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Writing Process, The: A Concise Rhetoric, Reader, and Handbook

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780321133755

ISBN10:
0321133757
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Longman

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Summary

This writing guide/reader/handbook demystifies writing by presenting the writing process as a series of critical thinking decisions about audience and purpose. Widely admired for its clear, readable style, "The Writing Process" focuses on writing as decision-making, with a wealth of student samples in various draft stages and a strong collection of professional readings-essays, fiction, poetry, memoirs, and cartoons-to illustrate writing strategies. Helps readers understand the writing process. Writing process, research process. Anyone who wants to learn to write well.

Table of Contents

THEMATIC CONTENTS XXIII
PREFACE XXVII
SECTION ONE THE PROCESS-DECISIONS IN PLANNING, DRAFTING, AND REVISING 1(78)
INTRODUCTION
2(6)
Writing as Decision Making
2(1)
How Writing Looks
3(1)
How Writing Makes a Difference
3(2)
Decisions in Collaborative Writing
5(1)
Decisions about Writing with Computers
5(1)
Applications
6(2)
CHAPTER 1 DECISIONS IN THE WRITING PROCESS
8(13)
Decision Making and the Writing Process
9(5)
Case Study One Writer's Decision-Making Process
10(12)
"Life in Full Color" Shirley Haley (Student)
12(2)
The Looping Structure of the Writing Process
14(5)
"Confessions of a Food Addict" Wendy Gianacoples (Student)
16(3)
Options for Essay Writing
19
Applications
15(6)
CHAPTER 2 DECISIONS IN PLANNING
21(27)
Deciding on a Topic, Purpose, Thesis, and Audience
22(8)
Decide on Your Topic
22(1)
Decide on Your Purpose
22(1)
Decide on Your Thesis
23
Guidelines for Developing a Thesis
21(8)
Decide on Your Audience
28(1)
Case Study Analyzing Your Writing Situation
29(1)
Discovering, Selecting, and Organizing Your Material
30(6)
Discover Useful Material
31(1)
Guidelines for Brainstorming
32(1)
Select Your Best Material
33(1)
Organize for Readers
33(1)
Case Study Exploring and Arranging Assets
33(3)
Finding Your Voice
36(2)
Find a Voice that Connects with Readers
37(1)
Avoid an Overly Informal Tone
37(1)
The Writer's Planning Guide
38(2)
Planning for Group Work
40(3)
Guidelines for Writing Collaboratively
40(3)
Applications
43(5)
CHAPTER 3 DECISIONS IN DRAFTING
48(13)
Drafting the Title and Introduction
49(5)
The Introductory Paragraph
50(1)
Placing the Thesis
51(1)
Selecting an Opening Strategy
51(3)
Drafting the Body Section
54(1)
Drafting the Conclusion
55(3)
Selecting a Closing Strategy
55(1)
Case Study Drafting the Essay
56(2)
"Cars R Us" Maureen Malloy (Student)
56(2)
Drafting on the Computer
58(1)
Guidelines for Drafting on the Computer
58(1)
Applications
59(2)
CHAPTER 4 DECISIONS IN REVISING
61(18)
The Meaning of Revision
62(1)
Revision Checklist
63(1)
Using the Checklist
64(3)
Case Study Revising the Draft
64(2)
Guidelines for Reviewing and Editing the Writing of Peers
66(1)
Revising with Peers
67(9)
Proofreading Your Final Draft
76(1)
Guidelines for Proofreading
16(61)
Applications
77(2)
SECTION TWO SPECIFIC REVISION STRATEGIES 79(81)
INTRODUCTION
80(3)
How Good Is "Good Enough"?
