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Writing from Sourcesprovides students with a complete guide to the skills of doing research and integrating the results confidently and effectively into their own prose, while providing instructors with all the readings and prompts they need for a complete course in source-based writing. To teach students a reliable process for working with sources, the book builds systematically from simpler skills such as finding a topic and looking for sources to more demanding ones such as choosing appropriate sources and integrating them smoothly with the writer's own ideas, providing detailed guidance and examples for each step. Many exercises and writing assignments, supported by numerous readings ranging from brief excerpts to full essays, provide ample practice in every skill.
BRENDA SPATT taught English at Herbert H. Lehman College of The City University of New York for 13 years before becoming the university's director of academic affairs and then associate dean.
Table of Contents
To the Instructor To the Student Citations
PART I. MAKING SOURCES YOUR OWN 1. Reading for Understanding Underlining Annotating Reading: William Leach, from Land of Desire Exercise 1: Annotating a Passage *Anne Hollander, from Sex and Suits Asking Questions Reading: Blanche Blank, A Question of Degree Exercise 2: Understanding What You Read *Jane Bernstein, A Victim of Circumstance Questioning the Author *Reading: Rubén Martínez: The Kindness of Strangers Exercise 3: Examining Intention *Martha C. Nussbaum, Cosmopolitan Emotions? Analyzing the Author's Use of Evidence and Reading Interpreting Evidence: Inference Exercise 4: Drawing Inferences *Marshall Poe, The Other Gender Gap Logical Reasoning Analyzing an Author's Logic Exercise 5: Analyzing an Author's Logic *Walter Newell, from The Code of Man
PART II. PRESENTING SOURCES TO OTHERS 2. Summarizing Sources Summarizing a Paragraph Exercise 6: Summarizing a Paragraph Andrew Sullivan, from The Love Bloat Bradford W. Wright, from Comic Book Nation *Gail Collins, from America's Women Daniel Boorstin, from Americans: The National Experience *Steven Pinker, from The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature Summarizing an Article Reading: Selwyn Raab, Holdup Man Tells Detectives How to Do It Exercise 7: Summarizing an Article *Eric Hoover, Crying Foul Over Fans' Boorish Behavior Summarizing a Complex Essay Reading: Bertrand Russell, The Social Responsibility of Scientists Assignment 1: Summarizing an Essay *Shannon E. French, When Teaching the Ethics of War Is Not Academic *Neal Gabler, Our Celebrities, Ourselves *John Taylor Gatto, Against School
3. Quoting Sources Reasons for Quoting Using Quotations Exercise 8: Quoting Correctly Quoting Accurately Tailoring Quotations to Fit Your Writing Exercise 9: Using Ellipses and Brackets in Quotations Writing Citations Deciding What to Quote *Reading: Lizabeth Caten, Feminizing Public Space Exercise 10: Why Quote? *Gail Collins, from America's Women Exercise 11: What to Quote *Edward Tenner, from Our Own Devices: The Past and Future of Body Technology *Fareed Zakaria, The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy At Home and Abroad Integrating Quotations into Your Paragraphs Exercise 12: Integrating Quotations Into a Paragraph Avoiding Plagiarism Exercise 13: Identifying Plagiarism
4. Paraphrasing Sources Using Paraphrase in Your Essays Using Paraphrase as Preparation for Reading and Writing Essays Writing a Good Paraphrase Paraphrase and Summary Writing an Accurate Paraphrase Exercise 14: Identifying a Good Paraphrase *David Barash, from Evolution, Males, and Violence Paraphrasing a Difficult Text Writing a Literal Paraphrase Writing a Free Version of the Literal Paraphrase Assignment 2: Paraphrasing a Difficult Passage Using Paraphrase with Quotation and Summary Reading: Conor Cruise O'Brien, Violence -- And Two Schools of Thought Exercise 15: Distinguishing Between Quotation, Paraphrase, Summary, and Commentary *Felicia R. Lee, Does Class Count in Today's Land of Opportunity? Citing Your Paraphrased Sources Writing a Paragraph that Incorporates Paraphrase and Quotation *Reading: Anthony Swofford, Jarhead Exercise 16: Writing a Paragraph That Incorporates Paraphrase and Quotation Presenting Sources: A Summary of Preliminary Writing Skills
PART III. WRITING FROM SOURCES 5. The Single-Source Essay Strategy One: Arguing Against Your Source Reading: Roger Sipher, So That Nobody Has to Go to School If They Don't Want To Presenting Your Source's Point of View Presenting Your Point of View An Argument Based On a Single Source Reading: Leon Botstein, Let Teenagers Try Adulthood Reading: Carl Singleton, What Our Education System Needs is More Fs Reading: Jana Dunn, Fixing the American High School System Assignment 3: Writing an Argument Based on a Single Source *Reading: Billie Wright Dziech, Forcing Greek Organizations to Go Coeducational Won't Lead to Greater Diversity *Reading: Jonathan Rauch, Now, For Tonight's Assignment... *Reading: Pat Hagan, Falling on Deaf Ears Strategy Two: Developing an Essay Based on a Source Finding and Narrowing a Topic Taking Notes and Writing a Thesis Deciding on a Strategy Structuring Your Essay Writing the Essay Revising the Essay Assignment 4: Writing an Essay Based on a Single Source *Christopher Clausen, An Army of One *Diana Schaub, The Pillars of the Temple of Liberty *Leon Kass, The End of Courtship
