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Writing Process, The: A Concise Rhetoric, Reader, and Handbook,9780321355706
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Writing Process, The: A Concise Rhetoric, Reader, and Handbook

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780321355706

ISBN10:
0321355709
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Pearson Prentice Hall

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Summary

This writing guide/reader/handbook demystifies writing by presenting the writing process as a series of critical thinking decisions about audience and purpose. Widely admired for its clear, readable style,The Writing Processfocuses on writing as decision-making, with a wealth of student samples in various draft stages and a strong collection of professional readingsessays, fiction, poetry, memoirs, and cartoonsto illustrate writing strategies. Helps readers understand the writing process. Writing process, research process. Anyone who wants to learn to write well.

Table of Contents

Thematic Contents xxiv
Preface xxviii
SECTION ONE THE PROCESS---DECISIONS IN PLANNING, DRAFTING, AND REVISING
1(80)
Introduction
2(3)
How Writing Looks
2(2)
How Writing Makes a Difference
4(1)
Decisions in the Writing Process
5(14)
Decision Making and the Writing Process
6(1)
Case Study One Writer's Decision-Making Process
7(2)
``Life in Full Color'' Shirley Haley (Student)
9(2)
The Looping Structure of the Writing Process
11(2)
Decisions in Collaborative Writing
13(1)
Decisions about Writing with Computers
13(1)
``Confessions of a Food Addict'' Wendy Gianacoples (Student)
14(3)
Options for Essay Writing
17
Applications
14(5)
Decisions in Planning
19(30)
Deciding on a Topic, Purpose, Thesis, and Audience
20(1)
Decide on Your Topic
20(1)
Guidelines for Choosing Your Essay Topic
21(1)
Decide on Your Purpose
22(1)
Guidelines for Deciding on Your Writing Purpose
22(4)
Decide on Your Thesis
23(3)
Guidelines for Developing Your Thesis
26(2)
Decide on Your Audience
28(1)
Guidelines for Analyzing Your Audience
28(1)
Case Study Analyzing Your Writing Situation
29(1)
Discovering, Selecting, and Organizing Your Material
30(1)
Discover Useful Material
30(2)
Guidelines for Brainstorming
32(1)
Select Your Best Material
33(1)
Organize for Readers
33(1)
Guidelines for Selecting and Organizing Your Material
33(1)
Case Study Exploring and Arranging Assets
34(3)
Finding Your Voice
37(1)
Find a Voice that Connects with Readers
37(1)
Avoid an Overly Informal Tone
38(1)
The Writer's Planning Guide
38(2)
Planning for Group Work
40(1)
Guidelines for Writing Collaboratively
40(3)
A Checklist for Planning
43(1)
Applications
44(5)
Decisions in Drafting
49(15)
Drafting the Title and Introduction
50(2)
The Introductory Paragraph
50(1)
Placing the Thesis
51(1)
The Multiple Paragraph Introduction
52(4)
Selecting an Opening Strategy
53(3)
Drafting the Body Section
56(1)
Drafting the Conclusion
56(2)
Selecting a Closing Strategy
57(1)
Guidelines for Drafting the Essay
58(1)
Case Study Drafting the Essay
59(1)
``Cars R Us'' Maureen Malloy (Student)
59(1)
A Checklist for Drafting
60(1)
Drafting on the Computer
61(1)
Guidelines for Drafting on the Computer
61(1)
Applications
61(3)
Decisions in Revising
64(17)
The Meaning of Revision
65(1)