80(1)
Revising from the Top Down
80(1)
Beefing Up the Content
81(1)
Harnessing Paragraph Power
81(1)
Honing the Sentences
81(1)
Finding the Perfect Wording
82(1)
CHAPTER 5 REVISING THE CONTENT: WRITING SOMETHING WORTHWHILE
83(13)
Make It Credible
84(2)
Make It Informative
86(3)
"Walk But Don't Run" Jeff Leonard (Student)
87(2)
Make It Complete
89(1)
Credit Your Information Sources
90(1)
Applications
91(5)
CHAPTER 6 REVISING THE PARAGRAPHS: SHAPING FOR READERS' ACCESS
96(21)
Support Paragraphs as Mini-Essays
97(1)
Paragraph Function
98(1)
Paragraph Length
98(1)
The Topic Statement
99(2)
The Topic Statement as Readers' Framework
99(1)
The Topic Statement as Writers' Framework
99(1)
How Audience and Purpose Determine a Topic Statement's Focus
100(1)
Structural Variations in Support Paragraphs
101(1)
Paragraph Unity
102(1)
Paragraph Coherence
103(9)
Ordering Ideas for Coherence
104(4)
Parallelism
108(1)
Repetition, Restatement, and Variation
109(1)
Pronouns for Coherence
110(1)
Consistency for Coherence
110(1)
Transitions
110(2)
Applications
112(5)
CHAPTER 7 REVISING THE SENTENCES: WRITING WITH STYLE
117(20)
Aim for Clarity
118(6)
Keep Your Pronoun References Clear
118(1)
Avoid Ambiguous Modifiers
118(1)
Avoid Cramming
119(1)
Keep Equal Items Parallel
120(1)
Arrange Word Order for Coherence and Emphasis
120(1)
Use Active Voice Often
121(1)
Use Passive Voice Selectively
122(2)
Trim the Fat
124(7)
Avoid Wordy Phrases
124(1)
Eliminate Redundancy
124(1)
Avoid Needless Repetition
125(1)
Avoid There and It Sentence Openers
125(1)
Avoid Needless Phrases
125(1)
Avoid Weak Verbs
126(1)
Avoid Excessive Prepositions
126(1)
Avoid Nominalizations
126(1)
Make Negatives Positive
127(1)
Clear Out Clutter Words
128(1)
Delete Needless Prefaces
128(1)
Delete Needless Qualifiers
129(2)
Help Sentences Flow
131
Combine Related Ideas
131(1)
Vary Sentence Construction and Length
132(1)
Use Short Sentences for Special Emphasis
133
Applications
123(14)
CHAPTER 8 REVISING THE WORDS AND PHRASES: FINE-TUNING
137(23)
Say Something Genuine
138(1)
Avoid Triteness
138(1)
Avoid Overstatement
138(1)
Avoid Misleading Euphemisms
138(1)
Aim for Precision
139(4)
Sharpen the Visual Details
143(2)
Add Some Personality
145(6)
Establish an Appropriate Distance
146(1)
Guidelines for Deciding about Tone
147(1)
Guidelines for Achieving a Conversational Tone
147(4)
Express a Clear and Appropriate Attitude
150(1)
Avoid Personal Bias
150(1)
Invite Everyone In
151(5)
Avoid Sexist Language
151(1)
Guidelines for Nonsexist Usage
152(2)
Avoid Offensive Usage of All Types
152(1)
Consider the Cultural Context
153(1)
Guidelines for Inoffensive Usage
154(2)
Legal and Ethical Implications of Word Choice
156(1)
Using Automated Tools Effectively
157
Applications
139(21)
SECTION THREE ESSAYS FOR VARIOUS GOALS 160(171)
INTRODUCTION
160(4)
Three Major Goals of Writing
160(2)
Major Development Strategies
162(1)
Using This Section
162(1)
A Word about Structural Variations
162(2)
CHAPTER 9 DECISIONS ABOUT READING FOR WRITING
164(14)
Different Levels of Reading
165(1)
Different Readers, Different Meanings
166(1)
Reading Strategies for Writers
166(9)
Case Study One Writer's Response to Reading
167(5)
"Why I Want a Wife" Judy Brady
167(4)
"A Long Way to Go" Jacqueline LeBlanc (Student)
171(1)
Case Study A Second Writer's Response to Reading
172(3)
"Seeing" Annie Dillard
172(2)
"Sailboats" Shirley Haley (Student)
174(1)
Suggestions for Reading and Writing
175(1)
Guidelines for Reading to Respond
115(61)
Applications
176(2)
CHAPTER 10 HELPING OTHERS SEE AND SHARE AN EXPERIENCE: DESCRIPTION AND NARRATION
178(19)
Using Objective Description to Inform
179(1)
Using Subjective Description to Make a Point
180(2)
"Off Season" Pam Herbert (Student)
180(2)
Using Objective Narration to Explain
182(2)
