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Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Concise Edition

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780321163387

ISBN10:
0321163389
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Longman

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Summary

The market leader in argumentative rhetorics,Writing Arguments has proven highly successful in teaching individuals to read arguments critically and to produce effective arguments of their own.In its reader-friendly tone, clear explanations, high-interest readings and examples, and well-sequenced critical thinking and writing assignments, this concise text offers a time-tested approach to argument that is interesting and accessible. Throughout the book, the authors approach argument rhetorically by emphasizing audience and context at every stage of the construction of an argument.Writing Arguments moves readers beyond a simplistic debate model of argument to a view of argument as inquiry and consensus-building as well as persuasion, in which the arguer negotiates with others in search of the best solutions to problems. Individuals interested in developing their argumentative writing skills.

Table of Contents

Color Plates xvi
Preface xvii
Part One Overview of Argument 1(62)
1 Argument: An Introduction
3(16)
What Do We Mean by Argument?
3(3)
Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel
3(1)
Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate
4(1)
Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit
4(2)
Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims
6(2)
Argument Is Both a Process and a Product
8(1)
Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion
8(2)
Argument and the Problem of Truth
10(3)
A Successful Process of Argumentation: The Well-Functioning Committee
13(1)
Gordon Adams (student), "Petition to Waive the University Mathematics Requirement"
14(5)
Conclusion
17(2)
2 Reading Arguments
19(24)
Why Reading Arguments Is Important for Writers
19(1)
Strategy 1: Reading as a Believer
19(2)
Lisa Turner, "Playing with Our Food"
21(14)
Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe
24(3)
Suspending Doubt: Willing Your Own Belief in the Writer's Views
27(1)
Strategy 2: Reading as a Doubter
27(1)
Strategy 3: Exploring How Rhetorical Context and Genre Shape the Argument
28(5)
Understanding the Genres of Argument
29(3)
Analyzing Rhetorical Context and Genre
32(1)
Strategy 4: Seeking Alternative Views and Analyzing Sources of Disagreement
33(5)
Disagreement About Facts or Their Relevance
33(1)
Disagreements About Values, Beliefs, or Assumptions
34(1)
Council for Biotechnology Information, "Why Biotech Labeling Can Confuse Consumers"
35(3)
Writing an Analysis of a Disagreement
38(1)
"An Analysis of the Sources of Disagreement Between Lisa Turner and the Council for Biotechnology Information"
38(5)
Strategy 5: Using Disagreement Productively to Prompt Further Investigation
40(2)
Accepting Ambiguity and Uncertainty
40(1)
Seeking Sources of Facts and More Complete Versions of Alternative Views
40(1)
Determining What Values Are at Stake for You and Articulating Your Own Values
41(1)
Considering Ways to Synthesize Alternative Views
42(1)
Conclusion
42(1)
3 Writing Arguments
43(20)
Who Writes Arguments and Why?
43(1)
Tips for Improving Your Writing Process
44(4)
Starting Point
45(1)
Exploring, Researching, and Rehearsing
45(1)
Writing a First Draft
46(1)
Revising Through Multiple Drafts
47(1)
Editing for Style, Impact, and Correctness
48(1)
Using Exploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking
48(7)
Freewriting or Blind Writing
48(2)
Idea Mapping
50(1)
Playing the Believing and Doubting Game
51(1)
Brainstorming for Pro and Con Because Clauses
52(2)
Brainstorming a Network of Related Issues
54(1)
Shaping Your Argument: Using Classical Structure as an Initial Guide
55(2)
Using Exploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking: Two Sets of Exploratory Tasks
57(4)
Set 1: Starting Points
57(2)
Set 2: Exploration and Rehearsal
59(2)
Writing Assignments for Chapters 1-3
61(2)
Part Two Principles of Argument 63(100)
4 The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons
65(11)
The Rhetorical Triangle
65(1)
Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument
66(2)
Difference Between an Issue Question and an Information Question
67(1)
Difference Between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument
68(2)
Pseudo-Arguments: Fanatical Believers and Fanatical Skeptics
68(1)
Another Source of Pseudo-Arguments: Lack of Shared Assumptions
69(1)
Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons
70(3)
What Is a Reason?
70(2)
Advantages of Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses
72(1)
Applying This Chapter's Principles to Your Own Writing
73(2)
Applying This Chapter's Principles to Reading Arguments
75(1)
Conclusion
75(1)
5 The Logical Structure of Arguments
76(16)
An Overview of Logos; What Do We Mean by the"Logical Structure" of an Argument?
76(3)
Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System
79(5)
Using Toulmin's Schema to Determine a Strategy of Support
84(2)
The Power of Audience-Based Reasons
86(5)
Difference Between Writer-Based and Audience-Based Reasons
86(3)
