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Covering every step of research, writing, and documentation,Writing from Sourcesprovides a complete guide to source-based writing. The book builds from fundamental skills -- such as annotating a passage -- to more demanding ones such as integrating sources smoothly into an original argument. Examples, exercises, and guidance throughout help students gain confidence with essential concepts, while numerous readings drawn from a variety of sources provide models and practice in every skill.
BRENDA SPATT taught English at Herbert H. Lehman College of The City University of New York for 13 years before becoming the university's director of academic affairs and then associate dean.
Table of Contents
To the Instructor To the Student Citations
PART I: MAKING SOURCES YOUR OWN
1. READING FOR UNDERSTANDING UNDERLINING ANNOTATING Reading: William Leach, from Land of Desire Exercise 1: Annotating a Passage *Katherine Ashenberg, from The Dirt on Clean *Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate ASKING QUESTIONS Reading: Blanche Blank, A Question of Degree Exercise 2: Understanding What You Read *Jill McCorkle, Cuss Time QUESTIONING THE AUTHOR Reading: Rubén Martínez, The Kindness of Strangers Exercise 3: Examining Intention *Sally Satel, When Altruism Isn't Moral USING EVIDENCE AND REASONING Exercise 4: Citing Evidence *Dan Bilefsky, Children Left Behind Suffer the Strains of Migration INTERPRETING EVIDENCE Exercise 5: Drawing Inferences *Libby Sander, For College Athletes, Recruiting is a Fair (but Flawed) Game USING LOGICAL REASONING Exercise 6: Analyzing an Author's Logic *Michael Mandelbaum, from Democracy's Good Name *Diana West, from The Death of the Grown-Up
PART II: PRESENTING SOURCES TO OTHERS
2. SUMMARIZING SOURCES SUMMARIZING A PARAGRAPH Exercise 7: Summarizing a Paragraph Margaret Mead, from Some Personal Views Michael Pollan, from An Animal's Place Steve Olsen, from Mapping Human History Sara Kershaw, Enough of the Hills and Woods, Can I Send Grandma an E-Card? Daniel Boorstin, from Americans: The National Experience Steven Pinker, from The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature *Lawrence Rosen, What We Got Wrong SUMMARIZING AN ARTICLE Reading: Selwyn Raab, Holdup Man Tells Detectives How to Do It Exercise 8: Summarizing an Article *Jonathan Malesic, How Dumb Do They Think We Are? SUMMARIZING A COMPLEX ESSAY Reading: Bertrand Russell, The Social Responsibility of Scientists Assignment 1: Summarizing an Essay *Nicholas Carr, Is Google Making Us Stupid? *Roger Scruton, from A Carnivore's Credo
3. QUOTING SOURCES REASONS FOR QUOTING USING QUOTATIONS Exercise 9: Quoting Correctly QUOTING ACCURATELY TAILORING QUOTATIONS TO FIT YOUR WRITING Exercise 10: Using Ellipses and Brackets in Quotations WRITING CITATIONS DECIDING WHAT TO QUOTE Reading: Lizabeth Cohen, from A Consumer's Republic Exercise 11: Why Quote? *John De Graaf, David Wann, and Thomas H. Naylor, from Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic Exercise 12: What to Quote *Tom Vanderbilt, Traffic *Thomas G. Mortenson, from Where the Boys Were INTEGRATING QUOTATIONS INTO YOUR PARAGRAPHS Exercise 13: Integrating Quotations Into a Paragraph AVOIDING PLAGIARISM Exercise 14: Identifying Plagiarism
4. PARAPHRASING SOURCES USING PARAPHRASE IN YOUR ESSAYS Exercise 15: Identifying a Good Paraphrase Peter C. Whybrow, from Dangerously Addictive Exercise 16: Paraphrasing a Difficult Passage USING PARAPHRASE WITH QUOTATION AND SUMMARY Reading: Conor Cruise O'Brien, Violence-And Two Schools of Thought Exercise 17: Distinguishing Between Quotation, Paraphrase, Summary, and Commentary *David Leonhardt, Maybe Money Does Buy Happiness After All WRITING A PARAGRAPH THAT INCORPORATES PARAPHRASE AND QUOTATION: “JARHEAD” Reading: Anthony Swofford, Jarhead Exercise 18: Paraphrasing Without Plagiarism Exercise 19: Writing a Paragraph that Incorporates Paraphrase and Quotation *Ursula K. Le Guin, from Staying Awake: Notes on the Alleged Decline of Reading PRESENTING SOURCES: A SUMMARY OF PRELIMINARY WRITING SKILLS
PART III: WRITING FROM SOURCES
5. THE SINGLE-SOURCE ESSAY STRATEGY ONE: ARGUING AGAINST YOUR SOURCE Reading: Roger Sipher, So That Nobody Has to Go to School If They Don't Want To Assignment 2: Writing an Argument Based on a Single Source Carl Singleton, What Our Education System Needs is More Fs *Steven M. Wise, Why Animals Deserve Legal Rights *Mirko Bagaric and Julie Clarke, from Torture: When the Unthinkable is Morally Permissible