A Checklist for Revision
66(1)
Case Study Revising the Draft
67(2)
Using the Revision Checklist for Group Work
69(6)
Guidelines for Reviewing and Editing the Writing of Peers
75(1)
Revising with Peers
75(1)
Proofreading Your Final Draft
76(1)
Guidelines for Proofreading
76(1)
A Checklist for Proofreading
77(1)
Applications
77(4)
SECTION TWO SPECIFIC REVISION STRATEGIES
81(84)
Introduction
82(2)
Revising the Content: Writing Something Worthwhile
84(15)
Make It Credible
85(2)
Make It Informative
87(1)
``Walk But Don't Run'' Jeff Leonard (Student)
88(2)
Make It Complete
90(1)
``The Death of Benny Paret'' Norman Mailer
91(2)
Credit Your Information Sources
93(1)
Guidelines for Revising Your Content
93(1)
A Checklist for Content
94(1)
Applications
94(5)
Revising the Paragraphs: Shaping for Readers' Access
99(22)
Support Paragraphs as Mini-Essays
100(1)
Paragraph Function
101(1)
Paragraph Length
101(1)
The Topic Statement
102(2)
The Topic Statement as Readers' Framework
102(1)
The Topic Statement as Writers' Framework
102(1)
How Audience and Purpose Determine a Topic Statement's Focus
103(1)
Structural Variations in Support Paragraphs
104(1)
Paragraph Unity
105(1)
Paragraph Coherence
106(9)
Ordering Ideas for Coherence
107(4)
Parallelism
111(1)
Repetition, Restatement, and Variation
112(1)
Pronouns for Coherence
113(1)
Consistency for Coherence
113(1)
Transitions
113(2)
Guidelines for Shaping Your Support Paragraphs
115(1)
A Checklist for Support Paragraphs
116(1)
Applications
117(4)
Revising the Sentences: Writing with Style
121(20)
Aim for Clarity
122(6)
Keep Your Pronoun References Clear
122(1)
Avoid Ambiguous Modifiers
122(1)
Avoid Cramming
123(1)
Keep Equal Items Parallel
124(1)
Arrange Word Order for Coherence and Emphasis
124(1)
Use Active Voice Often
125(1)
Use Passive Voice Selectively
126(2)
Trim the Fat
128(6)
Avoid Wordy Phrases
128(1)
Eliminate Redundancy
128(1)
Avoid Needless Repetition
129(1)
Avoid There and It Sentence Openers
129(1)
Avoid Needless Phrases
129(1)
Avoid Weak Verbs
130(1)
Avoid Excessive Prepositions
130(1)
Avoid Nominalizations
130(1)
Make Negatives Positive
131(1)
Clear Out Clutter Words
132(1)
Delete Needless Prefaces
132(1)
Delete Needless Qualifiers
133(1)
Help Sentences Flow
134(3)
Combine Related Ideas
135(1)
Vary Sentence Construction and Length
136(1)
Use Short Sentences for Special Emphasis
136(1)
A Checklist for Sentence Style
137(1)
Applications
138(3)
Revising the Words and Phrases: Fine-Tuning
141(24)
Say Something Genuine
142(1)
Avoid Triteness
142(1)
Avoid Overstatement
142(1)
Avoid Misleading Euphemisms
142(1)
Aim for Precision
143(4)
Sharpen the Visual Details
147(2)
Add Personality
149(2)
Establish an Appropriate Distance
150(1)
Guidelines for Deciding about Tone
151(1)
Guidelines for Achieving a Conversational Tone
151(4)
Express a Clear and Appropriate Attitude
154(1)
Avoid Personal Bias
154(1)
Invite Everyone In
155(1)
Avoid Sexist Language
155(1)
Guidelines for Nonsexist Usage
156(2)
Avoid Offensive Usage of All Types
156(1)
Consider the Cultural Context
157(1)
Guidelines for Inoffensive Usage
158(1)
A Checklist for Word Choice and Tone
159(2)
Legal and Ethical Implications of Word Choice
161(1)
Using Automated Editing Tools Effectively
162
Applications
159(6)
SECTION THREE ESSAYS FOR VARIOUS GOALS
165(184)