Finding Audience-Based Reasons: Asking Questions About Your Audience
89(2)
Conclusion
91(1)
6 Using Evidence Effectively
92(18)
General Principles for the Persuasive Use of Data
92(2)
Apply the STAR Criteria to Data
92(2)
Use Sources That Your Reader Trusts
94(1)
Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence
94(10)
Kinds of Evidence
94(5)
Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence
99(2)
Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence
101(2)
Special Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence
103(1)
Gathering Evidence
104(2)
Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence
104(1)
Gathering Data from Interviews
105(1)
Gathering Data from Surveys or Questionnaires
105(1)
Conclusion
106(1)
Writing Assignments for Chapters 4-6
106(1)
David Langley (student), "Half Criminals or Urban Athletes? A Plea for Fair Treatment of Skateboarders"
107(3)
7 Moving Your Audience: Ethos and Pathos
110(9)
Ethos and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview
110(2)
How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility
112(1)
Be Knowledgeable About Your Issue
112(1)
Be Fair
112(1)
Build a Bridge to Your Audience
112(1)
How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions
112(6)
Use Concrete Language
113(1)
Use Specific Examples and Illustrations
113(1)
Use Narratives
114(1)
Choose Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations
115(1)
Use Visual Arguments for Emotional Appeal
115(3)
Conclusion
118(1)
8 Accommodating Your Audience: Treating Differing Views
119(18)
One-Sided versus Multisided Arguments
119(1)
Determining Your Audience's Resistance to Your Views
120(1)
Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument
121(1)
Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument
122(6)
Summarizing Opposing Views
122(1)
Refuting Opposing Views
123(3)
Strategies for Rebutting Evidence
126(1)
Conceding to Opposing Views
127(1)
Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Delayed-Thesis or Rogerian Argument
128(5)
Delayed-Thesis Argument
128(1)
Ellen Goodman, "Minneapolis Pornography Ordinance"
128(1)
Rogerian Argument
131(2)
Rebekah Taylor (student), "Letter to Jim"
133(3)
Conclusion
135(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapters 7 and 8
136(1)
9 Conducting Visual Arguments
137(26)
Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument
138(2)
The Components of Visual Design
138(1)
Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Type and Spatial Elements
138(2)
Drug Enforcement Administration, "A Single Hit of Ecstasy ..." (advocacy advertisement)
140(13)
The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings
141(5)
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Images
143(3)
The Genres of Visual Arguments
146(6)
Posters and Fliers
147(1)
Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements
148(2)
Cartoons
150(1)
Web Pages
151(1)
Constructing Your Own Visual Argument
152(1)
Leah Johnson (student), "Drink and Then Drive? Jeopardize My Future?" (poster)
153(8)
Using Graphics as Visual Arguments
154(6)
How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories
154(3)
Using a Graphic to Tell a Story
157(2)
Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument
159(1)
Conclusion
160(1)
Writing Assignments for Chapter 9
161(2)
Part Three Claim Types in Argument 163(109)
10 An Introduction to the Types of Claims
165(9)
An Overview of the Types of Claims
165(5)
Type 1: Simple Categorical Arguments (Is X a Y?, Where You and Your Audience Agree on the Meaning of Y)
166(1)
Type 2: Definitional Arguments (Is X a Y?, Where the Definition of Y Is Contested)
167(1)
Type 3: Cause/Consequence Arguments (Does X Cause Y? Is Y a Consequence of X?)
167(1)
Type 4: Resemblance Arguments (Is X Like Y?)
168(1)
Type 5: Evaluation Arguments (Is X Good or Bad? Is X a Good or Bad Y?)
168(1)
Type 6: Proposal Arguments (Should We Do X?)
169(1)
What Is the Value of Studying Claim Types?
170(4)
Help in Focusing an Argument and Generating Ideas
170(3)
Help in Organizing and Developing an Argument
173(1)
11 Categorical and Definitional Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Y
174(20)
An Overview of Categorical Arguments
174(1)
Simple Categorical Arguments
175(3)
Difference Between Facts and Simple Categorical Claims
175(1)
Variations in the Wording of Simple Categorical Claims
176(1)
Supporting Simple Categorical Claims: Supply Examples
177(1)
Refuting Simple Categorical Claims
177(1)
An Overview of Definitional Arguments
178(1)
The Criteria-Match Structure of Definitional Arguments
179(2)
Conceptual Problems of Definition
181(1)
Why Can't We Just Look in the Dictionary?
181(1)
Definitions and the Rule of Justice: At What Point Does X Stop Being a Y?
181(1)
Kinds of Definitions
182(2)
Aristotelian Definition
183(1)
Operational Definition
183(1)
Strategies for Defining the Contested Term in a Definitional Argument
184(4)
Reportive Approach: Research How Others Have Used the Term
184(1)
Stipulative Approach: Create Your Own Definition
185(3)
Conducting the Match Part of a Definitional Argument
188(1)
Organizing a Definitional Argument
188(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Definitional Argument
189(1)
Questioning the Criteria
189(1)
Questioning the Match
189(1)
Readings
190(1)
