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Writing Logically, Thinking Critically,9780321414311

Writing Logically, Thinking Critically

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780321414311

ISBN10:
0321414314
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $57.80

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This is the 5th edition with a publication date of 1/1/2007.
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Summary

This concise, accessible text teaches how to write logical, cohesive arguments and how to evaluate the arguments of others. Key Benefits: Integrating writing skills with critical thinking skills, this practical book teaches how to draw logical inferences, identify premises and conclusions and use language precisely. Readers also learn how to identify fallacies and to distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning. Ideal for any composition class that emphasizes argument, this text includes coverage of writing style and rhetoric, logic, literature, research and documentation. Key Topics: Research Documentation Argument

Table of Contents

Guide to Readings xiii
Preface xvi
Thinking and Writing---A Critical Connection
1(26)
Thinking Made Visible
1(1)
The Power of Writing Persuasively
2(2)
The Advent of E-Mail
3(1)
Critical Thinking
4(7)
Critical Thinking as Self-Defense
5(1)
An Open Mind---Examining Your World View
5(4)
Media Literacy
9(2)
Audience and Purpose
11(1)
Writing Assignment 1 Considering Your Audience and Purpose
12(1)
Writing as a Process
13(9)
Strategies for Generating Ideas
14(1)
The First Draft
15(1)
The Time to Be Critical
16(1)
One Writer's Process
17(1)
Reason, Intuition, Imagination, and Metaphor
18(4)
Writing Assignment 2 Your Writing Process
22(1)
He or She?
23(1)
What You Can Expect from This Book
24(1)
More Than One Approach
24(1)
Collaboration
24(1)
Sharpening Sentence Skills and Increasing Coherence
24(1)
Enjoying the Challenge of Thinking and Writing
25(2)
Summary
25(1)
Key Terms
26(1)
Inference---Critical Thought
27(27)
What Is an Inference?
28(2)
How Reliable is an Inference?
28(2)
What Is a Fact?
30(2)
Facts and Journalism
30(2)
What Is a Judgment?
32(5)
Achieving a Balance Between Inference and Facts
37(4)
Facts Only
38(1)
Selecting Facts
39(1)
Inferences Only
40(1)
Reading Critically
41(1)
Writing Assignment 3 Reconstructing the Lost Tribe
42(3)
Making Inferences---Analyzing Images
45(4)
Making Inferences---Writing About Fiction
49(2)
Writing Assignment 4 Interpreting Fiction
51(3)
Summary
53(1)
Key Terms
53(1)
The Structure of Argument
54(27)
Premises and Conclusions
55(1)
Distinguishing Between Premises and Conclusions
56(1)
Standard Form
57(3)
Ambiguous Argument Structure
60(2)
Writing Assignment 5 Creating a Political Handout
62(1)
Standard Form, Essay Organization, and Revision
63(1)
Writing Assignment 6 Responding to an Editorial
64(1)
Argument and Explanation---Distinctions
64(4)
Logical Relationships Between Ideas---Joining Words and Coherence
68(3)
Choice of Joining Words
69(2)
Revising for Coherence
71(1)
Hidden Assumptions in Argument
71(10)
Dangers of Hidden Assumptions
73(1)
Hidden Assumptions and Standard Form
74(4)
Hidden Assumptions and Audience Awareness
78(1)
Summary
79(1)
Key Terms
80(1)
Written Argument
81(36)
Focusing Your Topic
81(6)
The Issue
81(1)
The Question at Issue
82(1)
The Thesis
83(2)
Two Kinds of Thesis Statements
85(2)
Shaping a Written Argument---Rhetorical Strategies
87(3)
The Introduction
87(1)
The Development of Your Argument
88(1)
How Many Premises Should an Argument Have?
89(1)
The Conclusion
89(1)
A Dialectical Approach to Argument
90(8)
Addressing Counterarguments
90(1)
How Much Counterargument?
91(1)
Refutation and Concession
91(1)
Rogerian Strategy
92(5)
When There Is No Other Side
97(1)
Logical Joining of Contrasting and Concessive Ideas
98(2)
The Concessive Sentence
99(1)
More on Coherence
100(1)
Sample Essays
101(8)
Four Approaches to Writing Arguments
109(1)
Writing Assignment 7 Arguing Both Sides of an Issue
110(2)
Writing Assignment 8 Taking a Stand
112(1)
Writing Assignment 9 Exploring an Argument in Depth---An Alternative
113(1)
Writing Assignment 10 Collaborating on a Complex Issue---A Group Approach
114(3)
Summary