Introduction
166(4)
Three Major Goals of Writing
166(2)
Major Development Strategies
168(1)
Using This Section
168(1)
A Word about Structural Variations
168(2)
Decisions About Reading for Writing
170(14)
Different Levels of Reading
171(1)
Different Readers, Different Meanings
172(1)
Reading Strategies for Writers
172(1)
Case Study One Writer's Response to Reading
173(1)
``Why I Want a Wife'' Judy Brady
173(4)
``A Long Way to Go'' Jacqueline LeBlanc (Student)
177(1)
Case Study A Second Writer's Response to Reading
178(1)
``Seeing'' Annie Dillard
178(2)
``Sailboats'' Shirley Haley (Student)
180(1)
Suggestions for Reading and Writing
181(1)
Guidelines for Reading to Respond
181(1)
Applications
182(2)
Helping Others See: Description
184(10)
The Language of Description
185(1)
Using Objective Description to Inform
185(1)
Using Subjective Description to Make a Point
186(2)
Guidelines for Description
188(1)
``Heaven and Earth in Jest'' Annie Dillard
189(2)
Case Study Responding to Reading
191(1)
``Off-Season'' Pam Herbert (Student)
191(1)
A Checklist for Description
192(1)
Options for Essay Writing
193
Applications
189(5)
Helping Others Share an Experience: Narration
194(16)
Using Objective Narration to Explain
195(1)
Using Subjective Narration to Make a Point
196(2)
``Black Men and Public Space'' Brent Staples
198(3)
Guidelines for Narration
201(1)
``Back at the Ranch'' Jay Allison
202(3)
Case Study Responding to Reading
205(1)
``The Old Guy'' Al Andrade (Student)
205(2)
A Checklist for Narration
207(1)
Options for Essay Writing
208
Applications
207(3)
Providing Examples: Illustration
210(11)
Using Examples to Explain
211(1)
Using Examples to Make a Point
212(2)
Guidelines for Illustrating with Examples
214(1)
``A Case of `Severe Bias''' Patricia Raybon
215(3)
Case Study Responding to Reading
218(1)
``My Time Capsule'' Gina Ciolfi (Student)
218(1)
A Checklist for Using Illustration
219(1)
Options for Essay Writing
220(1)
Applications
220(1)
Explaining Parts and Categories: Division and Classification
221(13)
Using Division to Explain
223(1)
Using Division to Make a Point
223(2)
Guidelines for Division
225
Using Classification to Explain
224(1)
Using Classification to Make a Point
225(1)
Guidelines for Classification
226(2)
``Doubts about Doublespeak'' William Lutz
228(3)
Case Study Responding to Reading
231(1)
``We Like It Here'' Patrick LaChane (Student)
231(1)
A Checklist for Division and Classification
232(1)
Options for Essay Writing
233
Applications
226(8)
Explaining Steps and Stages: Process Analysis
234(15)
Using Process Analysis to Explain
235(1)
Explaining How to Do Something
235(1)
Guidelines for Giving Instructions
236(1)
Explaining How Something Happens
237(1)
Using Process Analysis to Make a Point
237(1)
``How to Deal with Snakebites'' Frank White
238(3)
Case Study Responding to Reading
241(1)
``A First-Week Survival Guide for Commuters'' Catherine Nichols (Student)
241(2)
A Checklist for Giving Instructions
243(1)
``How Acid Rain Develops, Spreads, and Destroys'' Bill Kelly (Student)
243(3)
``Dumpster Diving'' Lars Eighner
246
Applications
243(6)
Explaining Why it Happened or What Will Happen: Cause-and-Effect Analysis
249(18)
Using Causal Analysis to Explain: Definite Causes
251(1)
Using Causal Analysis to Make a Point: Possible or Probable Causes