Jack K.C. Chiang, "Why Not Taiwan?"
190(1)
Kathy Sullivan (student), "Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board"
191(2)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 11
193(1)
12 Causal Arguments: X Causes (Does Not Cause) Y
194(19)
An Overview of Causal Arguments
194(1)
The Nature of Causal Arguing
195(2)
Describing a Causal Argument in Toulmin Terms
197(1)
Three Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another
198(6)
First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly
199(1)
Second Method: Use Various Inductive Methods to Establish a High Probability of a Causal Link
200(3)
Third Method: Argue by Analogy or Precedent
203(1)
Glossary of Terms Encountered in Causal Arguments
204(3)
Organizing a Causal Argument
207(2)
Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument 208 Readings
209(1)
Daeha Ko (student), "The Monster That Is High School"
210(2)
United Way, "Kids Who Do Not Participate ..." (advocacy advertisement)
212(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 12
212(1)
13 Resemblance Arguments: X Is (Is Not) Like Y
213(13)
An Overview of Resemblance Arguments
213(3)
Arguments by Analogy
216(3)
Using Undeveloped Analogies
217(1)
Using Extended Analogies
217(2)
Arguments by Precedent
219(3)
Organizing a Resemblance Argument
222(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Resemblance Argument
222(1)
Readings
223(1)
Megan Matthews (student), "Whales Need Silence"
223(1)
Jean Arbeiter, "Iraq War Plans "
224(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 13
225(1)
14 Evaluation and Ethical Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Good Y; X Is Right (Wrong)
226(23)
An Overview of Evaluation Arguments
226(1)
Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations
227(1)
Conducting a Categorical Evaluation Argument
228(4)
Determining Criteria for a Categorical Evaluation Argument
228(2)
Determining Whether X Meets the Criteria
230(2)
An Overview of Ethical Arguments
232(1)
Major Ethical Systems
233(2)
Consequences as the Base of Ethics
234(1)
Principles as the Base of Ethics
234(1)
Constructing an Ethical Argument
235(2)
Constructing a Principles-Based Argument
235(1)
Constructing a Consequences-Based Argument
236(1)
Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments
237(2)
Organizing an Evaluation Argument
239(1)
Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation
240(1)
Critiquing an Ethical Evaluation
241(1)
Readings
242(1)
Tiffany Anderson (student), "A Woman's View of Hip-Hop"
242(3)
Dr. Ezekiel J. Emanuel, "Eight Is Too Many; The Case Against Octuplets"
245(3)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 14
248(1)
15 Proposal Arguments: We Should (Should Not) Do X
249(23)
The Nature of Proposal Arguments
249(1)
The Structure of Proposal Arguments
250(1)
Special Concerns of Proposal Arguments
250(2)
The Need for Presence
250(1)
The Need to Overcome People's Natural Conservatism
250(1)
The Difficulty of Predicting Future Consequences
251(1)
The Problem of Evaluating Consequences
251(1)
Developing a Proposal Argument
252(2)
Convincing Your Readers That a Problem Exists
252(1)
Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal
253(1)
The Justification: Convincing Your Reader That Your Proposal Should Be Enacted
253(1)
Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements
254(2)
Using the Claim-Type Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument
256(3)
Using the Stock-Issues Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument
259(2)
Organizing a Proposal Argument
261(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument
262(1)
Reading
263(1)
Mark Bonicillo (student), "A Proposal for Universal Health Insurance in the United States" (MLA-style research paper)
264(6)
Writing Assignments for Chapter 15
270(2)
Appendixes 272(35)
Appendix One Informal Fallacies
272(6)
Fallacies of Pathos
272(1)
Fallacies of Ethos
273(1)
Fallacies of Logos
274(4)
Appendix Two A Concise Guide to Finding, Evaluating, and Documenting Sources
278(29)
Finding Print Articles: Searching a Licensed Database
278(3)
What Is a Licensed Database?
278(1)
Illustration of a Database Search
279(2)
Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web
281(1)
Evaluating Sources
282(2)
Angle of Vision
282(1)
Degree of Advocacy
283(1)
Reliability
283(1)
Credibility
284(1)
Evaluating Web Sites
284(4)
Analyzing the Purpose of a Site and Your Own Research Purpose
284(1)
Sorting Sites by Domain Type
284(1)
Making an Evaluation of a Web Site
285(3)
Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
288(3)
Using Sources for Your Own Purposes
288(2)
Avoiding Plagiarism
290(1)
Citing Sources in MLA Style
291(2)
Documenting Sources in a "Works Cited"List (MLA)
293(1)
MLA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations
293(2)
Formatting an Academic Paper in MLA Style
295(1)
Student Example of an MLA-Style Research Paper
295(1)
Citing Sources in APA Style
295(1)
Documenting Sources in a "References" List (APA)
296(1)
APA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations
296(2)
Student Example of an APA-Style Research Paper
298(1)
Megan Matthews (student), "Sounding the Alarm: Navy Sonar and the Survival of Whales"
299(8)
Credits 307(1)
Index 308


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