115(1)
Key Terms
116(1)
The Language of Argument---Definition
117(26)
Definition and Perception
117(2)
Controlling the Discourse
117(1)
Defining Ourselves
118(1)
Definition and the Social Sciences
119(1)
Language: An Abstract System of Symbols
119(9)
The Importance of Specificity
122(3)
Abstractions and Evasion
125(1)
Euphemism and Connotation
126(2)
Definition in Written Argument
128(7)
Appositives---A Strategy for Defining Terms Within the Sentence
128(1)
Appositives and Argument
129(1)
Punctuation of Appositives
130(1)
Extended Definition
131(4)
Writing Assignment 11 Determining Your State's Position on Gay Marriage
135(1)
Writing Assignment 12 Composing an Argument Based on a Definition
135(5)
Stipulating Personal Meaning
140(1)
Plato
140(1)
Shakespeare
140(1)
Ambrose Bierce
140(1)
Inventing New Words to Fill a Need
140(1)
Writing Assignment 13 Creating a New Word
141(2)
Summary
142(1)
Key Terms
142(1)
Fallacious Arguments
143(28)
What Is a Fallacious Argument?
143(20)
Appeal to Authority
144(1)
Appeal to Fear
145(1)
Appeal to Pity
145(1)
Begging the Question
146(2)
Double Standard
148(1)
Equivocation
149(1)
False Analogy
150(1)
False Cause
151(1)
False Dilemma
152(2)
Hasty Generalization
154(1)
Personal Attack
154(1)
Poisoning the Well
155(1)
Slippery Slope
155(1)
Straw Man
156(7)
Writing Assignment 14 Analyzing an Extended Argument
163(8)
Key Terms
168(3)
Deductive and Inductive Argument
171(36)
Key Distinctions
171(3)
Necessity Versus Probability
171(1)
From General to Specific, Specific to General
172(2)
The Relationship Between Induction and Deduction
174(6)
Deductive Reasoning
180(10)
Class Logic
180(1)
Relationships Between Classes
181(1)
Inclusion
181(1)
Exclusion
181(1)
Overlap
182(1)
Class Logic and the Syllogism
183(1)
The Subject and the Predicate
184(1)
Truth, Validity, and Soundness
185(1)
Guilt by Association
186(1)
More on Syllogisms
187(3)
Inductive Reasoning
190(13)
Generalization
190(1)
The Direction of Inductive Reasoning
191(1)
Testing Inductive Generalizations
192(1)
Criteria for Evaluating Statistical Generalizations
192(2)
Hasty Generalizations
194(1)
Thinking Critically About Surveys and Statistics
195(1)
Mistaking Correlation for Causation
196(2)
Considering the Source
198(5)
Writing Assignment 15 Questioning Generalizations
203(1)
Writing Assignment 16 Conducting a Survey: A Collaborative Project
203(1)
A Note on Deduction, Induction, and Written Argument
204(3)
Summary
205(1)
Key Terms
206(1)
The Language of Argument---Style
207(16)
Verbal Modifiers
207(4)
Dangling Modifiers
210(1)
Parallelism
211(4)
The Structure of Parallelism
211(2)
Logic of the Parallel Series
213(1)
Emphasizing Ideas With Parallelism
214(1)
Sentence Focus---Techniques for Sharpening the Flow of Ideas
215(6)
Concrete Subjects
216(1)
Active and Passive Verbs
216(1)
Passive Verbs and Evasion
217(1)
When the Passive Is Appropriate
218(1)
Sharp Paragraph Focus
218(3)
Revision
221(1)
Writing Assignment 17 Revising an Essay
221(1)
Summary
221(1)
Key Terms
222(1)
Research, Summary, and Documentation
223(22)
Research
223(5)
Where to Begin
223(1)
Check the Address
224(1)
Refine Your Search
224(1)
Don't Forget Books
224(1)
Take Notes
225(1)
Necessary Bibliographical Material
225(1)
Three Options for Including Research
226(1)
Integrate Research into Your Own Writing
226(1)
Make the Purpose Clear
227(1)
Punctuation and Format of Quotations
227(1)
Omitting Words From a Direct Quotation---Ellipsis
228(1)
Summary
228(2)
Strategies for Writing a Summary
229(1)
An Example of a Summary
229(1)
Writing Assignment 18 Constructing a Summary and Response
230(2)
Plagiarism
232(4)
Documentation
236(7)
What Information Should Be Documented?
236(1)
How to Document Information
236(1)
The MLA Style of Documentation for Printed Sources
237(1)
Citations Within Your Text
237(2)
List of Works Cited: MLA
239(1)
The APA Style of Documentation for Printed Sources
240(1)
Citations Within Your Text
240(1)
Lists of Works Cited: APA
241(1)
Electronic Sources
241(1)
Citations Within Your Text
242(1)
Lists of Works Cited: MLA
242(1)
Lists of Works Cited: APA
243(1)
Formatting Your Paper
243(1)
Verb Tenses
244(1)
A Reminder
244(1)
Text Credits 245(2)
Index 247


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