252(1)
Reasoning from Effect to Cause
253(1)
Guidelines for Effect-to-Cause Analysis
253(1)
Reasoning from Cause to Effect
254(1)
Guidelines for Cause-to-Effect Analysis
254(2)
``I Don't Like What You're Wearing'' David Updike
256(3)
``Should Schools Try to Boost Self-Esteem?---Beware the Dark Side'' Roy F. Baumeister
259(4)
Case Study Responding to Reading
263(1)
``School Uniforms: A Recipe for School Reform'' John Saurette (Student)
263(2)
A Checklist for Causal Analysis
265(1)
Options for Essay Writing
266
Applications
259(8)
Explaining Similarities or Differences: Comparison and Contrast
267(14)
Developing a Comparison
268(1)
Developing a Contrast
268(1)
Developing a Combined Comparison and Contrast
269(1)
Using Comparison and Contrast to Explain
270(1)
Using Comparison and Contrast to Make a Point
270(1)
A Special Kind of Comparison: Analogy
271(2)
Guidelines for Comparison and Contrast
273(2)
``Abortion Is Too Complex to Feel All One Way About'' Anna Quindlen
275(3)
Case Study Responding to Reading
278(1)
``Is Online Education Taking Us Anywhere?'' John Manning (Student)
278(2)
A Checklist for Comparison and Contrast
280(1)
Options for Essay Writing
280
Applications
274(7)
Explaining the Exact Meaning: Definition
281(16)
Using Denotative Definitions to Explain
282(1)
Using Connotative Definitions to Make a Point
283(1)
Choosing the Level of Detail in a Definition
284(2)
Parenthetical Definition
284(1)
Sentence Definition
285(1)
Expanded Definition
286(1)
Guidelines for Definition
286(5)
``Gossip'' Francine Prose
291(3)
Case Study Responding to Reading
294(1)
``Community Service Serves Everyone'' Kerry Donahue (Student)
294(2)
A Checklist for Definition
296(1)
Options for Essay Writing
296
Applications
289(8)
Using Multiple Strategies in a Persuasive Argument
297(28)
Anticipating Audience Resistance
298(1)
Having a Debatable Point
299(1)
Supporting Your Claim
300(3)
Offer Convincing Reasons
301(1)
Provide Objective Evidence
301(1)
Appeal to Shared Goals and Values
302(1)
Shaping a Clear Line of Thought
303(1)
Connecting with Your Audience
303(2)
Guidelines for Persuasion
305(1)
Various Arguments for Various Goals
306(1)
Arguing to Influence People's Opinions
306(1)
Arguing to Enlist People's Support
306(1)
Presenting a Proposal
306(1)
Arguing to Change People's Behavior
307(1)
``On Reading Trash'' Bob Swift
307
Case Studies Responding to Reading
310, 315(310)
``Credit Cards: Leave Home Without Them'' Julia Schoonover (Student)
310(2)
``Standards You Meet and Don't Duck'' William Raspberry
312(3)
``Save Liberal Arts'' Suzanne Gilbertson (Student)
315(3)
``A Proposal for Better Use of the Television Set in the Campus Center'' Patricia Haith (Student)
318(2)
``Letter to the Boss'' Marcia White (Student)
320(1)
A Checklist for Persuasion
321(1)
Options for Essay Writing
321(1)
Applications
322(3)
Special Issues in Persuasion
325(24)
Appealing to Reason
325(7)
Using Induction
327(2)
Using Deduction
329(3)
Recognizing Invalid or Deceptive Reasoning
332(5)
Fallacies That Break the Chain of Logic
332(3)
Fallacies That Evade the Issue
335(2)
Considering the Ethical Dimension
337(1)
Checklist for Ethics in Persuasive Writing
337(1)
Appealing to Emotion
338(1)
Guidelines for Making Emotional Appeals
338(3)
Showing Empathy
338(1)
Acknowledging Opposing Views