Guidelines for Description
183(1)
Using Subjective Narration to Make a Point
184(12)
Guidelines for Narration
184(9)
"Black Men and Public Space" Brent Staples
186(4)
"Back at the Ranch" Jay Allison
190(3)
Case Study Responding to Reading
193(6)
"The Old Guy" Al Andrade (Student)
193(3)
Options For Essay Writing
196
Applications
189(8)
CHAPTER 11 PROVIDING EXAMPLES: ILLUSTRATION
197(11)
Using Examples to Explain
198(1)
Using Examples to Make a Point
199(7)
Guidelines for Illustrating with Examples
201(3)
"A Case of 'Severe Bias"' Patricia Raybon
202(2)
Case Study Responding to Reading
204(7)
"My Time Capsule" Gina Ciolfi (Student)
204(2)
Options For Essay Writing
206
Applications
200(8)
CHAPTER 12 EXPLAINING PARTS AND CATEGORIES: DIVISION AND CLASSIFICATION
208(12)
Using Division to Explain
210(1)
Using Division to Make a Point
210(1)
Using Classification to Explain
211(1)
Guidelines for Division
212(1)
Using Classification to Make a Point
212(7)
Guidelines for Classification
213(4)
"Doubts about Doublespeak" William Lutz
215(2)
Case Study Responding to Reading
217(4)
"We Like It Here" Patrick LaChane (Student)
218(1)
Options For Essay Writing
219
Applications
213(7)
CHAPTER 13 EXPLAINING STEPS AND STAGES: PROCESS ANALYSIS
220(14)
Using Process Analysis to Explain
221(2)
Explaining How to Do Something
221(1)
Guidelines for Giving Instructions
222(1)
Explaining How Something Happens
223(1)
Using Process Analysis to Make a Point
223(1)
"How to Deal with Snakebites" Frank White
224(3)
Case Study Responding to Reading
227(12)
"A First-Week Survival Guide for Commuters" Catherine Nichols (Student)
227(2)
"How Acid Rain Develops, Spreads, and Destroys" Bill Kelly (Student)
229(2)
"Dumpster Diving" Lars Eighner
231
Applications
223(11)
CHAPTER 14 EXPLAINING WHY IT HAPPENED OR WHAT WILL HAPPEN: CAUSE-AND-EFFECT ANALYSIS
234(17)
Using Causal Analysis to Explain: Definite Causes
236(1)
Using Causal Analysis to Make a Point: Possible or Probable Causes
237(1)
Reasoning from Effect to Cause
238(1)
Guidelines for Effect-to-Cause Analysis
238(1)
Reasoning from Cause to Effect
239(11)
Guidelines for Cause-to-Effect Analysis
239(8)
"I Don't Like What You're Wearing" David Updike
241(3)
"Should Schools Try to Boost Self-Esteem?-Beware the Dark Side" Roy F. Baumeister
244(3)
Case Study Responding to Reading
247(8)
"School Uniforms: A Recipe for School Reform" John Saurette (Student)
248(2)
Options for Essay Writing
250
Applications
240(11)
CHAPTER 15 EXPLAINING SIMILARITIES OR DIFFERENCES: COMPARISON AND CONTRAST
251(14)
Developing a Comparison
252(1)
Developing a Contrast
252(1)
Developing a Combined Comparison and Contrast
253(1)
Using Comparison and Contrast to Explain
254(1)
Using Comparison and Contrast to Make a Point
254(1)
A Special Kind of Comparison: Analogy
255(9)
Guidelines for Comparison and Contrast
257(5)
"Abortion Is Too Complex to Feel All One Way About" Anna Quindlen
259(3)
Case Study Responding to Reading
262(6)
"Is Online Education Taking Us Anywhere?" John Manning (Student)
262(2)
Options for Essay Writing
264
Applications
255(10)
CHAPTER 16 EXPLAINING THE EXACT MEANING: DEFINITION
265(16)
Using Denotative Definitions to Explain
266(1)
Using Connotative Definitions to Make a Point
267(1)
Choosing the Level of Detail in a Definition
268(11)
Guidelines for Definition
270(7)
"Gossip" Francine Prose
275(2)
Case Study Responding to Reading
277(11)
"Community Service Serves Everyone" Kerry Donahue (Student)
278(1)
Options for Essay Writing
279
Applications
272(9)
CHAPTER 17 USING MULTIPLE STRATEGIES IN A PERSUASIVE ARGUMENT
281(29)
Anticipating Audience Resistance
282(1)
Having a Debatable Point
283(1)
Supporting Your Claim
284(3)
Offer Convincing Reasons
284(1)
Provide Objective Evidence
285(1)
Appeal to Shared Goals and Values
286(1)