STRATEGY TWO: DEVELOPING AN ESSAY BASED ON A SOURCE Assignment 3: Writing an Essay Based on a Single Source *Jenni Russell, The Selfish Generation *Christopher Caldwell, What a College Education Buys *Bobby Allyn, Among Privileged Classmates, I'm an Outsider
6. THE MULTIPLE-SOURCE ESSAY ANALYZING MULTIPLE SOURCES Exercise 20: Analyzing Shades of Meaning in Multiple Sources Assignment 4: Writing a Definition Essay from Multiple Sources SYNTHESIZING MULTIPLE SOURCES: “LOTTERY” Exercise 21: Identifying Common Ideas ORGANIZING MULTIPLE SOURCES: “STUDENT PROMOTION” Reading: Gene I. Maeroff, from Rule Tying Pupil Promotion to Reading Skill Stirs Worry EVALUATING SOURCES WRITING A SYNTHESIS ESSAY Exercise 22: Analyzing a Paragraph Based on a Synthesis of Sources Alan Wolfe, Moral Freedom: Till Circumstances Do Us Part Assignment 5: Writing an Essay Synthesizing Multiple Sources *Laurie Fendrich, The B-Minus Reigns Supreme Assignment 6: Writing an Argument from Multiple Sources *Jennifer Medina, Can Students Be Paid to Excel? WHEN NOT TO SYNTHESIZE SYNTHESIZING SOURCES IN ACADEMIC ESSAYS Reading: Jeffrey Rosen, from The Naked Crowd Exercise 23: Integrating Three Academic Sources *Andrew Keen, from The Cult of the Amateur: How Today's Internet is Killing Our Culture *Lee Siegel, from Against the Machine: Being Human in the Age of the Electronic Mob *William Deresiewicz, from The End of Solitude Assignment 7: Synthesizing Academic Sources *Steven Johnson, from Everything Bad is Good for You *Christine Rosen, from People of the Screen
PART IV: WRITING THE RESEARCH ESSAY
7. FINDING SOURCES TOPIC NARROWING Exercise 24: Narrowing a Topic Exercise 25: Proposing a Topic LOCATING SOURCES INTERVIEWING AND FIELD RESEARCH Assignment 8: Writing an Essay Based on Interviews or Field Research SAVING AND RECORDING INFORMATION FOR YOUR BIBLIOGRAPHY Exercise 26: Compiling a Working Bibliography Exercise 27: Finding and Selecting Sources Assignment 9: Preparing a Topic Proposal for a Research Essay
8. EVALUATING SOURCES EVALUATING PRINT SOURCES EVALUATING WEB SOURCES EVALUATING WEB SOURCES ABOUT ANIMAL RIGHTS INTEGRATING SOURCES Exercise 28: Evaluating Internet Sources Exercise 29: Choosing Internet Sources Exercise 30: Evaluating Sources *Britannica Online, from Wikipedia *Andrew Lih, from The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia *Jonathan Zittrain, from The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It *Andrew Keen, from The Cult of the Amateur: How Today's Internet is Killing Our Culture *Amit Ray and Erhardt Graeff, from Reviewing the Author-Function in the Age of Wikipedia *Darren Crovitz and W. Scott Smoot, from Wikipedia: Friend, Not Foe *Jakob Voss, from Measuring Wikipedia *Roy Rosenzweig, from Can History Be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past *Noam Cohen, from A History Department Bans Citing Wikipedia As a Research Source *Adam Tornes, from Wikipedia: Encyclopedia or Karma Sutra? Exercise 31: Comparing Sources 300 Killed By Fire (The New York Times) Catastrophe: Boston's Worst (Time Magazine) Bernard Devoto, The Easy Chair
9. WRITING THE RESEARCH ESSAY SAVING INFORMATION TAKING NOTES Exercise 32: Taking Notes on Two Topics Exercise 33: Taking Notes on Three Topics *Janet M. Davis, from The Circus Age: Culture and Society Under the American Big Top DEVELOPING A LIST OF TOPICS PLANNING A STRATEGY ARRANGING THE ORDER OF TOPICS: OUTLINING COMPLETING YOUR OUTLINE WRITING INTEGRATED PARAGRAPHS ACCOMMODATING ARGUMENT IN YOUR PARAGRAPHS PRESENTING ARGUMENTS FAIRLY INTEGRATING YOUR SOURCES: RECRUITING IN COLLEGE ATHLETICS WRITING AN INTRODUCTION USING VISUALS AS SOURCES Assignment 10: Organizing and Writing the Research Essay
10. ACKNOWLEDGING SOURCES WHEN TO DOCUMENT INFORMATION PLAGIARISM: STEALING IDEAS PLAGIARISM: STEALING WORDS Exercise 34: Understanding When to Document Information Exercise 35: Understanding Plagiarism Exercise 36: Identifying Plagiarism USING DOCUMENTATION Exercise 37: Acknowledging Sources MANAGING DOCUMENTATION Exercise 38: Documenting Sources Correctly PREPARING THE FINAL BIBLIOGRAPHY Exercise 39: Preparing the Bibliography PRESENTING YOUR ESSAY
11. TWO RESEARCH ESSAYS Readings: Bethany Dettmore, Looking at Horror Films David Morgan, Explaining the Tunguskan Phenomenon
12. SOME BASIC FORMS FOR DOCUMENTATION: MLA, APA, AND ENDNOTES MLA STYLE APA STYLE NUMBERED BIBLIOGRAPHY ENDNOTE/FOOTNOTE DOCUMENTATION NOTES PLUS PAGE NUMBERS IN THE TEXT