339(1)
Maintaining a Moderate Tone
340(1)
Using Satire in Appropriate Circumstances
341(1)
``Bonfire'' Adam Szymkowicz (Student)
341(2)
Adding Humor Where Appropriate
342(1)
A Checklist for Persuasive Appeals
343(1)
Applications
343(6)
SECTION FOUR THE RESEARCH PROCESS
349(144)
Introduction
350(2)
Thinking Critically About the Research Process
352(9)
Asking the Right Questions
353(1)
Exploring a Balance of Views
353(2)
Achieving Adequate Depth in Your Search
355(1)
Evaluating Your Findings
356(1)
Guidelines for Evaluating Expert Opinion
357(1)
Interpreting Your Findings
357(1)
Applications
358(3)
Asking Questions and Finding Answers
361(25)
Deciding on a Research Topic
362(1)
Guidelines for Choosing a Research Topic
362(1)
Primary versus Secondary Sources
363(1)
Hard Copy versus Electronic Sources
363(1)
Exploring Internet Sources
364(2)
Online News and Magazines
364(1)
Government Sites
364(1)
Community Discussion Groups and Bulletin Boards
365(1)
Blogs and Wikis
365(1)
Email Lists
365(1)
Library Chatrooms
366(1)
Library Databases Searchable via the Internet
366(1)
Other Types of Web Sites
367
Guidelines for Researching on the Internet
366(2)
Exploring Other Electronic Sources
368(1)
Compact Disks
368(1)
Online Retrieval Services
368(1)
Electronic Reference Books, Indexes, and Journals
368(1)
Using Electronic Mail and Instant Messaging
369(1)
Email
369(1)
Instant Messaging
370(1)
Guidelines for Using Electronic Mail
370(1)
Exploring Hard Copy Sources
371(5)
Reference Works
372(1)
Card Catalog
373(1)
Guides to Literature
373(1)
Indexes
374(1)
Abstracts
375(1)
Access Tools for U.S. Government Publications
375(1)
Microforms
376(1)
Informative Interviews
376(1)
Guidelines for Informative Interviews
377(2)
Surveys and Questionnaires
379(1)
Inquiry Letters, Phone Calls, and Email Inquiries
379(1)
Public Records and Organizational Publications
379(1)
Personal Observation
380(2)
Guidelines for Developing a Questionnaire
382
Applications
380(6)
Recording, Evaluating, and Interpreting Your Findings
386(24)
Taking Notes
387(1)
Guidelines for Recording Research Findings
387(1)
Quoting the Work of Others
388(1)
Guidelines for Quoting the Work of Others
388(2)
Paraphrasing the Work of Others
390(1)
Guidelines for Paraphrasing the Work of Others
391(1)
Preparing Summaries and Abstracts
391(1)
What Readers Expect from a Summary or Abstract
392(1)
Guidelines for Summarizing Information and Preparing an Abstract
392(2)
Ethical Considerations in Summarizing Information
393(1)
Evaluating the Sources
394(2)
Guidelines for Evaluating Sources on the Web
396(1)
Evaluating the Evidence
397(1)
Interpreting Your Findings
398(2)
Identify Your Level of Certainty
398(1)
Be Alert for Personal Bias
399(1)
Examine the Underlying Assumptions
400(1)
Avoiding Statistical Fallacies
400(4)
Common Statistical Fallacies
401(3)
Guidelines for Critically Analyzing Information
404(1)
Assessing Your Inquiry
405(1)
A Checklist for the Research Process
406(1)
Applications
406(4)
Documenting Your Sources
410(27)
Why You Should Document
410(1)
What You Should Document
411(1)
How You Should Document
411(1)
MLA Documentation Style
412(13)
MLA Parenthetical References
412(1)
MLA Works-Cited Entries
413(11)
MLA Sample List of Works Cited
424(1)
APA Documentation Style
425(10)
APA Parenthetical References