Shaping a Clear Line of Thought
287(1)
Connecting with Your Audience
288(1)
Guidelines for Persuasion
288(1)
Considering the Ethical Dimension
289(1)
Various Arguments For Various Goals
290(6)
Arguing to Influence Readers' Opinions
291(1)
Arguing to Enlist Readers' Support
291(1)
Making a Proposal
291(1)
Arguing to Change Readers' Behavior
291(1)
"On Reading Trash" Bob Swift
292(2)
Case Studies Responding to Reading
294(27)
"Credit Cards: Leave Home Without Them" Julia Schoonover (Student)
294(3)
"Standards You Meet and Don't Duck" William Raspberry
297(2)
"Save Liberal Arts" Suzanne Gilbertson (Student)
299(3)
"A Proposal for Better Use of the Television Set in the Campus Center" Patricia Haith (Student)
302(2)
"Letter to the Boss" Marcia White (Student)
304
Options for Essay Writing
296
Applications
292(18)
CHAPTER 18 SPECIAL ISSUES IN PERSUASION
310(21)
Appealing to Reason
310(7)
Using Induction
312(2)
Using Deduction
314(3)
Recognizing Invalid or Deceptive Reasoning
317(4)
Fallacies That Break the Chain of Logic
317(3)
Fallacies That Evade the Issue
320(1)
Appealing to Emotion
321(5)
Guidelines for Making Emotional Appeals
322(15)
Showing Empathy
322(1)
Acknowledging Opposing Views
323(1)
Maintaining a Moderate Tone
323(2)
Using Satire in Appropriate Circumstances
325(1)
"Bonfire" Adam Symkowicz (Student)
325(1)
Adding Humor Where Appropriate
326(1)
Applications
326(5)
SECTION FOUR THE RESEARCH PROCESS 331(140)
INTRODUCTION-THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT THE RESEARCH PROCESS
332(10)
Asking the Right Questions
334(1)
Exploring a Balance of Views
334(2)
Achieving Adequate Depth in Your Search
336(1)
Evaluating Your Findings
337(1)
Guidelines for Evaluating Expert Information
338(1)
Interpreting Your Findings
338(4)
CHAPTER 19 ASKING QUESTIONS AND FINDING ANSWERS
342(26)
Deciding on a Research Topic
343(1)
Guidelines for Choosing a Research Topic
343(1)
Primary versus Secondary Sources
344(1)
Hard Copy versus Electronic Sources
344(1)
Exploring Internet Sources
345(5)
Usenet
345(1)
Listservs
346(1)
Library Chatrooms
347(1)
Electronic Magazines (Zines)
347(1)
Email Inquiries
347(1)
World Wide Web
347(1)
Guidelines for Researching on the Internet
348(2)
Exploring Other Electronic Sources
350(1)
Compact Disks
350(1)
Online Retrieval Services
350(1)
Electronic Reference Books, Indexes, and Journals
351(1)
Key Word Searches Using Boolean Operators
351(1)
Using Electronic Mail
352(2)
Guidelines for Using Email
353(1)
Exploring Hard Copy Sources
354(5)
Reference Works
354(1)
Card Catalog
355(1)
Guides to Literature
356(1)
Indexes
356(1)
Abstracts
357(1)
Access Tools for U.S. Government Publications
357(1)
Microforms
358(1)
Informative Interviews
359(1)
Surveys and Questionnaires
359(1)
Inquiry Letters, Phone Calls, and Email Inquiries
359(1)
Public Records and Organizational Publications
359(3)
Guidelines for Informative Interviews
360(2)
Personal observation
362(1)
Guidelines for Developing a Questionnaire
364
Applications
362(6)
CHAPTER 20 RECORDING, EVALUATING, AND INTERPRETING YOUR FINDINGS
368(24)
Taking Notes
369(1)
Guidelines for Recording Research findings
369(1)
Quoting the Work of Others
370(2)
Paraphrasing the Work of Others
372(1)
Guidelines for Quoting the Work of Others
313(60)
Preparing Summaries and Abstracts
373(3)
Guidelines for Paraphrasing the Work of Others
313(1)
What Readers Expect from a Summary or Abstract
374
Guidelines for Summarizing Information and Preparing an Abstract
314(62)
Ethical Considerations in Summarizing Information
375(1)
Evaluating the Sources
376(3)
Guidelines for Evaluating Sources on the Web
318(61)
Evaluating the Evidence
379(1)
Interpreting Your Findings
380(2)
Identify Your Level of Certainty
380(1)
Be Alert for Personal Bias
381(1)
Examine the Underlying Assumptions