6. The Multiple-Source Essay Selecting Information for a Multiple-Source Essay Exercise 17: Selecting and Presenting Information Assignment 5: Writing an Essay from Factual Information Generalizing from Examples Analyzing Multiple Sources Exercise 18: Analyzing Shades of Meaning in Multiple Sources Assignment 6: Writing a Definition Essay from Multiple Sources Synthesizing Multiple Sources Exercise 19: Identifying Common Ideas Organizing Multiple Sources Reading: Gene I. Maeroff, from Rule Tying Pupil Promotion to Reading Skill Stirs Worry How the Three Steps Work Evaluating Sources Writing a Synthesis Essay Exercise 20: Analyzing a Paragraph Based on a Synthesis of Sources Citing Sources for Synthesis *Reading: Alan Wolfe, Moral Freedom: Till Circumstances Do Us Part Assignment 7: Writing an Essay Synthesizing Multiple Sources Todd Gitlin, Disappearing Ink Assignment 8: Writing an Argument from Multiple Sources *Sandeep Jauhar, When Doctors Slam the Door When Not to Synthesize Synthesizing Sources in Academic Essays Reading: Jeffrey Rosen, from The Naked Crowd Exercise 21: Integrating Three Academic Sources *Fendrich, Lippit, and Malamud, In This Year's Fashion Jungle, Beastly Patterns Are the Sincerest Form of Fakery Assignment 9: Synthesizing Academic Sources *Bill Coplin, Lost in the Life of the Mind *Marshall Gregory, A Liberal Education Is Not a Luxury
PART IV. WRITING THE RESEARCH ESSAY 7. Finding Sources Topic Narrowing Exercise 22: Narrowing a Topic Exercise 23: Proposing a Topic Locating Sources Interviewing And Field Research Exercise 24: Writing About an Issue from Multiple Sources Saving and Recording Information for Your Bibliography Exercise 25: Compiling a Working Bibliography Assignment 10: Preparing a Topic Proposal for a Research Essay
8. Evaluating Sources Learning More about Your Sources Evaluating Print Sources Evaluating Web Sources Evaluating Web Sources About Animal Rights Integrating Sources Exercise 26: Evaluating Web Sites Exercise 27: Evaluating Internet Sources Exercise 28: Choosing Internet Sources Exercise 29: Evaluating Sources *Walter Berns, from Making Patriots *Robert Goldstein, Burning the Flag: The Great 1989-1990 American Flag Desecration *Stephen Nathanson, from Patriotism, Morality, and Peace *Cecelia O'Leary, from To Die For: The Paradox of American Patriotism *Michael Welch, from Flag Burning: Moral Panic and the Criminalization of Protest *Wilbur Zelinsky, from Nation Into State: The Shifting Symbolic Foundations of American Nationalism *The Flag Protection Act of 1989 (Joint Resolution of Congress) *Celestine Bohlen, O Say Can You See What That Flag Means? *Norm R. Allen Jr., True Patriotism *Flag Burning and Other Acts Deemed Disrespectful of American Symbols (web site) *The Flag Burning Page (web site) Exercise 30: Comparing Sources 300 Killed By Fire (The New York Times) Catastrophe: Boston's Worst (Time Magazine) Bernard Devoto, The Easy Chair
9. Writing the Research Essay Saving Information Taking Notes Exercise 31: Taking Notes on Two Topics Exercise 32: Taking Notes on Three Topics *Stephanie Coontz, from The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap Developing a List of Topics Planning a Strategy Arranging the Order of Topics Completing Your Outline Exercise 33: Writing an Outline with Cross-Referencing Writing Integrated Paragraphs Accommodating Argument in Your Paragraphs Presenting Arguments Fairly Integrating Your Sources: An Example Writing an Introduction Using Visuals as Sources Assignment 11: Organizing and Writing the Research Essay
10. Acknowledging Sources Documenting Information Documenting Ideas Found in Your Source Plagiarism: Stealing Ideas Plagiarism: Stealing Words Exercise 34: Understanding When to Document Information Exercise 35: Understanding Plagiarism *Comparing Notes (The New York Times) Exercise 36: Identifying Plagiarism Using Documentation Exercise 37: Acknowledging Sources Exercise 38: Documenting Sources Correctly Signaling the Transitions Between Sources Using Explanatory Notes Avoiding Excessive Documentation Using Umbrella Notes The Final Bibliography Preparing The Annotated Bibliography Exercise 39: Preparing the Bibliography Presenting Your Essay
11. Some Basic Forms For Documentation: MLA, APA, and Endnotes MLA Style APA Style Numbered Bibliography Endnote/Footnote Documentation Notes Plus Page Numbers In The Text
12. Three Research Essays Bethany Dettmore, Looking at Horror Films Lee Myers, Is Eating People Really Wrong? David Morgan, Explaining the Tunguskan Phenomenon
*Appendix A: Writing Essay Examinations Reading the Question Planning and Developing the Essay Analyzing an Essay and an Essay Question Reading: George Stade, Football -- The Game of Aggression Answering the Question Introducing Your Topic Presenting Your Essay to the Reader
*Appendix B: Readings for a Research Essay Periodicals *Essays from The Nation, 7/15/91 *Debating How Best to Love Your Country (The New York Times, 7/1/00) *John Lukacs, When Democracy Goes Wrong (Harper's, 4/05) Academic Books *Alexis de Tocqueville, from Democracy in America *Leo Tolstoi, Patriotism, or Peace? *Michael Walzer, Civility and Civic Virtue in Contemporary America *Irving Kristol, Urban Civilization and Its Discontents *Sidney Axinn, Honor, Patriotism, and Ultimate Loyalty *Stephen Nathanson, Military Service and Unjust Wars *Maurizio Viroli, Patriotism and Nationalism *Scott McLean, The War on Terrorism and The New Patriotism