425(1)
APA Reference-List Entries
426(9)
APA Sample List of References
435(1)
Applications
435(2)
Composing the Research Report
437(21)
Developing a Working Thesis and Outline
437(1)
Drafting Your Report
438(1)
Revising Your Report
439(1)
A Checklist for a Research Report
440(1)
A Sample Report in APA Style
440(1)
``Campus Crime: A Hidden Issue'' Julia Schoonover (Student)
441(17)
Case Study: A Sample Research Project
458(35)
Discovering a Worthwhile Topic
458(1)
Focusing the Inquiry
459(1)
Searching the Literature
460(1)
Recording and Reviewing Findings
460(1)
Settling on a Thesis
461(1)
Writing and Documenting the Report in MLA Style
462(1)
``Students Under Stress: College Can Make You Sick'' Shirley Haley (Student)
463(30)
SECTION FIVE ADDITIONAL READINGS AND MODELS FOR WRITING
493(30)
Description and Narration
494(3)
``On the Ball'' Roger Angell
494(1)
``The Bed'' Frank McCourt
495(2)
Illustration
497(3)
``No Zeal for New Zealand'' Jaclyn Thomas
497(1)
``All You Can Eat'' Michelle Stacey
498(2)
Division and Classification
500(4)
``All Junk, All the Time'' Richard Brookhiser
500(1)
``The Dog Ate My Disk, and Other Tales of Woe'' Carolyn Foster Segal
501(3)
Process Analysis
504(3)
``How to Write a Personal Letter'' Garrison Keillor
504(1)
``How Boys Become Men'' Jon Katz
505(2)
Cause-and-Effect Analysis
507(4)
``Why We Crave Horror Movies'' Stephen King
507(2)
``I Just Wanna Be Average'' Mike Rose
509(2)
Comparison and Contrast
511(5)
``Parallel Worlds: The Surprising Similarities (and Differences) of Country-and-Western and Rap'' Denise Noe
511(4)
``Americanization Is Tough on `Macho''' Rose del Castillo Guilbault
515(1)
Definition
516(3)
``The Company Man'' Ellen Goodman
516(1)
``Who's a Hillbilly?'' Rebecca Thomas Kirkendall
517(2)
Argument
519(4)
``Let Teenagers Try Adulthood'' Leon Botstein
519(2)
``Debunking Myths about Latinos'' Ruben Navarrette, Jr.
521(2)
SECTION SIX A BRIEF HANDBOOK
523(32)
Common Sentence Errors
524(14)
Sentence Fragment
524(2)
Acceptable Fragment
526(1)
Faulty Coordination
527(1)
Faulty Subordination
527(2)
Comma Splice
529(1)
Run-on Sentence
530(1)
Faulty Agreement---Subject and Verb
531(1)
Faulty Agreement---Pronoun and Referent
532(1)
Faulty Modification
533(2)
Faulty Pronoun Case
535(2)
Sentence Shifts
537(1)
Effective Punctuation
538(13)
End Punctuation
539(1)
Semicolon
540(1)
Colon
541(1)
Comma
542(4)
Apostrophe
546(2)
Quotation Marks
548(1)
Ellipses
549(1)
Italics
549(1)
Parentheses
550(1)
Brackets
550(1)
Dashes
551(1)
Effective Mechanics
551(3)
Abbreviation
551(1)
Hyphenation
552(1)
Capitalization
553(1)
Use of Numbers
553(1)
Spelling
554(1)
Applications
554(1)
Appendix A FORMAT GUIDELINES FOR SUBMITTING YOUR MANUSCRIPT
555(3)
Format Guidelines for Submitting Your Manuscript
556(1)
A Checklist for Format
557(1)
Appendix B USEFUL WEB SITES AND ELECTRONIC LIBRARY RESOURCES
558(5)
Useful Web Sites
558(3)
Search Engines
558(1)
Subject Directories (or Catalogs)
559(1)
Almanacs
559(1)
Associations and Organizations
560(1)
Business Directories
560(1)
Dictionaries
560(1)
Encyclopedias
560(1)
Journal Articles
560(1)
New Organizations
560(1)
U.S. Government Information
561(1)
Writing and Research Guides
561(1)
Electronic Library Resources
561(2)
Credits 563(3)
Index 566


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