel Richardson Smith

What Is Biodiversity and Why Should We Care About It?, Donella Meadows

Appendix

*Writing a Research Paper



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