382(1)
Avoiding Statistical Fallacies
382(5)
Common Statistical Fallacies
383(3)
Guidelines for Critically Analyzing Information
386(1)
Assessing Your Inquiry
387(1)
Applications
388(4)
CHAPTER 21 DOCUMENTING YOUR SOURCES
392(25)
Why You Should Document
392(1)
What You Should Document
393(1)
How You Should Document
393(1)
MLA Documentation Style
394(12)
MLA Parenthetical References
394(1)
MLA Works-Cited Entries
395(11)
MLA Sample List of Works Cited
406(1)
APA Documentation Style
406(10)
APA Parenthetical References
406(1)
APA Reference-List Entries
407(9)
APA Sample List of References
416(1)
Application
416(1)
CHAPTER 22 COMPOSING THE RESEARCH REPORT
417(21)
Developing a Working Thesis and Outline
417(1)
Drafting Your Report
418(1)
Revising Your Report
419(1)
A Sample Report in APA Style
420(18)
"Campus Crime: A Hidden Issue" Julia Schoonover (Student)
421(17)
CHAPTER 23 CASE STUDY: A SAMPLE RESEARCH PROJECT
438(33)
Discovering a Worthwhile Topic
438(1)
Focusing the Inquiry
439(1)
Searching the Literature
440(1)
Recording and Reviewing Findings
440(1)
Settling on a Thesis
441(1)
Writing and Documenting the Report in MLA Style
442(30)
"Students Under Stress: College Can Make You Sick" Shirley Haley (Student)
443(28)
SECTION FIVE ADDITIONAL READINGS AND MODELS FOR WRITING 471(34)
Description and Narration
472(3)
"On the Ball" Roger Angell
472(1)
"Grandmother's Sunday Dinner" Patricia Hampl
473(2)
Illustration
475(3)
"No Zeal for New Zealand" Jaclyn Thomas
475(2)
"All You Can Eat" Michelle Stacey
477(1)
Division and Classification
478(4)
"All Junk, All the Time" Richard Brookhiser
478(2)
"The Dog Ate My Disk, and Other Tales of Woe" Carolyn Foster Segal
480(2)
Process Analysis
482(4)
"How to Write a Personal Letter" Garrison Keillor
482(2)
"How Boys Become Men" Jon Katz
484(2)
Cause-and-Effect Analysis
486(4)
"Why We Crave Horror Movies" Stephen King
486(2)
"I Just Wanna Be Average" Mike Rose
488(2)
Comparison and Contrast
490(5)
"Parallel Worlds: The Surprising Similarities (and Differences) of Country-and-Western and Rap" Denise Noe
490(3)
"Neat People vs. Sloppy People" Suzanne Britt
493(2)
Definition
495(3)
"The Company Man" Ellen Goodman
495(1)
"What's a Hillbilly?" Rebecca Thomas Kirkendall
496(2)
Argument
498(7)
"Let Teenagers Try Adulthood" Leon Botstein
498(2)
"In Defense of Elitism" William A. Henry III
500(5)
APPENDIX A EDITING FOR GRAMMAR, PUNCTUATION, AND MECHANICS 505(31)
Common Sentence Errors
505(14)
Sentence Fragment
505(2)
Acceptable Fragment
507(1)
Faulty Coordination
508(1)
Faulty Subordination
509(1)
Comma Splice
510(2)
Run-On Sentence
512(1)
Faulty Agreement-Subject and Verb
513(1)
Faulty Agreement-Pronoun and Referent
514(1)
Faulty Modification
514(2)
Faulty Pronoun Case
516(2)
Sentence Shifts
518(1)
Effective Punctuation
519(13)
End Punctuation
520(1)
Semicolon
521(1)
Colon
522(1)
Comma
523(4)
Apostrophe
527(2)
Quotation Marks
529(1)
Ellipses
530(1)
Italics
530(1)
Parentheses
531(1)
Brackets
531(1)
Dashes
532(1)
Effective Mechanics
532
Abbreviations
532(1)
Hyphen
533(1)
Capitalization
534(1)
Use of Numbers
534(1)
Spelling
535
Applications
508(28)
APPENDIX B FORMAT GUIDELINES FOR SUBMITTING YOUR MANUSCRIPT 536(3)
Format Guidelines for Submitting Your Manuscript
537(1)
Format Checklist
538(1)
APPENDIX C USEFUL WEB SITES AND ELECTRONIC LIBRARY RESOURCES 539(4)
Useful Web Sites
539(3)
Search Engines
539(1)
Subject Directories (or Catalogs)
540(1)
Almanacs
540(1)
Associations and Organizations
540(1)
Business Directories
541(1)
Dictionaries
541(1)
Encyclopedias
541(1)
Journal Articles
541(1)
News Organizations
541(1)
U.S. Government Information
542(1)
Writing and Research Guides
542(1)
Electronic Library Resources
542(1)
CREDITS 543(4)
INDEX 547


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